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Adolescent Perspectives On Genetic Testing For Adult Onset Conditions, Olivia D’Accordo, Erin Davidson, Christina Miller, Yael Weinstein 2017 Sarah Lawrence College

Adolescent Perspectives On Genetic Testing For Adult Onset Conditions, Olivia D’Accordo, Erin Davidson, Christina Miller, Yael Weinstein

Human Genetics Theses and Capstones

The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) recommends that testing for adult onset conditions be deferred until adulthood because of the potential for psychological harm combined with lack of medical utility. ASHG’s 2016 DNA Day Essay Contest asked 9- 12th graders to defend or refute this position. 1241 essays were submitted. 572 students defended ASHG’s position statement, while 554 argued against. Essays that addressed Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and BRCA-related Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer syndrome were qualitatively analyzed for themes related to the argued position. 64.4% of students argued for deferred testing of AD, and 46 ...


Statistical Methods For Two Problems In Cancer Research: Analysis Of Rna-Seq Data From Archival Samples And Characterization Of Onset Of Multiple Primary Cancers, Jialu Li 2017 The University of Texas MD ANderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Statistical Methods For Two Problems In Cancer Research: Analysis Of Rna-Seq Data From Archival Samples And Characterization Of Onset Of Multiple Primary Cancers, Jialu Li

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

My dissertation is focused on quantitative methodology development and application for two important topics in translational and clinical cancer research.

The first topic was motivated by the challenge of applying transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) to formalin-fixation and paraffin-embedding (FFPE) tumor samples for reliable diagnostic development. We designed a biospecimen study to directly compare gene expression results from different protocols to prepare libraries for RNA-seq from human breast cancer tissues, with randomization to fresh-frozen (FF) or FFPE conditions. To comprehensively evaluate the FFPE RNA-seq data quality for expression profiling, we developed multiple computational methods for assessment, such as the uniformity and continuity ...


Non-Coding Rnas Identify The Intrinsic Molecular Subtypes Of Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer, Andrea E. Ochoa 2017 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Non-Coding Rnas Identify The Intrinsic Molecular Subtypes Of Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer, Andrea E. Ochoa

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

NON-CODING RNAS IDENTIFY THE INTRINSIC MOLECULAR SUBTYPES OF MUSCLE-INVASIVE BLADDER CANCER

Andrea Elizabeth Ochoa, B.S.

Advisory Professors: David J. McConkey, Ph.D. and Joya Chandra, Ph.D.

There has been a recent explosion of genomics data in muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) to better understand the underlying biology of the disease that leads to the high amount of heterogeneity that is seen clinically. These studies have identified relatively stable intrinsic molecular subtypes of MIBC that show similarities to the basal and luminal subtypes of breast cancer. However, previous studies have primarily focused on protein-coding genes or DNA mutations/alterations.

There ...


A Novel Method For Quantifying Spatial Patterns In Plants, Logan H. George 2017 College of William and Mary

A Novel Method For Quantifying Spatial Patterns In Plants, Logan H. George

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Color patterns are found in a plethora of organisms, from vertebrates to flowering plants. While many studies have examined the mechanisms that produce these diverse patterns in animals, little research has investigated the mechanisms by which plants create color patterns. The conclusions drawn from animal studies may not accurately translate to plants due to early divergence in the evolution of life. Characterization of plant patterning mechanisms would have widespread impacts on developmental and evolutionary biology. To unravel the mystery behind pattern formation, we suggest an experimental framework to understand pattern evolution and development at a phenotypic, genotypic, and quantitative level ...


Systematic Analysis Of Whole Exome Sequencing Determines Ret G691s Polymorphism As Germline Variant In Melanoma, Brent J. Smith Jr, Jennifer D. Hintzsche, Carol M. Amato, Aik-Choon Tan, Keith R. Wells, Allison J. Applegate, Rita T. Gonzalez, Jodie R. Barr, William A. Robinson 2017 Marshall University Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine

Systematic Analysis Of Whole Exome Sequencing Determines Ret G691s Polymorphism As Germline Variant In Melanoma, Brent J. Smith Jr, Jennifer D. Hintzsche, Carol M. Amato, Aik-Choon Tan, Keith R. Wells, Allison J. Applegate, Rita T. Gonzalez, Jodie R. Barr, William A. Robinson

Marshall Journal of Medicine

Abstract

The RET proto-oncogene encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase that is activated by glial cell derived neutrotrophic factor (GDNF). Previous studies have found that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), RETp (G691S), in the juxtamembrane domain enhances the signaling pathway and promotes tumor growth by GDNF in pancreatic and thyroid cancer in addition to melanoma. It is uncertain however whether this SNP is a germline variant or somatic mutation. A prior study reported that the RETp variant was a germline SNP in desmoplastic and non-desmoplastic melanomas. In the present study, we examined both melanoma tissue samples and matching peripheral blood DNA ...


