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Reconstruction Of The Diapsid Ancestral Genome Permits Chromosome Evolution Tracing In Avian And Non-Avian Dinosaurs, Rebecca E. O'Connor, Michael N. Ramanov, Lucas G. Larkin, Paul M. Barrett, Marta Farré, Joana Damas, Malcolm Ferguson-Smith, Nicole Valenzuela, Denis M. Larkin, Darren K. Griffin 2018 University of Kent at Canterbury - U.K.

Reconstruction Of The Diapsid Ancestral Genome Permits Chromosome Evolution Tracing In Avian And Non-Avian Dinosaurs, Rebecca E. O'Connor, Michael N. Ramanov, Lucas G. Larkin, Paul M. Barrett, Marta Farré, Joana Damas, Malcolm Ferguson-Smith, Nicole Valenzuela, Denis M. Larkin, Darren K. Griffin

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Genomic organisation of extinct lineages can be inferred from extant chromosome-level genome assemblies. Here, we apply bioinformatic and molecular cytogenetic approaches to determine the genomic structure of the diapsid common ancestor. We then infer the events that likely occurred along this lineage from theropod dinosaurs through to modern birds. Our results suggest that most elements of a typical ‘avian-like’ karyotype (40 chromosome pairs, including 30 microchromosomes) were in place before the divergence of turtles from birds ~255 mya. This genome organisation therefore predates the emergence of early dinosaurs and pterosaurs and the evolution of flight. Remaining largely unchanged interchromosomally through ...


Tissue Expression Patterns Identify Mouse Cilia Genes, Timothy S. McClintock 2018 University of Kentucky

Tissue Expression Patterns Identify Mouse Cilia Genes, Timothy S. Mcclintock

Physiology Research Data

A summary of 2,127 mouse genes linked to cilia by previous high-throughput approaches (reviewed in Inglis et al., 2006), published studies of individual gene products, or by McClintock et al. 2008. Each gene was viewed at Entrez Gene to verify and update the Gene ID and Gene Symbol. Each was also searched against PubMed (Gene Symbol AND (cili* OR flagel*)) for published evidence linking the mouse gene or putative orthologs to cilia or flagella. This searchable file lists identifying information about each gene, functional information about the encoded protein, the number of high-throughput studies linking the gene to cilia ...


Rates And Patterns Of Evolution In A Duplicated Genome In The Family Catostomidae, Megann Michelle Schmidt 2018 University of Northern Iowa

Rates And Patterns Of Evolution In A Duplicated Genome In The Family Catostomidae, Megann Michelle Schmidt

Honors Program Theses

First and foremost, I would like to thank Dr. Gary and Myrna Floyd for financial support through their Undergraduate Research Assistantship, and I would also like to thank the University of Northern Iowa Biology Department for their support of undergraduate research. I would like to express my utmost gratitude towards Dr. Peter Berendzen and Zachary Sperstad for their support and guidance throughout this entire project. Additionally, thanks to the Iowa EPSCoR for funding collection of the data set, and thanks to Andrew Simons at the University of Minnesota and Jonathan Armbruster at Auburn University for help in data collection and ...


Evaluating Nubian Population Structure From Cranial Nonmetric Traits: Gene Flow, Genetic Drift, And Population History Of The Nubian Nile Valle, Kanya Godde, Richard L. Jantz 2018 Sociology/Anthropology, University of La Verne, La Verne, CA

Evaluating Nubian Population Structure From Cranial Nonmetric Traits: Gene Flow, Genetic Drift, And Population History Of The Nubian Nile Valle, Kanya Godde, Richard L. Jantz

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

Paleolithic archaeological and skeletal remains from the Nile Valley have yielded a complex picture of life along the river. Sociocultural and sociopolitical events during this timeframe shaped population structure, while gene flow and genetic drift further developed it. In this paper, we take a population genetics approach to modeling Nubian biological relationships in an effort to describe how an accumulation of events formed Nubian population structure. A variety of Nubian samples were utilized, spanning the Mesolithic-Christian time periods, and geographically, from just above the first through the third cataracts. Population genetics statistics were employed to estimate and depict biological affinities ...


Transcripity Split: Course-Based Rna-Seq Analysis Using The Ultrafast Kallisto-Sleuth Pipeline, Raymond A. Enke 2017 enkera@jmu.edu

Transcripity Split: Course-Based Rna-Seq Analysis Using The Ultrafast Kallisto-Sleuth Pipeline, Raymond A. Enke

Ray Enke Ph.D.

No abstract provided.


