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Genomic Methods For Studying The Post-Translational Regulation Of Transcription Factors, Logan J. Everett 2010 University of Pennsylvania

Genomic Methods For Studying The Post-Translational Regulation Of Transcription Factors, Logan J. Everett

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The spatiotemporal coordination of gene expression is a fundamental process in cellular biology. Gene expression is regulated, in large part, by sequence-specific transcription factors that bind to DNA regions in the proximity of each target gene. Transcription factor activity and specificity are, in turn, regulated post-translationally by protein-modifying enzymes. High-throughput methods exist to probe specific steps of this process, such as protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions, but few computational tools exist to integrate this information in a principled, model-oriented manner. In this work, I develop several computational tools for studying the functional implications of transcription factor modification. I establish the first …


Jagged1 Missense Mutations In Disorders Of The Liver And Heart, Robert C. Bauer 2010 University of Pennsylvania

Jagged1 Missense Mutations In Disorders Of The Liver And Heart, Robert C. Bauer

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Mutations in the Notch signaling cell surface ligand Jagged1 (JAG1) predominantly cause Alagille syndrome (ALGS), an autosomal dominant disorder that causes congenital defects in multiple organs. ALGS is highly variably expressed, with patients displaying a wide array of phenotypes of differing severities. JAG1 has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of other diseases, including isolated cardiac defects (ICD) such as tetralogy of Fallot or peripheral pulmonic stenosis, as well as extrahepatic biliary atresia (BA). Previous functional analysis of JAG1 missense mutations revealed two types of effect on protein function. Mutations found in patients with ALGS caused the JAG1 mutant protein …


Cross-Reactivity Of Antibodies Against Leptospiral Recurrent Uveitis-Associated Proteins A And B (Lrua And Lrub) With Eye Proteins, Ashutosh Verma, Pawan Kumar, Kelly Babb, John F. Timoney, Brian Stevenson 2010 University of Kentucky

Cross-Reactivity Of Antibodies Against Leptospiral Recurrent Uveitis-Associated Proteins A And B (Lrua And Lrub) With Eye Proteins, Ashutosh Verma, Pawan Kumar, Kelly Babb, John F. Timoney, Brian Stevenson

Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics Faculty Publications

Infection by Leptospira interrogans has been causally associated with human and equine uveitis. Studies in our laboratories have demonstrated that leptospiral lipoprotein LruA and LruB are expressed in the eyes of uveitic horses, and that antibodies directed against LruA and LruB react with equine lenticular and retinal extracts, respectively. These reactivities were investigated further by performing immunofluorescent assays on lenticular and retinal tissue sections. Incubation of lens tissue sections with LruA-antiserum and retinal sections with LruB-antiserum resulted in positive fluorescence. By employing two-dimensional gel analyses followed by immunoblotting and mass spectrometry, lens proteins cross-reacting with LruA antiserum were identified to …


Methicillin Resistance In Staphylococcus Pseudintermedius, Chad Christopher Black 2010 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Methicillin Resistance In Staphylococcus Pseudintermedius, Chad Christopher Black

Doctoral Dissertations

Staphylococcus pseudintermedius affecting dogs is analogous to S. aureus on humans, acting as both normal flora and opportunistic pathogen. Methicillin resistance in S. pseudintermedius is recent, with the first documented occurrence of an isolate bearing the methicillin resistance gene, mecA, in 1999. This gene encodes penicillin binding protein 2a, which renders all beta-lactam drugs ineffective and functions as a “gateway” antibiotic resistance determinant. In the presence of ineffective antibiotics, opportunities for mutational events and acquisition of mobile genetic elements increase as microbial densities increase, often leading to multi-drug resistance. Methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) infections have become increasingly common. For …


Translational Regulation In Arabidopsis Thaliana: Genetic And Functional Characterization Of Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 3, Bijoyita Roy 2010 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Translational Regulation In Arabidopsis Thaliana: Genetic And Functional Characterization Of Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 3, Bijoyita Roy

Doctoral Dissertations

Molecular functions of eukaryotic initiation factor 3 (eIF3) in translation are manifold, encompassing events from initiation complex assembly to translation termination. The contribution of the individual subunits of eIF3 to its multiple activities is quite unclear. It has been hypothesized that several of its 13 subunits contribute to mRNA specific regulation. Prior research had established that the h subunit of eIF3 in Arabidopsis was required for translation of specific mRNAs as well as for organ formation and meristem development. This study aims towards understanding the functions of individual subunits of eIF3 in the context of plant development and to further …


E2f1 And Tumor Suppression: The Role Of P21, Mirnas, And The Dna Damage Response, Regina L. Weaks 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

