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Resource Selection And Calving Success Of Moose In Colorado, Forest P. Hayes 2020 University of Montana, Missoula

Resource Selection And Calving Success Of Moose In Colorado, Forest P. Hayes

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Across much of North America, moose populations (Alces alces) are declining due to disease, predation, climate, and anthropogenic pressures. Despite this, populations of moose in Colorado have continued to grow. Studying successful (i.e., persistent or growing) populations of moose can facilitate the continued conservation of the species by identifying habitat features critical for moose persistence.

First, I evaluated calving success of moose in Colorado and the impact of willow habitat quality and nutrition. I then estimated the probability of female moose having a calf using repeated observations in a Bayesian occupancy model. I assigned values for dry matter digestibility ...


An Integrated Method For Coding Trees, Measuring Tree Diameter, And Estimating Tree Positions, Linhao Sun, Luming Fang, Yuhi Weng, Siqing Zheng 2020 Zhejiang A & F University

An Integrated Method For Coding Trees, Measuring Tree Diameter, And Estimating Tree Positions, Linhao Sun, Luming Fang, Yuhi Weng, Siqing Zheng

Faculty Publications

Accurately measuring tree diameter at breast height (DBH) and estimating tree positions in a sample plot are important in tree mensuration. The main aims of this paper include (1) developing a new, integrated device that can identify trees using the quick response (QR) code technique to record tree identifications, measure DBH, and estimate tree positions concurrently; (2) designing an innovative algorithm to measure DBH using only two angle sensors, which is simple and can reduce the impact of eccentric stems on DBH measures; and (3) designing an algorithm to estimate the position of the tree by combining ultra-wide band (UWB ...


Nutrient Cycling-Tree Species Relationships In Appalachian Forests, Philip Michael Crim 2020 West Virginia University

Nutrient Cycling-Tree Species Relationships In Appalachian Forests, Philip Michael Crim

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Since the colonization of North America by Europeans, ecosystems in Appalachia and across the continent have been in a prolonged state of flux. Areas particularly rich in natural resources, such as Appalachia, have historically borne the brunt of these swift changes, often with devastating consequences. Downwind of much of the power generation facilities of the Ohio Valley, Appalachian forests have been geographically predisposed to high rates of acidic deposition, a circumstance mitigated by the passage of Clean Air Legislation beginning in the 1970s. Nevertheless, decades of elevated nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) inputs had a profound impact on the ecology ...


Lithological Constraints On Resource Economies Shape The Mycorrhizal Composition Of A Bornean Rain Forest, Monique Weemstra, Kabir G. Peay, Stuart J. Davies, Mohizah Mohamad, Akira Itoh, Sylvester Tan, Sabrina E. Russo 2020 CNRS – Université de Montpellier – Université Paul-Valéry, Montpellier

Lithological Constraints On Resource Economies Shape The Mycorrhizal Composition Of A Bornean Rain Forest, Monique Weemstra, Kabir G. Peay, Stuart J. Davies, Mohizah Mohamad, Akira Itoh, Sylvester Tan, Sabrina E. Russo

Faculty Publications in the Biological Sciences

• Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) produce contrasting plant–soil feedbacks, but how these feedbacks are constrained by lithology is poorly understood.

• We investigated the hypothesis that lithological drivers of soil fertility filter plant resource economic strategies in ways that influence the relative fitness of trees with AMF or EMF symbioses in a Bornean rain forest containing species with both mycorrhizal strategies.

• Using forest inventory data on 1245 tree species, we found that although AMF-hosting trees had greater relative dominance on all soil types, with declining lithological soil fertility EMF-hosting trees became more dominant. Data on 13 leaf ...


The Intersection Of Deforestation And Economic Growth In The Brazilian Amazon, Victoria Oceguera 2019 Fordham University

The Intersection Of Deforestation And Economic Growth In The Brazilian Amazon, Victoria Oceguera

Student Theses 2015-Present

Abstract

As a result of capital gain, deforestation of the Amazon in Brazil continues. Brazilian government's insufficient efforts to mitigate and enforce the preservation of these precious forests has ledto the commodification of the Amazon. Chapter 1 uses historical and quantitative data to examine the negative impacts of deforestation on indigenous communities and climate change. Chapter2 employs economics to analyze the role of business as a crucial component of deforestation in Brazil. Chapter 3 engages politics in Brazil to discuss interactions between key actors involved in the perpetuation of deforestation. Chapter 3 examines the interactions between politics and corruption ...


