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Efficacy Of Forest Restoration Treatments Across A 40-Year Chronosequence At Redwood National Park, Kevin Soland 2020 Humboldt State University

Efficacy Of Forest Restoration Treatments Across A 40-Year Chronosequence At Redwood National Park, Kevin Soland

HSU theses and projects

Following 20th century logging, much of the natural coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) range consists of dense second-growth stands with slow tree growth and low biodiversity. There is a landscape-scale effort in much of coastal northern California to increase tree growth rates and ecosystem biodiversity via thinning treatments, thereby hopefully accelerating the development of old-growth forest characteristics. Redwood National Park (RNP) has been experimenting with thinning in these forest types since the 1970s. Given the interesting history of logging and restoration in RNP and the future plans for widespread thinning in this region, my thesis examined the effects of land ...


Multiple Criteria Decision-Making Approach To Support Timber Transportation Planning – Case Study In Brazil, Marinna Lopes Ferreira Gomes 2020 Humboldt State University

Multiple Criteria Decision-Making Approach To Support Timber Transportation Planning – Case Study In Brazil, Marinna Lopes Ferreira Gomes

HSU theses and projects

Timber transportation is one of the costliest activities for a forest company in Brazil and in many other countries, and it is a determining factor for the success of the forest enterprise. Thus, decision support tools are commonly used as methods to reduce these costs. The purpose of this study was to develop and analyze mathematical models to define the weekly timber transport schedule based on the monthly demands of the customers. The goal is to minimize the operational costs of forest transportation related to distances, timber freshness and road qualities. The decision process was made in two steps; the ...


Smokejumper Magazine, January 2020, National Smokejumper Association 2020 Eastern Washington University

Smokejumper Magazine, January 2020, National Smokejumper Association

Smokejumper and Static Line Magazines

This issue of the National Smokejumper Association (NSA) Smokejumper Magazine contains the following articles: Save a Billion $$ A Year--The New Fire Triangle; Guest Opinion: Defensible Space, A Catch-22; No Available Resources--It's Time to Review Biscuit Fire; On the Road to a National Wildfire Agency, Part 1; Odds and Ends; Oregon Wildfire Response; Smoke from Wildland Fires: Impacts to Public Health; Hey-Anyone Awake Out There?; If It Could Go Wrong, It Did; Blast from the Past; Some Observations on Firefighting in the 21st Century-Let's Not Nitpick Assumptions Here; Sounding Off from the Editor; Hawaii's Medical-Aid-In-Dying Law Eases Former ...


Effects Of Shelterwood And Patch Cut Harvests On A Post White-Nose Syndrome Bat Community In The Cumberland Plateau In Eastern Kentucky, Phillip Lee Arant 2020 University of Kentucky

Effects Of Shelterwood And Patch Cut Harvests On A Post White-Nose Syndrome Bat Community In The Cumberland Plateau In Eastern Kentucky, Phillip Lee Arant

Theses and Dissertations--Forestry and Natural Resources

The impact of shelterwood and patch cuts harvests on bat communities was tested at three sites in Eastern Kentucky. Shelterwood harvests had 50% of the basal area and understory removed to create a uniform spacing of residual trees. Patch cuts had 1-hectare circular openings created to remove 50% of the basal area creating an aggregated spacing of residual trees. Acoustic detectors were deployed to assess activity levels pre-harvest. Sites were then sampled from 1 – 2 years post-harvest to determine differences. Pre-harvest data revealed little acoustic activity for the Myotis spp. at two sites. The remaining site had high activity of ...


Effects Of Western Spruce Budworm Herbivory On Forest Soils And Litter Decomposition In Central Washington, Izak R. Neziri 2020 Central Washington University

Effects Of Western Spruce Budworm Herbivory On Forest Soils And Litter Decomposition In Central Washington, Izak R. Neziri

All Master's Theses

Disturbances by herbivores can drive nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems by adding frass, carcasses, and molts to the forest floor which are broken down into nitrogen, phosphorous, and other elements to be recycled into biomass. Western spruce budworms are defoliators native to the central Cascades and their herbivory could increase the decomposition rate of forest materials by adding essential nutrients and/or by increasing light and rainfall penetration to the forest floor by thinning the forest canopy during outbreaks. Budworm defoliation events are expected to increase in severity as the climate warms, potentially altering forest ecosystem function. The purpose of ...