Unseen Science: Modern Discoveries Too Far Away Or Tiny For Human Eyes, Lucy Huang 2017 Cuny Graduate School of Journalism

Unseen Science: Modern Discoveries Too Far Away Or Tiny For Human Eyes, Lucy Huang

Capstones

As science has progressed, scientists have realized that evidence goes beyond the realms of physical sight. Whether it is too small or difficult to find, scientists have developed different ways to get around this problem. We see this in cancer genomics and in extrasolar planetary research. Scientists use what they know and what they measure to validate their work.

https://lucy-huang-9tge.squarespace.com/


Dna Barcoding Of Quercus Falcata, Quercus Palustris, Quercus Rubra, And Their Hybrids Using Rbcl, Matk, And Ycf1, Mckinzie Johnson, Tim Trott 2017 Southern Adventist Univeristy

Dna Barcoding Of Quercus Falcata, Quercus Palustris, Quercus Rubra, And Their Hybrids Using Rbcl, Matk, And Ycf1, Mckinzie Johnson, Tim Trott

Research in Biology

No abstract provided.


Analysis, Visualization, And Machine Learning Of Epigenomic Data, Michael J. Purcaro 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Analysis, Visualization, And Machine Learning Of Epigenomic Data, Michael J. Purcaro

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The goal of the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project has been to characterize all the functional elements of the human genome. These elements include expressed transcripts and genomic regions bound by transcription factors (TFs), occupied by nucleosomes, occupied by nucleosomes with modified histones, or hypersensitive to DNase I cleavage, etc. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP-seq) is an experimental technique for detecting TF binding in living cells, and the genomic regions bound by TFs are called ChIP-seq peaks. ENCODE has performed and compiled results from tens of thousands of experiments, including ChIP-seq, DNase, RNA-seq and Hi-C.

These efforts have culminated in two ...


Validation Of A New Rapid Hybridization Buffer For Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization With A Review On The Kinetics Of Dna Hybridization, Christine O'Connor 2017 University of Connecticut

Validation Of A New Rapid Hybridization Buffer For Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization With A Review On The Kinetics Of Dna Hybridization, Christine O'Connor

Honors Scholar Theses

Abbott Molecular recently developed the rapid Vysis IntelliFISH Hybridization Buffer for use in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays. The hybridization step in a standard FISH assay requires an overnight incubation, thus the turnaround time for a patient result is at least 24 hours. The IntelliFISH buffer was designed to reduce hybridization time of probes to target DNA to about two hours, allowing the entire assay to be performed in a single day. A review of methodologies and commercial products has highlighted the importance of hybridization kinetics to a successful FISH assay. The purpose of the research was to investigate ...


Transcriptome-Based Gene Networks For Systems-Level Analysis Of Plant Gene Functions, Chirag Gupta 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Transcriptome-Based Gene Networks For Systems-Level Analysis Of Plant Gene Functions, Chirag Gupta

Theses and Dissertations

Present day genomic technologies are evolving at an unprecedented rate, allowing interrogation of

cellular activities with increasing breadth and depth. However, we know very little about how the

genome functions and what the identified genes do. The lack of functional annotations of genes

greatly limits the post-analytical interpretation of new high throughput genomic datasets. For plant

biologists, the problem is much severe. Less than 50% of all the identified genes in the model plant

Arabidopsis thaliana, and only about 20% of all genes in the crop model Oryza sativa have some

aspects of their functions assigned. Therefore, there is an ...


Integrative Cancer Immunogenomic Analysis Of Serial Melanoma Biopsies Reveals Correlates Of Response And Resistance To Sequential Ctla-4 And Pd-1 Blockade Treatment, Whijae Roh 2017 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Integrative Cancer Immunogenomic Analysis Of Serial Melanoma Biopsies Reveals Correlates Of Response And Resistance To Sequential Ctla-4 And Pd-1 Blockade Treatment, Whijae Roh

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Melanoma is the most malignant form of skin cancer. The five-year survival rate for metastatic melanoma is 19.9%. Although targeted therapy of BRAF and MEK inhibitors were developed for melanoma, resistance to therapy is inevitable. Immune checkpoint blockade, which reverses the suppression of the immune system, on the other hand, has shown a durable response in 20-30% of patients with metastatic melanoma. However, more predictive and robust biomarkers of response to this therapy are still needed, and resistance mechanisms remain incompletely understood. To address this, we examined a cohort of metastatic melanoma patients treated with sequential checkpoint blockade against ...