E2f1 And Tumor Suppression: The Role Of P21, Mirnas, And The Dna Damage Response, Regina L. Weaks

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

E2F1 is a multi-faceted protein that has roles in a number of important cellular processes including cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, proliferation, and the DNA damage response (DDR). Moreover, E2F1 has opposing roles in tumor development, acting as either a tumor suppressor or an oncogene depending on the context. In human cancer, E2F1 is often deregulated through aberrations in the Rb-p16INK4a-cyclin D1 pathway. In these studies we examined three mechanisms by which E2F1 might mediate its tumor suppressive properties: p21-induced senescence, miRNAs, and the DNA damage response. We found that E2F1 acts as a tumor suppressor in response to ras activation …


The Domains Of The Catalytic Subunit Of The Eukaryotic Rna Degrading Exosome, Rrp44p, Have Distinct Functions, Daneen Schaeffer 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

The Domains Of The Catalytic Subunit Of The Eukaryotic Rna Degrading Exosome, Rrp44p, Have Distinct Functions, Daneen Schaeffer

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The exosome is a 3’ to 5’ exoribonuclease complex that consists of ten essential subunits. In the cytoplasm, the exosome degrades mRNA in a general mRNA turnover pathway and in several mRNA surveillance pathways. In the nucleus, the exosome processes RNA precursors to form small, stable, mature RNA species, including rRNA, snRNA, and snoRNA. In addition to processing these RNAs, the nuclear exosome is also involved in degrading aberrantly processed forms of these RNAs, and others, including mRNA.

The 3’ to 5’ exoribonuclease activity of the exosome is contributed by the RNB domain of the only catalytically active subunit, Rrp44p, …


Determining The Fate Of Hybridized Genomes In The Allopolyploid Brassica Napus, Tina Y. Wang 2010 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Determining The Fate Of Hybridized Genomes In The Allopolyploid Brassica Napus, Tina Y. Wang

Master's Theses

Polyploidy is widely acknowledged as a widespread mechanism in the evolution and speciation of the majority of flowering plants. Allopolyploid forms through interspecific hybridization and whole genome duplication. While allopolyploids may display increased vigor relative to their progenitors, they can also face challenges to fertility following hybridization. Genetic changes in allopolyploids result from recombination between the hybridized subgenomes, which can influence phenotype and ultimately determine fitness of future generations. To study dynamic changes that follow allopolyploid formation, Brassica napus lineages were derived by hybridizing Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa. Two lineages of B. napus were analyzed for genetic and phenotypic …


Genomic Patterns Of Nucleotide Diversity In Divergent Populations Of U.S. Weedy Rice, Michael Reagon, Carrie S. Thurber, Brian L. Gross, Kenneth M. Olsen, Yulin Jia, Ana Lucia Caicedo 2010 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

Genomic Patterns Of Nucleotide Diversity In Divergent Populations Of U.S. Weedy Rice, Michael Reagon, Carrie S. Thurber, Brian L. Gross, Kenneth M. Olsen, Yulin Jia, Ana Lucia Caicedo

Ana Lucia Caicedo

Background: Weedy rice (red rice), a conspecific weed of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.), is a significant problem throughout the world and an emerging threat in regions where it was previously absent. Despite belonging to the same species complex as domesticated rice and its wild relatives, the evolutionary origins of weedy rice remain unclear. We use genome-wide patterns of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variation in a broad geographic sample of weedy, domesticated, and wild Oryza samples to infer the origin and demographic processes influencing U.S. weedy rice evolution. Results: We find greater population structure than has been previously reported for …


Genomic Patterns Of Nucleotide Diversity In Divergent Populations Of U.S. Weedy Rice, Michael Reagon, Carrie Thurber, Brian Gross, Kenneth Olsen, Yulin Jia, Ana Caicedo 2010 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

Genomic Patterns Of Nucleotide Diversity In Divergent Populations Of U.S. Weedy Rice, Michael Reagon, Carrie Thurber, Brian Gross, Kenneth Olsen, Yulin Jia, Ana Caicedo

Biology Department Faculty Publication Series

Background: Weedy rice (red rice), a conspecific weed of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.), is a significant problem throughout the world and an emerging threat in regions where it was previously absent. Despite belonging to the same species complex as domesticated rice and its wild relatives, the evolutionary origins of weedy rice remain unclear. We use genome-wide patterns of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variation in a broad geographic sample of weedy, domesticated, and wild Oryza samples to infer the origin and demographic processes influencing U.S. weedy rice evolution. Results: We find greater population structure than has been previously reported for …


