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Development Of The Whooping Crane Tracking Project Geographic Information System, MARTHA TACHA, ANDY BISHOP, JUSTIN BREI 2010 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

Development Of The Whooping Crane Tracking Project Geographic Information System, Martha Tacha, Andy Bishop, Justin Brei

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

The highest losses in the Aransas-Wood Buffalo whooping crane population occur during migration. Conservation and recovery of the endangered whooping crane requires understanding of migration patterns to identify important stopover areas and potential sources of mortality or disturbance. We converted the Cooperative Whooping Crane Tracking Project database, containing more than 3 decades of data on whooping crane sightings, to a geographic information system (GIS) to allow coarse scale spatial analyses of whooping crane migration patterns in the United States portion of the Central Flyway. At this writing, the geodatabase contains point data for 1,981 confirmed whooping crane sightings through ...


Changes In Winter Whooping Crane Territories And Range 1950-2006, THOMAS V. STEHN, FELIPE PRIETO 2010 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

Changes In Winter Whooping Crane Territories And Range 1950-2006, Thomas V. Stehn, Felipe Prieto

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

The whooping crane (Grus americana) winters on the Texas coast primarily in salt marsh habitat. The location of adult whooping crane winter territories during 9 winters between 1950 and 2006 was derived from aerial census data digitized onto infrared photos using GIS software. Range expansion, including changes in distribution and size of winter territories, was analyzed over a 57-year period as flock size increased by 765%. Crane pairs have opted to establish territories in or close to the traditional winter area rather than moving long distances along the coast. This distribution seems based on the preference of the male crane ...


Reproductive Health And Performance Of The Florida Flock Of Introduced Whooping Cranes, MARILYN G. SPALDING, MARTIN J. FOLK, STEPHEN A. NESBITT, RICHARD KILTIE 2010 University of Florida

Reproductive Health And Performance Of The Florida Flock Of Introduced Whooping Cranes, Marilyn G. Spalding, Martin J. Folk, Stephen A. Nesbitt, Richard Kiltie

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

We retrospectively examined the reproductive parameters of 122 breeding-age whooping cranes (Grus americana) in a reintroduced flock in central Florida from 1992 to 2007. The flock performed poorly when compared with an existing wild flock for all reproductive parameters when controlled for age. Pairs first formed in 1995, nested in 1999, and the first chick fledged in 2002. By 2007, 19 of 63 clutches produced 25 chicks, 9 of which fledged. Drought conditions were ruled out as the sole cause of failure when the drought lessened and productivity increased, but not in all years. We examined adult health, mortality, gonad ...


Winter Distribution Of Greater Sandhill Cranes Marked At Breeding Areas In California, Oregon, And Washington, GARY L. IVEY, JOSEPH D. ENGLER, MARTIN J. ST. LOUIS, MARK A. STERN, SEAN CROSS 2010 International Crane Foundation

Winter Distribution Of Greater Sandhill Cranes Marked At Breeding Areas In California, Oregon, And Washington, Gary L. Ivey, Joseph D. Engler, Martin J. St. Louis, Mark A. Stern, Sean Cross

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

Large numbers of greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) have been banded and color-marked at several important breeding sites in the western U.S. since the late 1960s. Crane color-marking began in the late 1960s at Malheur National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in eastern Oregon. Crane marking programs were initiated at Sycan Marsh, Summer Lake Wildlife Area (both in south-central Oregon), as well as at Modoc NWR in the mid-1980s. In the mid-1990s, a marking program was initiated at Conboy Lake NWR in south-central Washington. This paper reviews winter records and distribution of marked birds from these sites within the Central ...


Whooping Crane Migrational Habitat Use Of The Platte River, Nebraska, 2001-2006, SHAY HOWLIN, CLAYTON DERBY, DALE STRICKLAND 2010 Western EcoSystems Technology, Inc.

Whooping Crane Migrational Habitat Use Of The Platte River, Nebraska, 2001-2006, Shay Howlin, Clayton Derby, Dale Strickland

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

The Platte River Endangered Species Partnership monitored whooping crane (Grus americana) habitat use along the Platte River between Chapman and Lexington, Nebraska during 11 migration seasons from 2001 to 2006. Daily aerial surveys took place in the morning from 21 March to 29 April in the spring and from 9 October to 10 November in the fall. Decoy detection trials were conducted during each of the 11 survey seasons to calculate actual sample inclusion probabilities for crane groups detected during monitoring flights. The detectability model found significant differences in detectability among strata (upland or channel), contractor, and altitude of the ...