Molecular Architectures Of Benzoic Acid-Specific Type Iii Polyketide Synthases, Charles Stewart Jr., Kate Woods, Greg Macias, Andrew C. Allan, Roger P. Hellens, Joseph P. Noel 2017 Iowa State University

Molecular Architectures Of Benzoic Acid-Specific Type Iii Polyketide Synthases, Charles Stewart Jr., Kate Woods, Greg Macias, Andrew C. Allan, Roger P. Hellens, Joseph P. Noel

Office of Biotechnology Publications

Biphenyl synthase and benzophenone synthase constitute an evolutionarily distinct clade of type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) that use benzoic acid-derived substrates to produce defense metabolites in plants. The use of benzoyl-CoA as an endogenous substrate is unusual for type III PKSs. Moreover, sequence analyses indicate that the residues responsible for the functional diversification of type III PKSs are mutated in benzoic acid-specific type III PKSs. In order to gain a better understanding of structure–function relationships within the type III PKS family, the crystal structures of biphenyl synthase from Malus × domestica and benzophenone synthase from Hypericum androsaemum were compared with ...


Chromatin Accessibility Dynamics In The Arabidopsis Root Epidermis And Endodermis During Cold Acclimation, Shawn Hoogstra 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Chromatin Accessibility Dynamics In The Arabidopsis Root Epidermis And Endodermis During Cold Acclimation, Shawn Hoogstra

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Understanding cell-type specific transcriptional responses to environmental conditions is limited by a lack of knowledge of transcriptional control due to epigenetic dynamics. Additionally, cell-type analyses are limited by difficulties in applying current technologies to single cell-types. A novel DNase-seq protocol and analysis procedure, deemed DNase-DTS, was developed to identify DHSs in the Arabidopsis epidermis and endodermis under control and cold acclimation conditions. Results identified thousands of DHSs within each cell-type and experimental condition. DHSs showed strong association to gene expression, DNA methylation, and histone modifications. A priori mapping of existing DNA binding motifs within accessible genes and the cold C-repeat ...


The Hoxd Cluster Is A Dynamic And Resilient Tad Boundary Controlling The Segregation Of Antagonistic Regulatory Landscapes, Eddie Rodriguez-Carballo, Lucille Lopez-Delisle, Ye Zhan, Pierre J. Fabre, Leonardo Beccari, Imane El-Idrissi, Thi Hanh Nguyen Huynh, Hakan Ozadam, Job Dekker, Denis Duboule 2017 University of Geneva

The Hoxd Cluster Is A Dynamic And Resilient Tad Boundary Controlling The Segregation Of Antagonistic Regulatory Landscapes, Eddie Rodriguez-Carballo, Lucille Lopez-Delisle, Ye Zhan, Pierre J. Fabre, Leonardo Beccari, Imane El-Idrissi, Thi Hanh Nguyen Huynh, Hakan Ozadam, Job Dekker, Denis Duboule

Program in Systems Biology Publications and Presentations

The mammalian HoxD cluster lies between two topologically associating domains (TADs) matching distinct enhancer-rich regulatory landscapes. During limb development, the telomeric TAD controls the early transcription of Hoxd genes in forearm cells, whereas the centromeric TAD subsequently regulates more posterior Hoxd genes in digit cells. Therefore, the TAD boundary prevents the terminal Hoxd13 gene from responding to forearm enhancers, thereby allowing proper limb patterning. To assess the nature and function of this CTCF-rich DNA region in embryos, we compared chromatin interaction profiles between proximal and distal limb bud cells isolated from mutant stocks where various parts of this boundary region ...


Integrative Microrna And Mrna Deep-Sequencing Expression Profiling In Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma, Cliff I. Oduor, Yasin Kaymaz, Kiprotich Chelimo, Juliana A. Otieno, John Michael Ong'echa, Ann M. Moormann, Jeffrey A. Bailey 2017 Maseno University

Integrative Microrna And Mrna Deep-Sequencing Expression Profiling In Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma, Cliff I. Oduor, Yasin Kaymaz, Kiprotich Chelimo, Juliana A. Otieno, John Michael Ong'echa, Ann M. Moormann, Jeffrey A. Bailey

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Supported Publications

BACKGROUND: Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is characterized by overexpression of the c-myc oncogene, which in the vast majority of cases is a consequence of an IGH/MYC translocation. While myc is the seminal event, BL is a complex amalgam of genetic and epigenetic changes causing dysregulation of both coding and non-coding transcripts. Emerging evidence suggest that abnormal modulation of mRNA transcription via miRNAs might be a significant factor in lymphomagenesis. However, the alterations in these miRNAs and their correlations to their putative mRNA targets have not been extensively studied relative to normal germinal center (GC) B cells.

METHODS: Using more sensitive ...