Regulation Of Morphogenesis In Filamentous Fungi, Haoyu Si 2010 University of Nebraska at Lincoln

Regulation Of Morphogenesis In Filamentous Fungi, Haoyu Si

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

One of the distinguishing features of fungal cells is their highly polarized model of growth. Both yeast cells and hyphal cells grow by cell surface expansion at specified cortical sites. Although the same general mechanisms are likely to be involved in controlling the establishment of hyphal polarity in budding yeast and filamentous fungi, it is noticeable that hyphal cells are organized in a fundamentally different manner to yeast dells. For example, hyphal cells organize formins, septins and actins at the division site while simultaneously retain the same machinery at the tip; whereas yeast cells undergo a transient period of isotropic …


Development Of Representative Species-Level Molecular Markers And Morphological Character Analysis Of Leucothoid Amphipods (Crustacea: Amphipoda), Kristine Nicolle White 2010 University of Southern Mississippi

Development Of Representative Species-Level Molecular Markers And Morphological Character Analysis Of Leucothoid Amphipods (Crustacea: Amphipoda), Kristine Nicolle White

Dissertations

Leucothoid amphipods were investigated using morphology and molecular rDNA gene sequence fragments. The morphological diagnostic characters for traditional taxonomy have been clarified, a molecular marker for representative species has been developed, and one of the current anamorph-leucomorph connections has been confirmed with molecular sequence data. Ultimately this study has combined traditional morphological and modern molecular methods to clarify the taxonomy and to propose a preliminary phylogeny of the Leucothoidae. Analysis of 18S rDNA gene fragments from 13 species in two genera supported the current morphological species designations and the separation of the family into two clades. Combined analysis of 18S …


Validation Of The Activation Of Aurora B Kinase By Caenorhabditis Elegans Tousled-Like Kinase And The Identification Of Cyclin B3 As A Phospho-Specific Tlk-1 Interactor, Gary Michael Deyter 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Validation Of The Activation Of Aurora B Kinase By Caenorhabditis Elegans Tousled-Like Kinase And The Identification Of Cyclin B3 As A Phospho-Specific Tlk-1 Interactor, Gary Michael Deyter

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

A hallmark of tumorigenesis and certain birth defect syndromes is the loss of ploidy that can result from incorrect chromosome segregation. Chromosomes that are not partitioned properly during mitosis are often fragmented, changing the genetic makeup of daughter cells. Inheriting extrachromosomal fragments that contain cell survival genes or losing chromosomal loci that encode tumor suppressors can promote tumor development. Thus, it is essential to elucidate molecular mechanisms required for correct chromosome segregation. Chromosomes are connected to mitotic spindle microtubules by way of a proteinacous, chromosome-bound organelle called the kinetochore. Two decades of research have confirmed that the conserved Aurora B/AIR-2 …


The Functional Role Of The Drosophila Gypsy Insulator In The Regulation Of Gene Expression, Hyuck Joon Kang 2010 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

The Functional Role Of The Drosophila Gypsy Insulator In The Regulation Of Gene Expression, Hyuck Joon Kang

Doctoral Dissertations

Chromatin insulators are short DNA sequences that, together with enhancers and silencers, orchestrate gene transcription through DNA-protein interactions in eukaryotic genomes. It has been proposed that insulators operate at the chromatin level by generating functionally independent higher-order chromatin domains. Insulators may maintain the integrity of such domains using two properties: blocking enhancer-promoter interactions and blocking heterochromatin spreading. The gypsy insulator of Drosophila was identified as a region of the gypsy retrovirus responsible for the production of tissue-specific mutations in many genes. The Suppressor of Hairy wing [Su(Hw)] protein contains 12 zinc fingers that specifically bind the gypsy insulator. Upon DNA …


Analysis Of Variation In Clubfoot Candidate Genes, Audrey R. Ester 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Analysis Of Variation In Clubfoot Candidate Genes, Audrey R. Ester

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Isolated clubfoot, a common birth defect occurring in more than 135,000 livebirths worldwide each year, is associated with significant health care and financial burdens. Clubfoot is defined by forefoot adduction, hindfoot varus, midfoot cavus and hindfoot equinus. Isolated clubfoot, which is the focus of these studies, is distinct from syndromic clubfoot because there are no other associated malformations. Population, family, twin and segregation analysis studies provide evidence that genetic and environmental factors play an etiologic role in isolated clubfoot. The studies described in this thesis were performed to define the role of genetic variation in isolated clubfoot. Interrogation of a …


The Role Of Ecdysone Signaling In Fat-Body Tissue Remodeling And Pupal Metabolism, Nichole Dinell Bond 2010 University of Nevada Las Vegas

