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The Effect Of Pruning Treatments On The Vibration Properties And Wind-Induced Bending Moments Of Senegal Mahogany (Khaya Senegalensis) And Rain Tree (Samanea Saman) In Singapore, Daniel Burcham 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

The Effect Of Pruning Treatments On The Vibration Properties And Wind-Induced Bending Moments Of Senegal Mahogany (Khaya Senegalensis) And Rain Tree (Samanea Saman) In Singapore, Daniel Burcham

Doctoral Dissertations

During pruning, arborists often intend to increase a tree’s resistance to wind loading by selectively removing branches, but there are few studies examining the efficacy of these interventions, especially for large, open-grown trees. In this study, the mass and vibration properties of Senegal mahogany (Khaya senegalensis) and rain tree (Samanea saman) were measured before and after the crowns of trees were incrementally raised or reduced between 0 and 80%. In addition, the wind-induced vibration and bending moments of Senegal mahoganies were monitored before and after the same pruning treatments. For both species, total mass and leaf mass both decreased ...


Maine's Climate Future: 2020 Update, Ivan J. Fernandez, Sean Birkel, Julia Simonson, Bradford Lyon, Andrew Pershing, Esperanza Stancioff, George L. Jacobson, Paul Andrew Mayewski Dr. 2020 University of Maine - Main

Maine's Climate Future: 2020 Update, Ivan J. Fernandez, Sean Birkel, Julia Simonson, Bradford Lyon, Andrew Pershing, Esperanza Stancioff, George L. Jacobson, Paul Andrew Mayewski Dr.

Climate Change Institute Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Forest Grouse In The Fall, Chuck Carpenter III, Skyler Farnsworth, David K. Dahlgren 2020 Utah State University

Forest Grouse In The Fall, Chuck Carpenter Iii, Skyler Farnsworth, David K. Dahlgren

All Current Publications

This bulletin describes the two types of forest grouse that inhabit mountain forests and rangelands in Utah, the ruffed grouse and the dusky grouse. It tells the species differences such as breeding, survival and reproduction, and broods. It includes tips for forest grouse hunters.


Taking It To The Road: Utah Biochar Workshops Increase Knowledge And Lead To Behavior Change, Megan Dettenmaier, Lauren Dupey, Darren McAvoy 2020 Utah State University

Taking It To The Road: Utah Biochar Workshops Increase Knowledge And Lead To Behavior Change, Megan Dettenmaier, Lauren Dupey, Darren Mcavoy

All Current Publications

This fact sheet describes attitude and behavior changes that have resulted from attending the statewide biochar workshop program. By administering surveys 6 to 8 months following workshops, authors learned that attendees were making biochar and biochar kilns, and that attitudes about biochar remained positive.


Regional Forest Volume Estimation By Expanding Lidar Samples Using Multi-Sensor Satellite Data, Bo Xie, Chunxiang Cao, Min Xu, Barjeece Bashir, Ramesh P. Singh, Zhibin Huang, Xiaojuan Lin 2020 Chinese Academy of Sciences

Regional Forest Volume Estimation By Expanding Lidar Samples Using Multi-Sensor Satellite Data, Bo Xie, Chunxiang Cao, Min Xu, Barjeece Bashir, Ramesh P. Singh, Zhibin Huang, Xiaojuan Lin

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Accurate information regarding forest volume plays an important role in estimating afforestation, timber harvesting, and forest ecological services. Traditionally, operations on forest growing stock volume using field measurements are labor-intensive and time-consuming. Recently, remote sensing technology has emerged as a time-cost efficient method for forest inventory. In the present study, we have adopted three procedures, including samples expanding, feature selection, and results generation and evaluation. Extrapolating the samples from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) scanning is the most important step in satisfying the requirement of sample size for nonparametric methods operation and result in accuracy improvement. Besides, mean decrease Gini ...


Contrasting Root System Structure And Belowground Interactions Between Black Spruce (Picea Mariana (Mill.) B.S.P) And Trembling Aspen (Populus Tremuloides Michx) In Boreal Mixedwoods Of Eastern Canada, Claudele Ghotsa Mekontchou, Daniel Houle, Yves Bergeron, Igor Drobyshev 2020 Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue

Contrasting Root System Structure And Belowground Interactions Between Black Spruce (Picea Mariana (Mill.) B.S.P) And Trembling Aspen (Populus Tremuloides Michx) In Boreal Mixedwoods Of Eastern Canada, Claudele Ghotsa Mekontchou, Daniel Houle, Yves Bergeron, Igor Drobyshev

Aspen Bibliography

This study explored the underground interactions between black spruce and trembling aspen in pure and mixed stands to understand how their soil resource use help these species coexist in the boreal mixedwoods of Western Quebec. We analyzed species-specific fine root foraging strategies (root biomass and root tissue density) along three soil layers (organic, top 0–15 cm, and bottom 15–30 cm mineral soil), using 180 soil cores. We collected cores in three sites, each containing three 20 × 50 m2 plots of pure spruce, pure aspen, and mixed spruce and aspen stands. Spruce had a shallow rooting, whereas aspen had ...


