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Conceptualizing Ecological Responses To Dam Removal: If You Remove It, What’S To Come?, J. Ryan Bellmore, G. R. Press, Jeffrey J. Duda, Jim E. O'Connor, Amy E. East, Melissa M. Foley, Andrew C. Wilcox, Jon J. Major, Patrick Shafroth, Sarah A. Morley, Christopher S. Magirl, Chauncey W. Anderson, James E. Evans, Laura Shawn Craig 2019 Bowling Green State University - Main Campus

Conceptualizing Ecological Responses To Dam Removal: If You Remove It, What’S To Come?, J. Ryan Bellmore, G. R. Press, Jeffrey J. Duda, Jim E. O'Connor, Amy E. East, Melissa M. Foley, Andrew C. Wilcox, Jon J. Major, Patrick Shafroth, Sarah A. Morley, Christopher S. Magirl, Chauncey W. Anderson, James E. Evans, Laura Shawn Craig

Earth, Environment, and Society Faculty Publications

One of the desired outcomes of dam decommissioning and removal is the recovery of aquatic and riparian ecosystems. To investigate this common objective, we synthesized information from empirical studies and ecological theory into conceptual models that depict key physical and biological links driving ecological responses to removing dams. We define models for three distinct spatial domains: upstream of the former reservoir, within the reservoir, and downstream of the removed dam. Emerging from these models are response trajectories that clarify potential pathways of ecological transitions in each domain. We illustrate that the responses are controlled by multiple causal pathways and feedback ...


Phenotypic Similarity And Moral Consideration, S. Brian Hood, Sophia Giddens 2019 University of West Florida

Phenotypic Similarity And Moral Consideration, S. Brian Hood, Sophia Giddens

Animal Sentience

Identifying specific traits to justify according differential moral status to humans and non-human animals may be more challenging than Chapman & Huffman suggest. The reasons for this also go against their recommendation that we ought to attend to how humans and non-humans are similar. The problem lies in identifying the moral relevance of biological characteristics. There are, however, other reasons for treating non-human animals as worthy of moral consideration, such as the Precautionary Principle.


Our Brains Make Us Out To Be Unique In Ways We Are Not, Matthew J. Criscione, Julian Paul Keenan 2019 Montclair State University

Our Brains Make Us Out To Be Unique In Ways We Are Not, Matthew J. Criscione, Julian Paul Keenan

Animal Sentience

Humans have long viewed themselves in a favorable light. This bias is consistent with a general pattern of self-enhancement. Neural systems in the medial prefrontal cortex underlie this way of thinking, which, even when false, may be beneficial for survival. It is hence not surprising that we often disregard contrary evidence in believing ourselves superior.


Is Human Uniqueness Fake News?, Sean Hermanson 2019 Florida Int'l University

Is Human Uniqueness Fake News?, Sean Hermanson

Animal Sentience

The world and its troubles don't need unfounded denials of human uniqueness.


“I Am Not An Animal”, Lori Marino 2019 Animal Studies Repository

“I Am Not An Animal”, Lori Marino

Animal Sentience

The answer to Chapman & Huffman’s question — “Why do we want to think humans are different?” — lies in the work of Ernest Becker and the social psychology literature known as Terror Management Theory, according to which our deep anxiety about animality and death can drive our need to feel superior to the other animals.


Developmental Aspects Of Capacities, Karen Bartsch 2019 University of Wyoming

Developmental Aspects Of Capacities, Karen Bartsch

Animal Sentience

Chapman & Huffman suggest that judgments of human superiority underlie our cruelty to animals. It might be useful to examine how such judgments operate within the human community. Children arguably have a potential for developing “superior” capacities but are outperformed on many tasks by animals. There is a continuum of development in children’s capacities. Perhaps there are interspecies evolutionary continua too. This highlights the complexity of reasoning about humans, animals, and moral inclusion.


Mirror Neurons And Humanity’S Dark Side, Gisela Kaplan 2019 University of New England,Armidale,Australia

Mirror Neurons And Humanity’S Dark Side, Gisela Kaplan

Animal Sentience

The last two decades have revealed brain mechanisms in birds and primates showing that, contrary to earlier prejudices, some birds can do things (cognitive and affective) on par with or even better than great apes and humans. The old dichotomies are breaking down; but the dark side is that these insights come at a time in the Anthropocene when humans have caused and continue to cause mass extinctions.


