Regional Assemblages Of Lygus (Heteroptera: Miridae) In Montana Canola Fields, 2010 United States Department of Agriculture
Regional Assemblages Of Lygus (Heteroptera: Miridae) In Montana Canola Fields, Andrew W. Lenssen, R. A. Ritter, Sue L. Blodgett, M. L. Taper
Andrew W. Lenssen
Sweep net sampling of canola (Brassica napus L.) was conducted in 2002 and 2003 to determine Lygus (Heteroptera: Miridae) species composition and parasitism levels in four regions of Montana. Regardless of region or seasonal change, Lygus elisus (Van Duzee) was the dominant species in all canola fields sampled, averaging 60–99% of the total adult populations. Lygus borealis (Kelton), Lygus keltoni (Schwartz) and Lygus lineolaris (Palisot) were detected at much lower levels. Total lygus population density was greatest in the southwest and central regions. The northeast and southwest regions had the greatest lygus species diversity. The proportion of L. elisus ...
Genetic Variation For Susceptibility To Storm-Induced Stem Breakage In Solidago Altissima: The Role Of Stem Height And Morphology, M. Wise, W. Abrahamson
Warren G. Abrahamson, II
While storms can have obvious ecological impacts on plants, plants’ potential to respond evolutionarily to selection for increased resistance to storm damage has received little study. We took advantage of a thunderstorm with strong wind and hail to examine genetic variation for resistance to stem breakage in the herbaceous perennial Solidago altissima. The storm broke the apex of nearly 10% of 1883 marked ramets in a common-garden plot containing 26 genets of S. altissima. Plant genets varied 20-fold in resistance to breakage. Stem height was strongly correlated with resistance to breakage, with taller stems being signiﬁcantly more susceptible. A stem ...
Differential Consumption Of Four Aphid Species By Four Lady Beetle Species, 2009 School of Biology and Ecology
Differential Consumption Of Four Aphid Species By Four Lady Beetle Species, Christy Finlayson, Andrei Alyokhin, Serena Gross, Erin Porter
The acceptability of four different aphid species Macrosiphum albifrons (Essig), Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), Macrosiphum pseudorosae Patch, and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), as prey for four lady beetle species, one native species Coccinella trifasciata L, and three non-native Coccinella septempunctata L, Harmonia axyridis Pallas, Propylea quatuordecimpunctata L (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were tested in the laboratory. The relative field abundance of adults of the same lady beetle species on host vegetation, Lupinus polyphyllus Lindley (Fabales: Fabaceae), Solanum tuberosum L (Solanales: Solanaceae), and Rosa multiflora Thunberg (Rosales: Rosaceae), both with and without aphids present was also observed. In the laboratory, H. axyridis generally ...
Recovery Of Sasajiscymnus Tsugae, Released Against Hemlock Woolly Adelgid, Adelges Tsugae, In The Southern Appalachians, 2009 University of Tennessee - Knoxville
Recovery Of Sasajiscymnus Tsugae, Released Against Hemlock Woolly Adelgid, Adelges Tsugae, In The Southern Appalachians, Abdul Hakeem
Eastern hemlock in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park is currently threatened by the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae). As part of a management plan against this invasive insect pest, about 350,000 adults of the predatory beetle Sasajiscymnus tsugae (Sasaji and McClure) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were released at ca. 150 sites in the Park from 2002 to 2007. Of these adult release sites, 33 were sampled in 2008 and 2009 using beatsheet sampling for 4 man-hours. Sasajiscymnus tsugae adults (n=78) and/or larvae (n=145) were recovered from seven sites (21.2% of the release sites ...
Spatiotemporal Variation Of Fruit Digestible-Nutrient Production In Florida's Uplands, J. Layne, W. Abrahamson
Warren G. Abrahamson, II
We examined annual total digestible nutrient (TDN) production by fruits of eight species (Quercus chapmanii, Q. geminata, Q. inopina, Q. laevis, Q. myrtifolia, Carya floridana, Sabal etonia, Serenoa repens) that account for the major proportion of TDN production by fruits and seeds in Florida’s xeric upland associations (southern ridge sandhill, sand pine scrub, scrubby flatwoods). Mean annual fruit TDN of all species combined over a 27-year span in sandhill and scrub and 24 years in scrubby flatwoods was highest (45.4 kg/ha) in sandhill, intermediate in scrubby flatwoods (28.8 kg/ha), and lowest in scrub (14.2 ...