Genetic Variation Of Introduced Red Oak (Quercus Rubra) Stands In Germany Compared To North American Populations, Tim Pettenkofer, Reiner Finkeldey, Markus Müller, Konstantin V. Krutovsky, Barbara Vornam, Ludger Leinemann, Oliver Gailing 2020 University of Göttingen

Genetic Variation Of Introduced Red Oak (Quercus Rubra) Stands In Germany Compared To North American Populations, Tim Pettenkofer, Reiner Finkeldey, Markus Müller, Konstantin V. Krutovsky, Barbara Vornam, Ludger Leinemann, Oliver Gailing

Michigan Tech Publications

Although Northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) is the most important introduced deciduous tree species in Germany, only little is known about its genetic variation. For the frst time, we describe patterns of neutral and potentially adaptive nuclear genetic variation in Northern red oak stands across Germany. For this purpose, 792 trees were genotyped including 611 trees from 12 stands in Germany of unknown origin and 181 trees from four populations within the natural distribution area in North America. Our marker set included 12 potentially adaptive (expressed sequence tag-derived simple sequence repeat=EST SSR) and 8 putatively selectively neutral nuclear ...


What Is An Endangered Species?: Judgments About Acceptable Risk, Thomas Offer-Westort, Adam Feltz, Jeremy T. Bruskotter, John A. Vucetich 2020 Michigan Technological University

What Is An Endangered Species?: Judgments About Acceptable Risk, Thomas Offer-Westort, Adam Feltz, Jeremy T. Bruskotter, John A. Vucetich

Michigan Tech Publications

Judgments about acceptable risk in the context of policy may be influenced by law makers, policy makers, experts and the general public. While significant effort has been made to understand public attitudes on acceptable risk of environmental pollution, little is known about such attitudes in the context of species' endangerment. We present survey results on these attitudes in the context of United States' legal-political apparatus intended to mitigate species endangerment. The results suggest that the general public exhibit lower tolerance for risk than policy makers and experts. Results also suggest that attitudes about acceptable risk for species endangerment are importantly ...


Remote Sensing Monitoring Of Vegetation Dynamic Changes After Fire In The Greater Hinggan Mountain Area: The Algorithm And Application For Eliminating Phenological Impacts, Zhibin Huang, Chunxiang Cao, Wei Chen, Min Xu, Yongfeng Dang, Ramesh P. Singh, Barjeece Bashir, Bo Xie, Xiaojuan Lin 2020 Chinese Academy of Sciences

Remote Sensing Monitoring Of Vegetation Dynamic Changes After Fire In The Greater Hinggan Mountain Area: The Algorithm And Application For Eliminating Phenological Impacts, Zhibin Huang, Chunxiang Cao, Wei Chen, Min Xu, Yongfeng Dang, Ramesh P. Singh, Barjeece Bashir, Bo Xie, Xiaojuan Lin

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Fires are frequent in boreal forests affecting forest areas. The detection of forest disturbances and the monitoring of forest restoration are critical for forest management. Vegetation phenology information in remote sensing images may interfere with the monitoring of vegetation restoration, but little research has been done on this issue. Remote sensing and the geographic information system (GIS) have emerged as important tools in providing valuable information about vegetation phenology. Based on the MODIS and Landsat time-series images acquired from 2000 to 2018, this study uses the spatio-temporal data fusion method to construct reflectance images of vegetation with a relatively consistent ...


Using Unmanned Aerial Systems (Drones) With A Thermal Sensor To Map And Count Deer Population, Maxwell C. Ott 2020 The University of Akron

Using Unmanned Aerial Systems (Drones) With A Thermal Sensor To Map And Count Deer Population, Maxwell C. Ott

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The number of deer in an area is an important statistic for land managers to know, as overabundance has many negative effects. There are many methods that have been used to count deer in the past, such as using manned helicopters and airplanes, walking on foot, and conducting controlled hunts. UAS (unmanned aerial systems) is a growing field that provides many benefits over traditional methods of counting deer, such as lower cost and missions being less time consuming. Using a thermal sensor attached to a UAS makes it simple to spot any deer during a flight. Two main methods of ...