Humans May Be Unique And Superior — And That Is Irrelevant, Eze Paez 2019 University of Minho

Humans May Be Unique And Superior — And That Is Irrelevant, Eze Paez

Animal Sentience

Chapman & Huffman argue that, because humans are neither unique nor superior to the other animals, cruelty to animals is not justified. Though I agree with their conclusion, I do not think their argument works. Many human beings do have some capacities that animals do not have and are greater in some respects, in the sense of having superior abilities. It is a better argument to deny that any of that is morally relevant. Sentience suffices for moral consideration, and for deriving a moral duty not to harm other animals and to assist them when they are in need.


Phooey On Comparisons, Gwen J. Broude 2019 Vassar College

Phooey On Comparisons, Gwen J. Broude

Animal Sentience

Chapman & Huffman reject the notion that human beings are very different from other animals. The goal is to undermine the claim that human uniqueness and even superiority are reason enough to treat other animals badly. But evaluating human uniqueness for this purpose only plays into the hands of those who exploit invidious comparisons between us and other animals to justify mistreatment of the rest of the animal kingdom. What human uniqueness we may discover would still be no justification for how we behave toward other animals. We should also ask ourselves whether any human-centric criterion can be justification for determining ...


Additional Information On A Nonnative Whiptail Population (Aspidoscelis Flagellicauda/Sonorae Complex) In Suburban Orange County, California, Richard A. Erickson, Weston G. Burt 2019 San Diego Natural History Museum

Additional Information On A Nonnative Whiptail Population (Aspidoscelis Flagellicauda/Sonorae Complex) In Suburban Orange County, California, Richard A. Erickson, Weston G. Burt

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

A nonnative population of all-female spotted whiptails from the Asidoscelis flagellicauda/sonorae complex was reported from suburban Irvine, Orange County in 2015 and 2016. We report additional suburban observations dating back to 2010 from Laguna Woods and extending the range south ~6 km southwest to Aliso Viejo. We hope that this and other exotic reptile species will remain restricted to highly altered urban environments and not threaten native species in natural habitats.


Home Range, Habitat Use And Thermal Ecology Of The Florida Box Turtle (Terrapene Bauri) On An Anthropogenic Island In Southwestern Florida, Christina Demetrio 2019 Antioch University of New England

Home Range, Habitat Use And Thermal Ecology Of The Florida Box Turtle (Terrapene Bauri) On An Anthropogenic Island In Southwestern Florida, Christina Demetrio

Dissertations & Theses

Limited information is available on the ecology of Terrapene bauri (Florida Box Turtle) in mangrove ecosystems. Radio-telemetry and iButton data loggers were used to study the home range, habitat use, and thermal ecology of ten Florida Box Turtles on an anthropogenic island in the mangrove-dominated region of southwestern Florida. The effects of weather variables on movement and activity were also examined. Home range analysis using Minimum Convex Polygons (MCP) and Kernel Density Estimates (KDE) determined an average home range size of 0.81 ha (MCP) and 2.32 ha (95% KDE). Box Turtles moved an average distance of 6.3 ...


Landscapes, Water Quality And Aquatic Assemblages, Nels H. Troelstrup Jr. 2019 South Dakota State University

Landscapes, Water Quality And Aquatic Assemblages, Nels H. Troelstrup Jr.

Oak Lake Field Station 30th Anniversary Retreat Presentations

No abstract provided.


Oak Lake Wetland Restoration: Difference In Hydrology Between Newly Restored And Reference Wetlands, Jennifer A. Dailey, Nels H. Troelstrup Jr. 2019 South Dakota State University

Oak Lake Wetland Restoration: Difference In Hydrology Between Newly Restored And Reference Wetlands, Jennifer A. Dailey, Nels H. Troelstrup Jr.

Oak Lake Field Station 30th Anniversary Retreat Presentations

No abstract provided.


Inferring Food Web Structure To Identify Seasonal And Longitudinal Patterns In Ogeechee River Invertebrate Communities, Julien Marc Buchbinder 2019 Georgia Southern University

Inferring Food Web Structure To Identify Seasonal And Longitudinal Patterns In Ogeechee River Invertebrate Communities, Julien Marc Buchbinder

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Understanding how the structure and function of aquatic communities vary across space and time is essential for proper management of freshwater ecosystems. Current management relies on rapid biomonitoring using metrics of community structure, but metrics that incorporate ecosystem processes and functions are only just beginning to see use in assessment and management. Food webs inferred from known species interactions have been proposed as a method of incorporating function into bioassessment without expending extra effort or sacrificing the cost-effectiveness of current monitoring schemes. To apply food webs in biomonitoring, it is first necessary to understand how communities and food webs vary ...