Hydrochorous Seed Dispersal In Riparian Forests Altered By Urbanization, Christa von Behren, J. Alan Yeakley 2020 Portland State University

Hydrochorous Seed Dispersal In Riparian Forests Altered By Urbanization, Christa Von Behren, J. Alan Yeakley

Environmental Science and Management Faculty Publications and Presentations

While riparian habitat alterations from urban stream syndrome are known to affect vegetation establishment and survival, the degree to which riparian seed delivery by hydrochory is affected by urbanization is unclear. We hypothesized that (1) there would be a reduction in the overall number of seeds deposited by streams as watershed urbanization increased; and (2) in the most urbanized watersheds, seeds deposited by water would be predominantly from species with traits favoring dispersal in general, including tall stature and high seed production, and favoring deposition by water in particular, including large seed size and the presence of a dispersal appendage ...


Senescent Trees Stabilize Aboveground Wood Net Primary Production Immediately After Disturbance, Maxim S. Grigri 2020 Virginia Commonwealth University

Senescent Trees Stabilize Aboveground Wood Net Primary Production Immediately After Disturbance, Maxim S. Grigri

Theses and Dissertations

In the United States, forests sequester 17% of national carbon (C) emissions annually (UGCRP, 2018), however shifting forest disturbances threaten the stability of this essential C sink. Unlike the high severity, stand-replacing disturbances that were widespread a century ago, today’s eastern temperate forests experience frequent low-to-moderate severity disturbances from invasive pests and pathogens with mixed effects on net primary production (NPP). Carbon cycling stability after disturbance has been reported, however, the mechanisms underlying immediate NPP stability or decline are not well understood. Through weekly measurements of production in a landscape scale experiment, we show that the sustained growth of ...


Interspecific Gene Flow Potentiates Adaptive Evolution In A Hybrid Zone Formed Between Pinus Strobiformis And Pinus Flexilis, Mitra Menon 2020 Virginia Commonwealth University

Interspecific Gene Flow Potentiates Adaptive Evolution In A Hybrid Zone Formed Between Pinus Strobiformis And Pinus Flexilis, Mitra Menon

Theses and Dissertations

Species range margins are often characterised by high degrees of habitat fragmentation resulting in low genetic diversity and higher gene flow from populations at the core of the species range. Interspecific gene flow from a closely related species with abutting range margins can increase standing genetic diversity and generate novel allelic combinations thereby alleviating limits to adaptive evolution in range margin populations. Hybridization driven interspecific gene flow has played a key role in the demographic history of several conifer due to their life history characteristics such as weak crossability barriers and long generation times. Nevertheless, demonstrating whether introgression is adaptive ...


Pando Clone Recovery: Repeat Photos 2014-2019, Mary O'Brien, Marc Coles-Ritchie 2020 Utah State University

Pando Clone Recovery: Repeat Photos 2014-2019, Mary O'Brien, Marc Coles-Ritchie

Aspen Bibliography

The world's largest known clone of aspen (Populus tremuloides), called the "Pando Clone" is located in the Fishlake National Forest in central Utah. For many decades, significant pressure from ungulate (deer and cattle) browsing has prevented growth of young aspen stems in to trees that would replace the mature trees as they die of natural causes. There has been concern that this impressive 104-acre Pando Clone could be lost altogether due to the excessive browsing of young aspen stems. In 2013, 16 acres of this clone were fenced to exclude all ungulates (deer and cattle) so that recovery of ...


Protecting Biodiversity On National Forests: The Evolution And Implementation Of Forest Planning Regulations, Anna Wearn 2020 University of Montana, Missoula

Protecting Biodiversity On National Forests: The Evolution And Implementation Of Forest Planning Regulations, Anna Wearn

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

In 2012, the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) promulgated new forest planning regulations that significantly altered national forest management. One of the most controversial and important advancements was the inclusion of what were meant to be stronger biodiversity protections. An analysis of USFS’s rationale in revising the biodiversity regulations provides insights into how to interpret the substantively and procedurally new ecosystem and species protections. Examining this regulatory history reveals three key changes to the manner in which national forests are required to manage and monitor biodiversity: 1) a greater reliance on science to inform planning, 2) a new emphasis ...