Accumulation And Expression Of Multiple Antibiotic Resistance Genes In Arcobacter Cryaerophilus That Thrives In Sewage, Jess A. Millar, Rahul Raghavan 2017 Portland State University

Accumulation And Expression Of Multiple Antibiotic Resistance Genes In Arcobacter Cryaerophilus That Thrives In Sewage, Jess A. Millar, Rahul Raghavan

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

We explored the bacterial diversity of untreated sewage influent samples of a wastewater treatment plant in Tucson, AZ and discovered that Arcobacter cryaerophilus, an emerging human pathogen of animal origin, was the most dominant bacterium. The other highly prevalent bacteria were members of the phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, which are major constituents of human gut microbiome, indicating that bacteria of human and animal origin intermingle in sewage. By assembling a near-complete genome of A. cryaerophilus, we show that the bacterium has accumulated a large number of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) probably enabling it to thrive in the wastewater. We also ...


Hippocampal Epigenetic Changes In A Mouse Model Of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders, Eric J. Chater-Diehl 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Hippocampal Epigenetic Changes In A Mouse Model Of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders, Eric J. Chater-Diehl

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) refers to the neurological, developmental, and behavioural abnormalities arising from in utero ethanol exposure. These abnormities included attention deficit, anxiety, and learning and memory impairment persisting into adulthood. The molecular mechanisms of such persistent behavioural changes remain unknown and are an area of intense research. In this thesis, mice were exposed to ethanol during the third trimester equivalent, the peak of synaptic development. Following this exposure, genome-wide epigenetic and gene expression and changes in the hippocampus were assessed in adult (70 day old) mice.

In the first experiment, genome-wide trimethylation of histone H3 at histone ...


Crispr/Cas System, Mother Nature’S Gift For Genomic Engineering, Alexander Jones, Yijing Chen 2017 Kent State University

Crispr/Cas System, Mother Nature’S Gift For Genomic Engineering, Alexander Jones, Yijing Chen

Student Showcase for Research, Scholarship & Creativity

Genomic engineering is direct manipulation of an organism’s genome (DNA) to alter its characteristics. It enables scientists to

• Study gene functions

• Model human diseases

• Correct mutations in diseased cells and tissues

• Control infectious diseases • Increase crop production…

The Challenge

• Most multicellular organisms’ genomes are vast. For example, each human cell contains ~ 6 billion base- pairs of DNA!

• It’s extremely time-consuming and expensive to generate precise and targeted modifications in complex genomes using conventional tools


Using Imputation As A Method Of Improving Genetic Data Analysis, Kimberly Diaz Perez 2017 Georgia State University

Using Imputation As A Method Of Improving Genetic Data Analysis, Kimberly Diaz Perez

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Genomic Analysis Of Factors Associated With Low Prevalence Of Antibiotic Resistance In Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia Coli Sequence Type 95 Strains, Craig M. Stephens, Sheila Adams-Sapper, Manraj Sekhon, James R. Johnson, Lee W. Riley 2017 Santa Clara University

Genomic Analysis Of Factors Associated With Low Prevalence Of Antibiotic Resistance In Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia Coli Sequence Type 95 Strains, Craig M. Stephens, Sheila Adams-Sapper, Manraj Sekhon, James R. Johnson, Lee W. Riley

Biology

Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) strains belonging to multilocus sequence type 95 (ST95) are globally distributed and a common cause of infections in humans and domestic fowl. ST95 isolates generally show a lower prevalence of acquired antimicrobial resistance than other pandemic ExPEC lineages. We took a genomic approach to identify factors that may underlie reduced resistance. We fully assembled genomes for four ST95 isolates representing the four major fimH-based lineages within ST95 and also analyzed draft-level genomes from another 82 ST95 isolates, largely from the western United States. The fully assembled genomes of antibiotic-resistant isolates carried resistance genes exclusively on ...


Identifying Regulators From Multiple Types Of Biological Data In Cancer, Brittany Baur 2017 Marquette University

Identifying Regulators From Multiple Types Of Biological Data In Cancer, Brittany Baur

Dissertations (2009 -)

Cancer genomes accumulate alterations that promote cancer cell proliferation and survival. Structural, genetic and epigenetic alterations that have a selective advantage for tumorigenesis affect key regulatory genes and microRNAs that in turn regulate the expression of many target genes. The goal of this dissertation is to leverage the alteration-rich landscape of cancer genomes to detect key regulatory genes and microRNAs. To this end, we designed a feature selection algorithm to identify DNA methylation signals around a gene that would highly predict its expression. We found that genes whose expression could be predicted by DNA methylation accurately were enriched in Gene ...