The Role Of Ecdysone Signaling In Fat-Body Tissue Remodeling And Pupal Metabolism, Nichole Dinell Bond

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Holometabolous insects undergo an astonishing transition during their development. During metamorphosis, the larva dramatically changes form and becomes an adult fly. During this process obsolete larval tissues must be eliminated, while tissues required for further development are retained and often remodeled to meet the needs of the adult fly. Tissue remodeling is characterized by morphological changes of the cells in a tissue mass. In many cases, remodeling is characterized by dissociation of the tissue mass, releasing cells to move freely around the body cavity. This process is also common in wound healing and is a key feature of human disease …


Molecular Analysis Of Trypanosoma Cruzi Isolates Obtained From Raccoons (Procyon Lotor) In Warren And Barren Counties Of Kentucky, Lipeng Bi 2010 Western Kentucky University

Molecular Analysis Of Trypanosoma Cruzi Isolates Obtained From Raccoons (Procyon Lotor) In Warren And Barren Counties Of Kentucky, Lipeng Bi

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, infects a variety of wild mammals in the southern United States, but it has only recently been isolated from raccoons trapped in the state of Kentucky. The purpose of the present study was to use a molecular genotyping approach, followed by DNA sequencing to determine the genotypes (type I, or types IIa-IIe) of 15 of the Kentucky isolates. DNA samples were prepared from 15 T. cruzi- isolates using a Qiagen mini kit, and PCR amplification was performed using published primers for the 24S α rDNA sequence (D71 and D72), the …


Xenobiotic Metabolism Genes And Clubfoot, Amy M. Sommer 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Xenobiotic Metabolism Genes And Clubfoot, Amy M. Sommer

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Idiopathic or isolated clubfoot is a common orthopedic birth defect that affects approximately 135,000 children worldwide. It is characterized by equinus, varus and adductus deformities of the ankle and foot. Correction of clubfoot involves months of serial manipulations, castings and bracing, with surgical correction needed in forty percent of cases. Multifactorial etiology has been suggested in numerous studies with both environmental and genetic factors playing an etiologic role. Maternal smoking during pregnancy is the only common environmental factor that has consistently been shown to increase the risk for clubfoot. Moreover, a positive family history of clubfoot and maternal smoking increases …


Elevated Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Production Concomitant To Elevated Prostaglandin E2 Production By Trauma Patients' Monocytes, Thomas Takayama, Carol Miller-Graziano, Gyongyi Szabo 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Elevated Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Production Concomitant To Elevated Prostaglandin E2 Production By Trauma Patients' Monocytes, Thomas Takayama, Carol Miller-Graziano, Gyongyi Szabo

Gyongyi Szabo

The level of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), a monokine implicated in mediating septic shock, is elevated in the blood of some patients with sepsis. Monocytes from 11 trauma patients and 11 burn patients were suboptimally stimulated with interferon gamma and muramyl dipeptide, an analogue of bacterial wall products. The patients with sepsis showed significantly greater total TNF alpha levels (secreted in combination with cell-associated) 3 days before septic episodes, as compared with normal controls (32.38 to 2231.76 ng/10(6) monocytes per milliliter, median = 121.03 ng/10(6) monocytes per milliliter; normal control: 0.00 to 18.20 ng/10(6) monocytes per milliliter, median …


Hepatitis C Core And Nonstructural 3 Proteins Trigger Toll-Like Receptor 2-Mediated Pathways And Inflammatory Activation, Angela Dolganiuc, Shilpa Oak, Karen Kodys, Douglas Golenbock, Robert Finberg, Evelyn Kurt-Jones, Gyongyi Szabo 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Hepatitis C Core And Nonstructural 3 Proteins Trigger Toll-Like Receptor 2-Mediated Pathways And Inflammatory Activation, Angela Dolganiuc, Shilpa Oak, Karen Kodys, Douglas Golenbock, Robert Finberg, Evelyn Kurt-Jones, Gyongyi Szabo

Gyongyi Szabo

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Recent evidence suggests that toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize certain viruses. We reported that hepatitis C virus (HCV) core and nonstructural 3 (NS3) proteins activate inflammatory pathways in monocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of TLRs in innate immune cell activation by core and NS3 proteins. METHODS: Human monocytes, human embryonic kidney cells transfected with TLR2, and peritoneal macrophages from TLR2, MyD88 knockout, and wild-type mice were studied to determine intracellular signaling and proinflammatory cytokine induction by HCV proteins. RESULTS: HCV core and NS3 proteins triggered inflammatory cell activation via the pattern recognition …


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