Snowpack Properties Vary In Response To Burn Severity Gradients In Montane Forests, Jordan Maxwell, Samuel B. St. Clair 2019 Brigham Young University

Snowpack Properties Vary In Response To Burn Severity Gradients In Montane Forests, Jordan Maxwell, Samuel B. St. Clair

Aspen Bibliography

Wildfires are altering ecosystems globally as they change in frequency, size, and severity. As wildfires change vegetation structure, they also alter moisture inputs and energy fluxes which influence snowpack and hydrology. In unburned forests, snow has been shown to accumulate more in small clearings or in stands with low to moderate forest densities. Here we investigate whether peak snowpack varies with burn severity or percent overstory tree mortality post-fire in a mid-latitude, subalpine forest. We found that peak snowpack across the burn severity gradients increased 15% in snow-water equivalence (SWE) and 17% in depth for every 20% increase in overstory ...


Spruce Budworm Defoliation Dynamics And Its Influence On The Acadian Forest, Cen Chen 2019 university of maine

Spruce Budworm Defoliation Dynamics And Its Influence On The Acadian Forest, Cen Chen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Spruce budworm (SBW; Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.)) is the primary forest defoliator in North America. SBW defoliation has affected tens of millions ha of forests during its periodic outbreaks and caused severe growth reduction and mortality of spruce-fir (Picea-Abies) species. Evaluating these damaging effects of SBW defoliation requires understandings of the variation and dynamics of defoliation, as well as trees' variable responses to defoliation in consideration of various tree- stand-, and site-level factors. In this dissertation, we developed statistical models to 1) evaluate influences of SBW defoliation on spruce-fir stand dynamics of annual volume net growth, mortality, and ingrowth, 2 ...


Alternate Trait‐Based Leaf Respiration Schemes Evaluated At Ecosystem‐Scale Through Carbon Optimization Modeling And Canopy Property Data, R. Q. Thomas, M. Williams, M. A. Cavaleri, J.‐F. Exbrayat, T. L. Smallman, L. E. Street 2019 Virginia Tech

Alternate Trait‐Based Leaf Respiration Schemes Evaluated At Ecosystem‐Scale Through Carbon Optimization Modeling And Canopy Property Data, R. Q. Thomas, M. Williams, M. A. Cavaleri, J.‐F. Exbrayat, T. L. Smallman, L. E. Street

Michigan Tech Publications

Leaf maintenance respiration (Rleaf,m) is a major but poorly understood component of the terrestrial carbon cycle (C). Earth systems models (ESMs) use simple sub‐models relating Rleaf,m to leaf traits, applied at canopy scale. Rleaf,m models vary depending on which leaf N traits they incorporate (e.g., mass or area based) and the form of relationship (linear or nonlinear). To simulate vegetation responses to global change, some ESMs include ecological optimization to identify canopy structures that maximize net C accumulation. However, the implications for optimization of using alternate leaf‐scale empirical Rleaf,m ...


Conservation Insights For Endemic Alpine Plants (Nabalus Spp.) Facing Global Environmental Change, Kristen Haynes 2019 SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry

Conservation Insights For Endemic Alpine Plants (Nabalus Spp.) Facing Global Environmental Change, Kristen Haynes

Dissertations and Theses

Amid the current global biodiversity crisis spurred by anthropogenic environmental changes, determining conservation priorities and the extinction vulnerability of rare taxa are tasks of critical importance. Organisms can avoid environmental change-induced extinction through three possible response modes: evolutionary adaptation, migration (range shift), and tolerance through phenotypic plasticity. In this dissertation, I leveraged transplant experiments and population genomics to assess the ability of rare alpine rattlesnake-roots (Nabalus spp.) to adapt, migrate, and/or tolerate environmental change. I also employed these same techniques to define conservation units and priorities within two endemic alpine taxa (Nabalus boottii and Nabalus trifoliolatus var. nanus) and ...


Future Climate Change Will Have A Positive Effect On Populus Davidiana In China, Jie Li, Guan Liu, Qi Lu, Yanru Zhang, Guoqing Li, Sheng Du 2019 Northwest A&F University

Future Climate Change Will Have A Positive Effect On Populus Davidiana In China, Jie Li, Guan Liu, Qi Lu, Yanru Zhang, Guoqing Li, Sheng Du

Aspen Bibliography

Since climate change significantly affects global biodiversity, a reasonable assessment of the vulnerability of species in response to climate change is crucial for conservation. Most existing methods estimate the impact of climate change on the vulnerability of species by projecting the change of a species’ distribution range. This single-component evaluation ignores the impact of other components on vulnerability. In this study, Populus davidiana (David’s aspen), a tree species widely used in afforestation projects, was selected as the research subject under four future climate change scenarios (representative concentration pathway (RCP)2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0, and RCP8.5). Exposure ...