Organizational Influence On Knowledge Co-Production, Evora Dakota Glenn 2020 University of Montana, Missoula

Organizational Influence On Knowledge Co-Production, Evora Dakota Glenn

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary approaches are needed to effectively address the challenges facing our complex social-ecological systems. To meet this need, many approaches, including co-production, have been proposed to overcome the difficult relationship between science and governance, often termed a ‘gap’, which can continue to impede natural resource problem solving. Co-production is an iterative process that engages scientists, managers, and community members in knowledge creation and problem solving. Evidence indicates that participants are more likely to view co-produced knowledge as more salient, legitimate, and credible, and that they are more likely to use it. Evidence also indicates that this iterative and ...


Managing Forest Disturbances: Effects On Mule Deer And Plant Communities In Montana's Northern Forests, Teagan Ann Hayes 2020 University of Montana, Missoula

Managing Forest Disturbances: Effects On Mule Deer And Plant Communities In Montana's Northern Forests, Teagan Ann Hayes

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) are frequently the focus of population and habitat management in the western United States. Land and wildlife managers use disturbance to reset forests to earlier successional stages and improve the quality and quantity of forage available to mule deer. However, the effects of management practices on nutrition and selection vary widely, so the implementation of management practices raises ecological as well as management-related concerns. This work investigated how disturbance from wildfire, prescribed fire, and timber harvest influences the spatial and temporal distribution of nutritional resources in mule deer summer range, and therefore, how the nutritional landscape ...


Remote Sensing Approaches To Predict Forest Characteristics In Northwest Montana, Ryan P. Rock 2020 University of Montana

Remote Sensing Approaches To Predict Forest Characteristics In Northwest Montana, Ryan P. Rock

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Remote sensing can be utilized by land management organizations to save money and time. Mapping vegetation using either aerial photographs or satellite imagery and the applications for forest management are of particular interest to the Montana Department of Natural Resources. In 2018, the organization began a pilot program to test the incorporation of raster analysis of remotely sensed data into their inventory program and had limited success. This analysis identified two areas of improvement: the selection method of inventory plots and the imagery used for classification and metrics. This study found that selecting inventory plots using a generalized random tessellation ...


Stable Aggregate Dynamics And Carbon Storage In Acidified Forest Soils: Influence Of Atmospheric Deposition And Conifer Conversion At The Fernow Experimental Forest, J E. Kemner 2020 West Virginia University

Stable Aggregate Dynamics And Carbon Storage In Acidified Forest Soils: Influence Of Atmospheric Deposition And Conifer Conversion At The Fernow Experimental Forest, J E. Kemner

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

This research explored effects of ecosystem change from increased atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition and stand conversion from mixed-species hardwood to Norway spruce in three experimental watersheds at the Fernow Experimental Forest (FEF). I measured soil aggregation and organic matter (OM) content to investigate the influence of forest fertilization in Watershed 3 (WS3), a hardwood forest receiving (NH4)2SO4 fertilizer, versus Watershed 7 (WS7), a natural hardwood forest. I compared WS7 to Watershed 6 (WS6), a converted Norway spruce (Picea abies) monoculture. I quantified WS6 and WS7 C and N ecosystem pools, including vegetation biomass, forest floor, and ...


Reconstructing Past Forest Composition And Abundance By Using Archived Landsat And National Forest Inventory Data, Bina Thapa, Peter T. Wolter, Brian R. Sturtevant, Philip A. Townsend 2020 Iowa State University

Reconstructing Past Forest Composition And Abundance By Using Archived Landsat And National Forest Inventory Data, Bina Thapa, Peter T. Wolter, Brian R. Sturtevant, Philip A. Townsend

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Effective modelling of forest susceptibility to defoliating insect outbreaks requires a better understanding of outbreak dynamics, which includes detailed knowledge of the pre- and post-outbreak forest status as well as subsequent feedback mechanisms. In this paper, we strive to fill the forest status need by combining archived Landsat sensor data (pre- and post-outbreak) with different formats and dates of the U.S. Forest Service’s Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data (periodic [1970s, 1990s] and annual [2003–2006]). Specifically, we explore the utility of these FIA ground data for calibrating models of forest species and type abundance for mapping past ...