Dispersal Of Stable Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) From Larval Developmental Sites., 2009 University of Minnesota - Twin Cities
Dispersal Of Stable Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) From Larval Developmental Sites., David B. Taylor, Roger D. Moon, John B. Campbell, Dennis R. Berkebile, Philip J. Scholl, Alberto B. Broce, Jerome A. Hogsette
David B. Taylor
Seven mark-recapture studies were conducted over 3 yr to assess dispersal of newly emerging adult stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans L., from larval development sites in a mixed agricultural environment in northeastern Nebraska. Infested hay debris piles were marked by dusting their surfaces with fluorescent pigments, adults were captured with surrounding grids of Alsynite sticky traps, and specimens were dissected to determine feeding histories and reproductive age. Distances and directions of 3,889 marked specimens indicated males and females dispersed equally and in all directions. Midguts of males and females were equally likely to contain blood-meal remnants. Percentage with blood remnants ...
Ducking As The Means Of Resistance In "Candy-Cane" Stems Of Goldenrod: Straightened Stems Lose Their Edge, M. J. Wise, W. G. Abrahamson, J. A. Cole
Warren G. Abrahamson, II
Herbivores are among the most pervasive selective forces acting on plants, and the number of plant chemicals that presumably evolved for defense against herbivory is immense. In contrast, biologists are only beginning to appreciate the important roles that architectural traits can play in antiherbivore defense. One putative architectural-resistance trait is the nodding stem apex of some goldenrods (Solidago ; Asteraceae). Individuals of S. altissima genets that undergo temporary nodding in the late spring (i.e., “candy-cane ramets) have been shown to be more resistant than individuals of erect-stemmed genets to certain apex-attacking” herbivores. We tested the hypothesis that the greater resistance ...
Nutrition As A Facilitator Of Host-Race Formation: The Role Of Food Quality In The Shift Of A Stem-Boring Beetle To A Gall Host, C. P. Blair, R. V. Schlanger, S. E. Diamond, W. G. Abrahamson
Warren G. Abrahamson, II
1. The importance of host-race formation to herbivorous insect diversity depends on the likelihood that successful populations can be established on a new plant host. A previously unexplored ecological aid to success on a novel host is better nutritional quality. The role of nutrition was examined in the shift of the stem-boring beetle Mordellistena convicta to ﬂy-induced galls on goldenrod and the establishment there of a genetically distinct gall host race. 2. First, larvae of the host race inhabiting stems of Solidago gigantea were transplanted into stems and galls of greenhouse-grown S. gigantea plants. At the end of larval development ...
Physiological Status Of Male And Female Popillia Japonica (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Affects Mating And Grouping Behavior, 2009 Eastern Illinois University
Physiological Status Of Male And Female Popillia Japonica (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Affects Mating And Grouping Behavior, Natasha Tigreros, Rashmi Jadhav, Katelyn A. Kowles, Britto P. Nathan, Paul Switzer
Paul V. Switzer
Because mating may be costly, sexually active males or females are predicted to be in relatively good physiological condition and may preferentially direct their mating behavior toward relatively high-quality mates. We tested this hypothesis in Japanese beetles (Popillia japonica Newman), a pest species in which males and females may be either isolated or in aggregations while feeding on host plants. We examined male size and lipid content and female size and egg load with respect to both their pairing status and whether they were isolated or in aggregations. Males that were paired had the highest lipid levels, and single, isolated ...
Polyphyly Of The Pikeminnows (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) Inferred Using Mitochondrial Dna Sequences, 2009 Utah Valley University
Polyphyly Of The Pikeminnows (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) Inferred Using Mitochondrial Dna Sequences, T. Heath Ogden
T. Heath Ogden
The phylogenetic relationships of the Colorado pikeminnow Ptychocheilus lucius, northern pikeminnow P. oregonensis, Sacramento pikeminnow P. grandis, Umpqua pikeminnow P. umpquae, and hardhead Mylopharodon conocephalus were examined by using molecular data to investigate monophyly of the genus Ptychocheilus. Phylogenies generated using DNA sequence data from the cytochrome b and 16S ribosomal DNA genes of the mitochondrial genome reveal that Ptychocheilus is a polyphyletic genus and suggest that the taxonomy of the group is in need of further revision. These data yield insights into the evolution of the pikeminnows and help place the significant evolutionary events in context with the geological ...