Effect Of Fire Suppression On Aquatic Invertebrates In Ephemeral Wetlands Embedded In Longleaf Pine Forests, Hailey E. Baker 2020 Georgia Southern University

Effect Of Fire Suppression On Aquatic Invertebrates In Ephemeral Wetlands Embedded In Longleaf Pine Forests, Hailey E. Baker

University Honors Program Theses

It has been established for many years that longleaf pine forests require the ecological disturbance of fire in order to maintain a balanced ecosystem. However, a crucial part of these forests has become nearly excluded from prescribed burning. Ephemeral wetlands embedded within longleaf pine forests are a unique and dynamic seasonal habitat that provide homes, refuge, and breeding grounds for a large array of taxa. Past research suggests that fire suppression around ephemeral wetlands is causing harm to many species of amphibians and other herpetofauna, especially threatened species like the flatwoods salamander. However, other species have not been as well ...


Covers, 2020 Occidental College

Covers

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

No abstract provided.


A Preliminary Checklist Of Lichens From Kamiak Butte County Park, Washington State, Emma Sell, Amanda Chandler 2020 Eastern Washington University

A Preliminary Checklist Of Lichens From Kamiak Butte County Park, Washington State, Emma Sell, Amanda Chandler

2020 Symposium Posters

The semiarid Palouse ecoregion of North America was once dominated by temperate prairies and connects areas of southeast Washington, north-central Idaho, and northeast Oregon. Transformation of nearly all habitats comprising this ecosystem into agricultural lands has drastically reduced extant native grasslands to small, highly fragmented pieces. These land conversion practices, coupled with the subsequent takeover of invasive plant species, have placed the Palouse ecoregion among the most critically endangered ecosystems in the United States, with < 1% of land remaining that is suitable to host native species. The enormous loss of biodiversity across the Palouse has prompted a need for further study regarding a wide variety of organisms. In particular, lichen diversity of the Palouse ecoregion has never been formally characterized, and there are overall very few detailed studies of lichens throughout eastern Washington. To improve knowledge of Palouse lichen diversity, we first reviewed collection data from historical herbarium specimens via the Consortium of North American Lichen Herbaria (CNALH) database. We then collected lichen voucher specimens from Kamiak Butte County Park (KBCP), one of the largest contiguous natural areas within the Palouse ecoregion as its relatively steep, rocky slopes make it ill-suited for agricultural conversion. KBCP consists of 298 acres of mixed Pinus ponderosa (ponderosa pine) and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas fir) forest and native grassland that rises above the surrounding farmland, as well as an east-west ridgeline ...


Protecting The Wui In California: Greenbelts Vs Thinning For Wildfire Threats To Homes, Jon E. Keeley 2020 U.S. Geological Survey

Protecting The Wui In California: Greenbelts Vs Thinning For Wildfire Threats To Homes, Jon E. Keeley

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

This study utilized native chaparral and sage scrub shrubs to evaluate the impact of light summer irrigation on live fuel moisture content (LFMC) and predicted fire behavior. As to be expected LFMC varied markedly throughout the year being over 100% in winter in all species and treatments but differed markedly by treatment in the summer and fall. For most species lightly irrigated plants had the highest LFMC in the summer and fall, followed by thinned treatments and controls. These differences in moisture content coupled with structural differences in the vegetation contributed to expected differences in flame length and rate of ...


Emerald Ash Borer Development Across A Latitudinal Gradient: Implications For Biocontrol, Sarah Pellecchia 2020 University of Kentucky

Emerald Ash Borer Development Across A Latitudinal Gradient: Implications For Biocontrol, Sarah Pellecchia

Theses and Dissertations--Entomology

Emerald ash borer, EAB, (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is an invasive beetle that kills ash trees. It was accidentally introduced from China, and has rapidly expanded across North America, now occupying much of the eastern US. Four classical biocontrol parasitoids have been released to help mitigate its spread and impact: Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang, Spathius agrili Yang, S. galinae Belokobylskij and Strazanac, and Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang. These parasitoids have been deployed throughout EAB’s invaded range, but there has been limited recovery of the parasitoids from their release sites in southern states. I evaluated whether this lack of establishment might ...