Resource Selection And Calving Success Of Moose In Colorado, Forest P. Hayes 2020 University of Montana, Missoula

Resource Selection And Calving Success Of Moose In Colorado, Forest P. Hayes

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Across much of North America, moose populations (Alces alces) are declining due to disease, predation, climate, and anthropogenic pressures. Despite this, populations of moose in Colorado have continued to grow. Studying successful (i.e., persistent or growing) populations of moose can facilitate the continued conservation of the species by identifying habitat features critical for moose persistence.

First, I evaluated calving success of moose in Colorado and the impact of willow habitat quality and nutrition. I then estimated the probability of female moose having a calf using repeated observations in a Bayesian occupancy model. I assigned values for dry matter digestibility ...


Nutrient Cycling-Tree Species Relationships In Appalachian Forests, Philip Michael Crim 2020 West Virginia University

Nutrient Cycling-Tree Species Relationships In Appalachian Forests, Philip Michael Crim

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Since the colonization of North America by Europeans, ecosystems in Appalachia and across the continent have been in a prolonged state of flux. Areas particularly rich in natural resources, such as Appalachia, have historically borne the brunt of these swift changes, often with devastating consequences. Downwind of much of the power generation facilities of the Ohio Valley, Appalachian forests have been geographically predisposed to high rates of acidic deposition, a circumstance mitigated by the passage of Clean Air Legislation beginning in the 1970s. Nevertheless, decades of elevated nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) inputs had a profound impact on the ecology ...


Modeling The Effects Of Global Change On Ecosystem Processes In A Tropical Rainforest, Ann E. Russell, William J. Parton Jr. 2020 Iowa State University

Modeling The Effects Of Global Change On Ecosystem Processes In A Tropical Rainforest, Ann E. Russell, William J. Parton Jr.

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Research Highlights: Ongoing land-use change and climate change in wet tropical forests can potentially drive shifts in tree species composition, representing a change in individual species within a functional group, tropical evergreen trees. The impacts on the global carbon cycle are potentially large, but unclear. We explored the differential effects of species within this functional group, in comparison with the effects of climate change, using the Century model as a research tool. Simulating effects of individual tree species on biome-level biogeochemical cycles constituted a novel application for Century. Background and Objectives: A unique, long-term, replicated field experiment containing five evergreen ...


Lithological Constraints On Resource Economies Shape The Mycorrhizal Composition Of A Bornean Rain Forest, Monique Weemstra, Kabir G. Peay, Stuart J. Davies, Mohizah Mohamad, Akira Itoh, Sylvester Tan, Sabrina E. Russo 2020 CNRS – Université de Montpellier – Université Paul-Valéry, Montpellier

Lithological Constraints On Resource Economies Shape The Mycorrhizal Composition Of A Bornean Rain Forest, Monique Weemstra, Kabir G. Peay, Stuart J. Davies, Mohizah Mohamad, Akira Itoh, Sylvester Tan, Sabrina E. Russo

Faculty Publications in the Biological Sciences

• Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) produce contrasting plant–soil feedbacks, but how these feedbacks are constrained by lithology is poorly understood.

• We investigated the hypothesis that lithological drivers of soil fertility filter plant resource economic strategies in ways that influence the relative fitness of trees with AMF or EMF symbioses in a Bornean rain forest containing species with both mycorrhizal strategies.

• Using forest inventory data on 1245 tree species, we found that although AMF-hosting trees had greater relative dominance on all soil types, with declining lithological soil fertility EMF-hosting trees became more dominant. Data on 13 leaf ...


Severe Thunderstorms Create Windfall Of Opportunity For Ecosystem-Based Management Of Mixed Northern Hardwoods, Elizabeth Montgomery Barnes 2020 Michigan Technological University

Severe Thunderstorms Create Windfall Of Opportunity For Ecosystem-Based Management Of Mixed Northern Hardwoods, Elizabeth Montgomery Barnes

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

The regeneration and reorganization of organisms and their habitat post-disturbance is a primary mechanism by which ecosystems maintain functionality in a changing environment. This adaptation to disturbance lends dynamism and resiliency to landscapes. Yet, the 20th century was marked by an alarming loss of global biodiversity, pointing to the likelihood that the rate of ecological disturbance generated by human systems today is either too frequent or too intense to be beneficial to ecosystems, and rather poses a risk to ecosystem functionality and the carrying capacity of Earth systems. Compounding these risks is high uncertainty regarding the potential for stronger ...


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