Nutritional Effects On Causal Organisms Of Beech Bark Disease In An Aftermath Forest, Gretchen Dillon 2019 SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry

Nutritional Effects On Causal Organisms Of Beech Bark Disease In An Aftermath Forest, Gretchen Dillon

Dissertations and Theses

Beech bark disease (BBD) invaded North America over a century ago but is still not completely understood. This disease occurs when an invasive scale insect, Cryptococcus fagisugaLind., feeds on the inner bark and cambium of American beech (Fagus grandifolia, Ehrh.) making trees susceptible to fatal infections by Neonectria fungi. These causal agents were examined in the context of experimental additions of N and P across six northern hardwood stands in New Hampshire. Scale cover varied significantly with tree diameter (p = 0.02) but was nearly identical (0.6%) at two heights on the bole (0.5 m and 1.5 ...


Effects Of Water Table Depth And Edaphic Characteristics On Plant Diversity In A Southern Mississippi Pitcher Plant Bog, Patrick Kirby 2019 University of Southern Mississippi

Effects Of Water Table Depth And Edaphic Characteristics On Plant Diversity In A Southern Mississippi Pitcher Plant Bog, Patrick Kirby

Master's Theses

This study examined the effects that water table depth and soil characteristics have on plant species richness and species composition within pitcher plant bogs across seasons. Eight piezometers were installed at random distances to monitor long-term water table depth and pressure fluctuations along a ~710-meter line transect traversing upland and bog habitats. Vegetation sampling quadrats (n=128) were set up near each piezometer. Cover data and water table depths were collected in spring and late summer. Soil samples collected from each treatment group were used to obtain soil texture and nutrient data. The summer collection period yielded a total gdiversity ...


National Smokejumper Assocation Trail Maintenance Annual Report For 2019, National Smokejumper Association Trails Committee 2019 Eastern Washington University

National Smokejumper Assocation Trail Maintenance Annual Report For 2019, National Smokejumper Association Trails Committee

Trails Reports

The Trails Maintenance Program Annual Reports compiled by the National Smokejumper Association Trails Committee summarizes the activities of the Trails Program. The members of the program also go by the title Trails Restoration and Maintenance Project Specialists (TRAMPS). The contents of the 2011 report include: 2019 NSA Trails Program Volunteer of the Year (VOY); Big Larch Campground; Beartooth Line; Black Mountain Lookout; Boundary Trail Project; Margarita Phillips Memorial; Reservoir Lake Campground; Rocky Mnt. National Park; San Pedro Parks Wilderness Area; Yellowstone River Fishing Access; Lost Horse-Twin Lakes; China Springs/Gizzly Crk. Trail; Lassen Volcanic Park Volcano Adventure Camp;


Effects Of Infanticide Risk And Timber Harvest On American Black Bear Space Use, D. Cody Norton 2019 Northern Michigan University

Effects Of Infanticide Risk And Timber Harvest On American Black Bear Space Use, D. Cody Norton

All NMU Master's Theses

Space use is an important aspect of bear ecology that maybe influenced by infanticide risk and timber harvest. I used generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) to determine if female American black bear (Ursus americanus) space use was consistent with avoidance behavior to reduce infanticide risk in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan during the 2009–2011 and 2013–2014 breeding seasons. Females with cubs occupied core areas and home ranges of similar size and relative probability of male use to females without cubs. Additionally, females with cubs did not reduce movements during times of day when male movements were greatest. Female ...


Cost Effectiveness Of Greenhouse Gas Reductions Through Afforestation Of Agricultural Land In The Arkansas Delta, Karli A. Moore 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Cost Effectiveness Of Greenhouse Gas Reductions Through Afforestation Of Agricultural Land In The Arkansas Delta, Karli A. Moore

Theses and Dissertations

Sequestration of atmospheric carbon in forested lands offsets carbon emissions from other industries. Conversion of private lands, particularly agricultural tracts in marginal areas, to forests can bolster carbon abatement. The United States government agencies administer some voluntary, incentive-based programs to encourage landowners to adopt production practices with positive environmental outcomes. This policy stream can be used to increase transition of marginal agricultural land to forests, thereby creating new carbon sinks. We analyze an eleven-county study area in the Arkansas Delta to determine feasibility for a subsidy focused on carbon abatement through afforestation. This study area is significant for two reasons ...