Phytohormone Signaling In Chlorella Sorokiniana: Perspectives On The Evolution Of Plant Cell-To-Cell Signaling, Maya Khasin 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Phytohormone Signaling In Chlorella Sorokiniana: Perspectives On The Evolution Of Plant Cell-To-Cell Signaling, Maya Khasin

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Cell-to-cell communication is a key aspect of microbial physiology and population dynamics, and a cornerstone in understanding the evolution of multicellularity. Quorum sensing in bacteria is a canonical example of microbial cell-to-cell signaling, in which bacteria use small molecule signals in order to monitor their population size and modulate their physiology accordingly. We propose that the evolution of plant hormone signaling arose in unicellular green algae, analogously to quorum sensing in bacteria, and that the complexity of these pathways required the recruitment of increasingly specific enzymes to increasingly sophisticated gene networks throughout the course of phytohormone signaling evolution. Using Chlorella ...


Pcr-Activated Cell Sorting As A General, Cultivation-Free Method For High-Throughput Identification And Enrichment Of Virus Hosts, Shaun W. Lim, Shea T. Lance, Kenneth M. Stedman, Adam R. Abate 2017 University of California, San Francisco

Pcr-Activated Cell Sorting As A General, Cultivation-Free Method For High-Throughput Identification And Enrichment Of Virus Hosts, Shaun W. Lim, Shea T. Lance, Kenneth M. Stedman, Adam R. Abate

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Characterizing virus-host relationships is critical for understanding the impact of a virus on an ecosystem, but is challenging with existing techniques, particularly for uncultivable species. We present a general, cultivation-free approach for identifying phage-associated bacterial cells. Using PCR-activated cell sorting, we interrogate millions of individual bacteria for the presence of specific phage nucleic acids. If the nucleic acids are present, the bacteria are recovered via sorting and their genomes analyzed. This allows targeted recovery of all possible host species in a diverse population associated with a specific phage, and can be easily targeted to identify the hosts of different phages ...


Crispr-Based Knockout Screening In Primary Neurons, Ben Callif 2017 Marquette University

Crispr-Based Knockout Screening In Primary Neurons, Ben Callif

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Axon growth is coordinated by multiple interacting proteins that remain incompletely characterized. High content screening (HCS), in which manipulation of candidate genes is combined with rapid image analysis of phenotypic effects, has emerged as a powerful technique to identify key regulators of axon outgrowth. Here we explore the utility of a genome editing approach referred to as CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspersed Palindromic Repeats) for knockout screening in primary neurons. In the CRISPR approach a DNA-cleaving Cas enzyme is guided to genomic target sequences by user-created guide RNA (sgRNA), where it initiates a double-stranded break that ultimately results in frameshift mutation ...


A Novel Multi-Network Approach Reveals Tissue-Specific Cellular Modulators Of Fibrosis In Systemic Sclerosis, Jaclyn N. Taroni, Casey S. Greene, Viktor Martyanov, Tammara A. Wood 2017 Dartmouth College

A Novel Multi-Network Approach Reveals Tissue-Specific Cellular Modulators Of Fibrosis In Systemic Sclerosis, Jaclyn N. Taroni, Casey S. Greene, Viktor Martyanov, Tammara A. Wood

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a multi-organ autoimmune disease characterized by skin fibrosis. Internal organ involvement is heterogeneous. It is unknown whether disease mechanisms are common across all involved affected tissues or if each manifestation has a distinct underlying pathology.We used consensus clustering to compare gene expression profiles of biopsies from four SSc-affected tissues (skin, lung, esophagus, and peripheral blood) from patients with SSc, and the related conditions pulmonary fibrosis (PF) and pulmonary arterial hypertension, and derived a consensus disease-associate signature across all tissues. We used this signature to query tissue-specific functional genomic networks. We performed novel network analyses to ...


Transcriptomic Responses To Environmental Temperature By Turtles With Temperature-Dependent And Genotypic Sex Determination Assessed By Rnaseq Inform The Genetic Architecture Of Embryonic Gonadal Development, Srihari Radhakrishnan, Robert A. Literman, Jennifer L. Neuwald, Andrew Severin, Nicole Valenzuela 2017 Iowa State University

Transcriptomic Responses To Environmental Temperature By Turtles With Temperature-Dependent And Genotypic Sex Determination Assessed By Rnaseq Inform The Genetic Architecture Of Embryonic Gonadal Development, Srihari Radhakrishnan, Robert A. Literman, Jennifer L. Neuwald, Andrew Severin, Nicole Valenzuela

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Vertebrate sexual fate is decided primarily by the individual’s genotype (GSD), by the environmental temperature during development (TSD), or both. Turtles exhibit TSD and GSD, making them ideal to study the evolution of sex determination. Here we analyze temperature-specific gonadal transcriptomes (RNA-sequencing validated by qPCR) of painted turtles (Chrysemys picta TSD) before and during the thermosensitive period, and at equivalent stages in soft-shell turtles (Apalone spinifera—GSD), to test whether TSD’s and GSD’s transcriptional circuitry is identical but deployed differently between mechanisms. Our data show that most elements of the mammalian urogenital network are active during turtle ...