Gene Expression Changes In The Mushroom Body Of Drosophila Melanogaster During A Time Course Of Long-Term Memory Formation And Maintenance, Spencer G. Jones 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Gene Expression Changes In The Mushroom Body Of Drosophila Melanogaster During A Time Course Of Long-Term Memory Formation And Maintenance, Spencer G. Jones

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Long-term memory (LTM) requires gene transcription. However, there is still much to learn about which genes are transcriptionally regulated during LTM and the biological roles they play. Here, gene expression changes were characterized in Drosophila melanogaster over a time course of LTM formation and maintenance in neurons of the mushroom body (MB), a structure required for normal learning and memory. I identified 120 genes differentially expressed (q < 0.2, fold change > 1.3) 24h after LTM induction. Among these were 13 potential downstream targets for RNA localization by the known memory genes pumilo, staufen and oskar, several genes encoding chromatin regulators and seven genes ...


The Role Of Histone H2a.Z Abundance In Modulating Responses To Phosphorus Deficiency In Rice, Sara Zahraeifard 2017 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

The Role Of Histone H2a.Z Abundance In Modulating Responses To Phosphorus Deficiency In Rice, Sara Zahraeifard

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Histone variants contribute to chromatin complexity by creating specialized nucleosomes. Here, to investigate the pattern of H2A.Z histone variant distribution and its role in modulating gene expression in rice (Oryza sativa L.), we performed genome-wide profiling of ARP6-dependent H2A.Z deposition in rice seedlings. We demonstrated that under controlled conditions, the majority of H2A.Z deposition is within protein-coding genes (PCG), and the most highly expressed genes are enriched with H2A.Z at their 5’ ends near the transcription start site (TSS), whereas the medium- to low-expressed genes contain H2A.Z across the entire gene. Based on H2A.Z ...


High-Throughput Single-Molecule Telomere Characterization, Jennifer McCaffrey, Eleanor Young, Katy Lassahn, Justin Sibert, Steven Pastor, Harold Riethman, Ming Xiao 2017 Old Dominion University

High-Throughput Single-Molecule Telomere Characterization, Jennifer Mccaffrey, Eleanor Young, Katy Lassahn, Justin Sibert, Steven Pastor, Harold Riethman, Ming Xiao

Medical Diagnostics & Translational Sciences Faculty Publications

We have developed a novel method that enables global subtelomere and haplotype-resolved analysis of telomere lengths at the single-molecule level. An in vitro CRISPR/Cas9 RNA-directed nickase system directs the specific labeling of human (TTAGGG) n DNA tracts in genomes that have also been barcoded using a separate nickase enzyme that recognizes a 7bp motif genome-wide. High-throughput imaging and analysis of large DNA single molecules from genomes labeled in this fashion using a nanochannel array system permits mapping through subtelomere repeat element (SRE) regions to unique chromosomal DNA while simultaneously measuring the (TTAGGG) n tract length at the end of ...


Selfish Mitochondrial Dna Proliferates And Diversifies In Small, But Not Large, Experimental Populations Of Caenorhabditis Briggsae, Wendy S. Phillips, Anna Luella Coleman-Hulbert, Emily S. Weiss, Dana K. Howe, Sita Ping, Riana I. Wernick, Suzanne Estes, Dee R. Denver 2017 Oregon State University

Selfish Mitochondrial Dna Proliferates And Diversifies In Small, But Not Large, Experimental Populations Of Caenorhabditis Briggsae, Wendy S. Phillips, Anna Luella Coleman-Hulbert, Emily S. Weiss, Dana K. Howe, Sita Ping, Riana I. Wernick, Suzanne Estes, Dee R. Denver

Suzanne Estes

Evolutionary interactions across levels of biological organization contribute to a variety of fundamental processes including genome evolution, reproductive mode transitions, species diversification, and extinction. Evolutionary theory predicts that so-called “selfish” genetic elements will proliferate when the host effective population size (Ne) is small, but direct tests of this prediction remain few. We analyzed the evolutionary dynamics of deletion-containing mitochondrial DNA (ΔmtDNA) molecules, previously characterized as selfish elements, in six different natural strains of the nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae allowed to undergo experimental evolution in a range of population sizes (N = 1, 10, 100, and 1,000) for a maximum of 50 ...


Interaction Of Cocoa Powder With Intestinal Microbiota, Martha M. Escoto Sabillon 2017 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Interaction Of Cocoa Powder With Intestinal Microbiota, Martha M. Escoto Sabillon

LSU Master's Theses

Cocoa is the fully fermented and dried seed of the cacao tree (Theobroma cacao L.) which has prebiotic properties, due to their high concentration of polyphenols. Therefore, the ingestion of cocoa could cause changes in the proportions of the intestinal microbiota that can influence the intestinal immune response. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of alkalization process of the cocoa bean in the diversity of the gut microbiota. The samples were “lavado” unprocessed cocoa powder, “natural” unprocessed cocoa powder, “D-11-S” as alkalized cocoa powder, “D-11-B” heavily alkalized cocoa powder, and raw cocoa “shells” and a control ...


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