The Role Of Fire And A Fire-Free Interval In The Restoration Of Upland Oak Communities On The Cumberland Plateau, Kentucky, Jordan Winkenbach 2020 University of Kentucky

The Role Of Fire And A Fire-Free Interval In The Restoration Of Upland Oak Communities On The Cumberland Plateau, Kentucky, Jordan Winkenbach

Theses and Dissertations--Forestry and Natural Resources

The decline of upland oak (Quercus spp.) communities in our eastern forests has been attributed to the loss of periodic disturbance after decades of fire suppression. As land managers have begun to reintroduce fire, effects on oak regeneration and species composition have varied widely, making it apparent that our understanding of how fire can aid in oak forest management needs refinement. Restoring upland oak communities requires decreasing stand density and opening of the canopy to release shade-intolerant oaks in the understory. This necessitates an extended fire-free interval to allow these oaks to be recruited into larger size classes and develop ...


Assessing The Climate Water Balance Model’S Ability To Predict Soil Moisture Variability And Species Distribution Of A Forested Watershed In The Northern Cumberland Plateau, Katherine J. Love 2020 University of Kentucky

Assessing The Climate Water Balance Model’S Ability To Predict Soil Moisture Variability And Species Distribution Of A Forested Watershed In The Northern Cumberland Plateau, Katherine J. Love

Theses and Dissertations--Forestry and Natural Resources

Spatial patterns of moisture and tree species have been studied using environmental gradients, often represented by terrain attributes in GIS. With climate change, GIS terrain variables, which are static as long as the elevation remains unchanged, will not reflect alterations in temperature, water cycle, and atmospheric conditions. In this thesis, the commonly used terrain variables and climate water balance variables were evaluated and compared for their ability to explain soil moisture and tree species distributions in a forested watershed in the Northern Cumberland Plateau. The results suggest that GIS terrain variables generally perform better than climate water balance variables, however ...


Activity Level-Predation Risk Tradeoff In A Tadpole Guild: Implications For Community Organization Along The Hydroperiod Gradient, Nicholas C. Schiwitz, Christopher M. Schalk, Daniel Saenz 2020 Stephen F Austin State University

Activity Level-Predation Risk Tradeoff In A Tadpole Guild: Implications For Community Organization Along The Hydroperiod Gradient, Nicholas C. Schiwitz, Christopher M. Schalk, Daniel Saenz

Faculty Publications

Increasing activity levels permit greater food intake for use towards growth and reproduction, consequently increasing predation risk via increased detection. Larval anurans are models to examine activity level-predation risk tradeoffs, as they occupy a variety of lentic habitats that impose constraints on the distribution and abundance of species. Ephemeral ponds have a low abundance and diversity of predators and as a result tadpole species tend to have high foraging rates for rapid development. Permanent ponds generally possess a greater diversity and abundance of predators and tadpoles inhabiting these locations tend to have low activity rates or chemical defenses to minimize ...


Effects Of Thinning Regimes On Genetic Variation Of White Oak (Quercus Alba L.) In Upland Oak Forests Of Eastern Kentucky, Rachel Gayle Thunder 2020 University of Kentucky

Effects Of Thinning Regimes On Genetic Variation Of White Oak (Quercus Alba L.) In Upland Oak Forests Of Eastern Kentucky, Rachel Gayle Thunder

Theses and Dissertations--Forestry and Natural Resources

This research assesses the effects of silvicultural thinnings, varying in residual basal area and number of thinnings, on genetic diversity and relatedness of white oak (Quercus alba L.). The objectives were to (1) develop microsatellite DNA markers (simple sequence repeats, SSRs) for assessing the genetic diversity of white oak and (2) determine if thinnings significantly change the degree of diversity and relatedness in white oak stands. For objective 1, 84 primer pairs from previously predicted genomic SSRs of white oak were evaluated for consistent PCR amplification and polymorphism. Twenty of the 84 primer pairs amplified consistently and were confirmed to ...


Leaf Angle And Leaf Stomata Responses To Experimental Drought In Quercus Velutina And Acer Saccharum, Brittany Nichole Casey 2020 West Virginia University

Leaf Angle And Leaf Stomata Responses To Experimental Drought In Quercus Velutina And Acer Saccharum, Brittany Nichole Casey

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

The possibility of increased severity and frequency of drought conditions, as a result of global climate variability, greatly complicates our ability to forecast future forest functions such as productivity and carbon sequestration. Assessing how tree species vary in their response to drought can aid in predicting the impact on forest ecosystems as a whole. Throughfall exclusion (TfE) experiments are potentially useful tools to simulate realistic drought conditions within intact forest ecosystems. We employed a TfE experiment during the 2018 growing season within the WV Land Trust’s Elizabeth’s Woods Nature Preserve, near Morgantown, WV, to assess the leaf angle ...


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