Ecological And Societal Services Of Aquatic Diptera, Peter H. Adler, Gregory W. Courtney 2019 Clemson University

Ecological And Societal Services Of Aquatic Diptera, Peter H. Adler, Gregory W. Courtney

Entomology Publications

More than any other group of macro-organisms, true flies (Diptera) dominate the freshwater environment. Nearly one-third of all flies—roughly 46,000 species—have some developmental connection with an aquatic environment. Their abundance, ubiquity, and diversity of adaptations to the aquatic environment position them as major drivers of ecosystem processes and as sources of products and bioinspiration for the benefit of human society. Larval flies are well represented as ecosystem engineers and keystone species that alter the abiotic and biotic environments through activities such as burrowing, grazing, suspension feeding, and predation. The enormous populations sometimes achieved by aquatic flies can ...


Diurnal Habitat Selection Of Migrating Whooping Crane In The Great Plains, David M. Baasch, Patrick D. Farrell, Aaron T. Pearse, David A. Brandt, Andrew J. Caven, Mary J. Harner, Greg D. Wright, Kristine L. Metzger 2019 Executive Director's Office for the Platte River Recovery Implementation Program

Diurnal Habitat Selection Of Migrating Whooping Crane In The Great Plains, David M. Baasch, Patrick D. Farrell, Aaron T. Pearse, David A. Brandt, Andrew J. Caven, Mary J. Harner, Greg D. Wright, Kristine L. Metzger

USGS Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

Available stopover habitats with quality foraging opportunities are essential for migrating waterbirds, including Whooping Crane (Grus americana). Several studies have evaluated habitats used by Whooping Crane for roosting throughout its migration corridor; however, habitats associated with foraging and other diurnal activities have received less attention. We used data collected from 42 Whooping Crane individuals that included 2169 diurnal use locations within 395 stopover sites evaluated during spring 2013 to fall 2015 to assess diurnal habitat selection throughout the U.S. portion of the migration corridor. We found that Whooping Crane selected wetland land-cover types (i.e., open water, riverine, and ...


Revisiting The Historic Distribution And Habitats Of The Whooping Crane, Jane E. Austin, Matthew A. Hayes, Jeb A. Barzen 2019 Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

Revisiting The Historic Distribution And Habitats Of The Whooping Crane, Jane E. Austin, Matthew A. Hayes, Jeb A. Barzen

USGS Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

Understanding the historic range and habitats of an endangered species can assist in conservation and reintroduction efforts for that species. Individuals reintroduced into a species’ historic core range have a higher survival rate compared to individuals introduced near the periphery or outside the historic range (Falk and Olwell, 1992; Griffith et al., 1989). Individuals on the periphery of a species’ range tend to occupy less favorable habitats and have lower and more variable densities than those near the core of their range (Brown, 1984; Brown et al., 1995, 1996). Such conclusions, however, presume that historic habitats have not changed since ...


U.S. Geological Survey- Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center 2017 Research Activity Report, Mark H. Sherfy 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

U.S. Geological Survey- Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center 2017 Research Activity Report, Mark H. Sherfy

USGS Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

Contents

Acknowledgments...............................................................................iii

Center Mission and Science Strategy...............................................................1

Lines of Work..................................................................................2

Study Narratives.................................................................................16


Mortality In Aransas-Wood Buffalo Whooping Cranes: Timing, Location, And Causes, Aaron T. Pearse, David A. Brandt, Barry K. Hartup, Mark T. Bidwell 2019 Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

Mortality In Aransas-Wood Buffalo Whooping Cranes: Timing, Location, And Causes, Aaron T. Pearse, David A. Brandt, Barry K. Hartup, Mark T. Bidwell

USGS Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

The Aransas-Wood Buffalo Population (AWBP) of Whooping Cranes (Grus americana) has experienced a population growth rate of approximately 4% for multiple decades (Butler et al., 2014a; Miller et al., 1974). Population growth for long-lived species of birds is generally highly sensitive to variation in adult mortality rates (Sæther and Bakke, 2000). A population model for endangered Red-crowned Cranes (Grus japonensis) in Japan conforms to this pattern, where growth rate is most sensitive to adult mortality (Masatomi et al., 2007). Earlier analyses observed that the AWBP growth rate increased in the mid-1950s and that this increase was likely caused by reduced ...


More Evidence Of Complex Cognition In Nonhuman Species, Lesley J. Rogers 2019 University of New England

More Evidence Of Complex Cognition In Nonhuman Species, Lesley J. Rogers

Animal Sentience

Chapman & Huffman have highlighted observations of animals performing, in nature, complex behaviour once thought to be unique to humans. Just as relevant to their argument are examples of cognition shown by domesticated species tested in controlled conditions. These strengthen the case for human/nonhuman similarities in behaviour and cognition. Recent research has brought to our attention the ability of nonhuman species to perform many tasks previously considered to be the hallmark of humans. Even though different species may use different ways of solving these tasks, the very fact that they can do it undermines the notion of human superiority.


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