P08. Unravelling Organelle Genome Evolution Architecture Using Rna-Sequencing Data, Matheus Sanita Lima, David Roy Smith 2017 Western University

P08. Unravelling Organelle Genome Evolution Architecture Using Rna-Sequencing Data, Matheus Sanita Lima, David Roy Smith

Western Research Forum

Background: Mitochondria genomes vary from 11 Mb to 6 kb, while plastids can vary from 1 Mb to 30 kb. Non-coding DNA accounts for most of this size variation, but the mechanistic and evolutionary reasons for that are still unknown. Next generation sequencing has generated unprecedented amounts of genomic and transcriptomic data that can be used for organelle genome evolution studies. However, most of these data is used only for the study of cell nucleus. Therefore, I decided to use these untapped data source to investigate the transcription of organelle genomes in plastid-bearing protists.

Methods: I mapped the transcriptomes over ...


The Mirnaome Of Catharanthus Roseus: Identification, Expression Analysis, And Potential Roles Of Micrornas In Regulation Of Terpenoid Indole Alkaloid Biosynthesis, Ethan M. Shen, Sanjay Kumar Singh, Jayadri S. Ghosh, Barunava Patra, Priyanka Paul, Ling Yuan, Sitakanta Pattanaik 2017 University of Kentucky

The Mirnaome Of Catharanthus Roseus: Identification, Expression Analysis, And Potential Roles Of Micrornas In Regulation Of Terpenoid Indole Alkaloid Biosynthesis, Ethan M. Shen, Sanjay Kumar Singh, Jayadri S. Ghosh, Barunava Patra, Priyanka Paul, Ling Yuan, Sitakanta Pattanaik

Plant and Soil Sciences Faculty Publications

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate numerous crucial biological processes in plants. However, information is limited on their involvement in the biosynthesis of specialized metabolites in plants, including Catharanthus roseus that produces a number of pharmaceutically valuable, bioactive terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs). Using small RNA-sequencing, we identified 181 conserved and 173 novel miRNAs (cro-miRNAs) in C. roseus seedlings. Genome-wide expression analysis revealed that a set of cro-miRNAs are differentially regulated in response to methyl jasmonate (MeJA). In silico target prediction identified 519 potential cro-miRNA targets that include several auxin response factors (ARFs). The presence of cleaved transcripts of miRNA-targeted ARFs in C. roseus ...


Defining The 5 And 3 Landscape Of The Drosophila Transcriptome With Exo-Seq And Rnaseh-Seq, Shaked Afik, Osnat Bartok, Maxim N. Artyomov, Alexander A. Shishkin, Sabah Kadri, Mor Hanan, Xiaopeng Zhu, Manuel Garber, Sebastian Kadener 2017 The Hebrew University, Jerusalem

Defining The 5 And 3 Landscape Of The Drosophila Transcriptome With Exo-Seq And Rnaseh-Seq, Shaked Afik, Osnat Bartok, Maxim N. Artyomov, Alexander A. Shishkin, Sabah Kadri, Mor Hanan, Xiaopeng Zhu, Manuel Garber, Sebastian Kadener

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Supported Publications

Cells regulate biological responses in part through changes in transcription start sites (TSS) or cleavage and polyadenylation sites (PAS). To fully understand gene regulatory networks, it is therefore critical to accurately annotate cell type-specific TSS and PAS. Here we present a simple and straightforward approach for genome-wide annotation of 5- and 3-RNA ends. Our approach reliably discerns bona fide PAS from false PAS that arise due to internal poly(A) tracts, a common problem with current PAS annotation methods. We applied our methodology to study the impact of temperature on the Drosophila melanogaster head transcriptome. We found hundreds of previously ...


Utility Of Comprehensive Genomic Sequencing For Detecting Her2-Positive Colorectal Cancer, Yoshifumi Shimada, Stephen Lyle, Toshifumi Wakai 2017 Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Japan

Utility Of Comprehensive Genomic Sequencing For Detecting Her2-Positive Colorectal Cancer, Yoshifumi Shimada, Stephen Lyle, Toshifumi Wakai

Open Access Articles

HER2-targeted therapy is considered effective for KRAS codon 12/13 wild-type, HER2-positive metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). In general, HER2 status is determined by the use of immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Comprehensive genomic sequencing (CGS) enables the detection of gene mutations and copy number alterations including KRAS mutation and HER2 amplification; however, little is known about the utility of CGS for detecting HER2-positive CRC. To assess its utility, we retrospectively investigated 201 patients with stage I-IV CRC. The HER2 status of the primary site was assessed using IHC and FISH, and HER2 amplification of the primary site ...


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