Surveying Eastern Hemlocks In The Northwestern Portion Of Port Sheldon Natural Area For Hemlock Woolly Adelgid, Murielle A. Garbarino 2019 Grand Valley State University

Surveying Eastern Hemlocks In The Northwestern Portion Of Port Sheldon Natural Area For Hemlock Woolly Adelgid, Murielle A. Garbarino

Honors Projects

Hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae, HWA) is an insect native to Asia that feeds on the starches of hemlock trees (Tsuga spp.). HWA is invasive to the Eastern United States and can kill Eastern hemlock trees (Tsuga canadensis). Eastern hemlock is the only hemlock species native to Michigan. As of 2019, the invasion of HWA in Michigan is concentrated in the western portion of the lower peninsula. Monitoring is important to determine the extent of HWA within the state and to establish infested areas in need of treatment. This purpose of this project was to do a 100 percent survey ...


Phenotypic Study Of Anthracnose Resistance In Black Walnut And Building A Mapping Population, Sadie D. Land 2019 Missouri State University

Phenotypic Study Of Anthracnose Resistance In Black Walnut And Building A Mapping Population, Sadie D. Land

MSU Graduate Theses

Black walnut anthracnose, caused by Gnomonia leptostyla, is the most widespread and destructive disease affecting black walnut trees (Juglans nigra). Breeding cultivars for a higher resistance to anthracnose is a natural and efficient strategy for improving the health and production quality of black walnut trees. The two goals of this study were to reveal that the ‘Sparrow’ cultivar of black walnut contains a significantly higher resistance to anthracnose than the ‘Football’ cultivar when separated from environmental factors, and to expand the ‘Football’ × ‘Sparrow’ F1 mapping population to evaluate how the trait of resistance is inherited in the progeny. A phenotypic ...


Paving The Way: A Plan For Tackling Urban Forestry Challenges And Gaining Public Support, Lauren Nicole Dupéy, Megan Dettenmaier, Michael R. Kuhns, Darren McAvoy, Mark W. Brunson 2019 Utah State University

Paving The Way: A Plan For Tackling Urban Forestry Challenges And Gaining Public Support, Lauren Nicole Dupéy, Megan Dettenmaier, Michael R. Kuhns, Darren Mcavoy, Mark W. Brunson

Extension Research

The benefits of urban trees are well known; however, tree roots often damage sidewalks, requiring root cutting, tree removal, and sidewalk replacement. We used alternative materials that allowed for tree retention and sidewalk replacement at two sites in northern Utah. From these projects, we developed a plan to help Extension professionals build support for novel urban forestry techniques and tools by forming collaborative partnerships, conducting public and professional outreach, and evaluating public opinions through the use of drop-off/pick-up surveys. Our project highlights the importance of having a proactive outreach plan when conducting Extension programming that involves new practices and ...


Observable Persistent Effects Of Habitat Management Efforts In The Ozark Highlands After 10 Years, Maxwell Carnes-Mason 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Observable Persistent Effects Of Habitat Management Efforts In The Ozark Highlands After 10 Years, Maxwell Carnes-Mason

Theses and Dissertations

I investigated the lasting impacts of a management plan designed to improve oak regeneration and benefit wildlife in the Ozark Highlands in Madison, Co., AR. To assess the efficacy of the management plan, I used variables relevant to the success and establishment of oak trees. Controlled burns and selective logging were used to thin the canopy, increase ground level productivity, and increase the abundance of small mammals. I used measurements of overstory and understory densities, light availability, and the density of mice in the genus Peromyscus across time to look at the lasting impacts of management. Different treatment plots were ...


Out Of The Ashes: Ecological Resilience To Extreme Wildfire, Prescribed Burns, And Indigenous Burning In Ecosystems, Christina Eisenberg, Christopher Anderson, Adam Collingwood, Robert Sissons, Christopher Dunn, Curtis Edson, et al. 2019 Oregon State University

Out Of The Ashes: Ecological Resilience To Extreme Wildfire, Prescribed Burns, And Indigenous Burning In Ecosystems, Christina Eisenberg, Christopher Anderson, Adam Collingwood, Robert Sissons, Christopher Dunn, Curtis Edson, Et Al.

Michigan Tech Publications

Until Euro-American colonization, Indigenous people used fire to modify eco-cultural systems, developing robust Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK). Since 1980, wildfire activity has increased due to fire suppression and climate change. In 2017, in Waterton Lakes National Park, AB, the Kenow wildfire burned 19,303 ha, exhibiting extreme fire behavior. It affected forests and the Eskerine Complex, a native-grass prairie treated with prescribed burns since 2006 to reduce aspen (Populus tremuloides) encroachment linked to fire suppression and bison (Bison bison bison) extirpation. One year post-fire, the Kenow wildfire caused vigorous aspen sprouting, altered stand structure to an early-seral state and changed ...


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