Mississippi Sandhill Crane Conservation Update 2006-2008, SCOTT G. HEREFORD, LAUREN E. BILLODEAUX 2010 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge

Mississippi Sandhill Crane Conservation Update 2006-2008, Scott G. Hereford, Lauren E. Billodeaux

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

The Mississippi sandhill crane (MSC, Grus canadensis pulla) is an endangered non-migratory subspecies found in the wild only on and near the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge (MSCNWR) in Jackson County in southeastern Mississippi (Gee and Hereford 1995). The MSC is adapted to the wet pine savannas and open pinelands of the Southeastern Outer Gulf Coastal Plain. By the 1970s, their numbers had decreased to 30-40 individuals including only 5-6 nesting pairs. The firemaintained savannas, once a dominant feature of the landscape, were converted to pine plantations and human development or had degraded to overgrown pine scrub. The MSCNWR ...


Home Range Size And Habitat Use Of Mississippi Sandhill Crane Colts, SCOTT G. HEREFORD, TRACY E. GRAZIA, JEREME N. PHILLIPS, GLENN H. OLSEN 2010 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge

Home Range Size And Habitat Use Of Mississippi Sandhill Crane Colts, Scott G. Hereford, Tracy E. Grazia, Jereme N. Phillips, Glenn H. Olsen

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

Recruitment in the endangered Mississippi sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pulla) is minimal, with the population of 110 sustained by an annual augmentation of captive-reared juveniles. Suitability of available habitat quality is likely involved in nesting success. Thousands of hectares of pine savanna were restored for crane use, but it is not clear how much was being used by crane families. We used 3-g subcutaneous transmitters to radio-tag 27 colts over 6 years from 1998 to 2002 and 2004 to determine home range and habitat use. Using a hand-held receiver, H-antenna and standard triangulation, location data were collected twice daily along ...


The Role Of Retrieval And Translocation In A Reintroduced Population Of Migratory Whooping Cranes, SARA E. ZIMORSKI, RICHARD P. URBANEK 2010 International Crane Foundation

The Role Of Retrieval And Translocation In A Reintroduced Population Of Migratory Whooping Cranes, Sara E. Zimorski, Richard P. Urbanek

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

Beginning in 2001, a reintroduction project was initiated using captive-reared whooping cranes (Grus americana) to establish a migratory flock in eastern North America. From May 2003 to August 2008, 23 of these birds were retrieved and translocated in 15 separate events. These individuals consisted of 14 cranes that had been led to Florida by ultralight aircraft on their first autumn migration (UL) and 9 cranes that had been directly released in autumn in Wisconsin (DAR). Of 104 (86 UL and 18 DAR) reintroduced individuals that eventually departed from their release location, 22% were later retrieved 1-3 times. Lake Michigan posed ...


The Direct Autumn Release Of Whooping Cranes Into The Eastern Migratory Population: A Summary Of The First Three Years, MARIANNE M. WELLINGTON, RICHARD P. URBANEK 2010 International Crane Foundation

The Direct Autumn Release Of Whooping Cranes Into The Eastern Migratory Population: A Summary Of The First Three Years, Marianne M. Wellington, Richard P. Urbanek

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

This paper describes methods used in an experimental direct autumn release of captive produced whooping cranes (Grus americana) into a reintroduced migratory population in eastern North America. Eighteen chicks (4 in 2005, 4 in 2006, and 10 in 2007) were eventually released in the vicinity of adult whooping cranes or wild sandhill cranes (G. canadensis). Chicks were reared by costumed aviculturists using strict isolation-rearing techniques at the International Crane Foundation (ICF) and then transferred to Necedah National Wildlife Refuge in central Wisconsin. Initially, 23 chicks were transferred from ICF to Necedah at ages of 17-46 days. Isolation-rearing techniques continued in ...


Population Status And Geographic Distribution Of Greater Sandhill Cranes In The Mid-Continent Population, Gary L. Krapu, David A. Brandt 2010 U.S. Geological Survey, Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

Population Status And Geographic Distribution Of Greater Sandhill Cranes In The Mid-Continent Population, Gary L. Krapu, David A. Brandt

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

Number and geographic distribution of greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) in the mid-continent population (MCP) of sandhill cranes were evaluated. G. c. tabida comprised 7 of 133 (5.3%) individuals of 3 subspecies which projects to 31,579 ± 11,661 (SE) individuals in an estimated spring MCP of 600,000 cranes. From a platform transmitting terminal (PTT)-marked sample representative of the geographic distribution of G. c. tabida, 10 of 13 (77%) settled during the breeding season in east-central Canada/Minnesota, including 4 in northwestern Minnesota, 4 in Manitoba (2 at sites near the Minnesota border), and 2 in ...


Retention, Movement, And The Biotic Response To Large Woody Debris In The Channelized Missouri River, Michael W. Archer 2010 University of Nebraska at Lincoln

Retention, Movement, And The Biotic Response To Large Woody Debris In The Channelized Missouri River, Michael W. Archer

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Large woody debris (LWD) is an important component of a healthy aquatic ecosystem. However, little is known about the dynamics of LWD in a large, channelized river such as the Missouri River. My objectives were to first, assess the abundance of LWD found along the channelized portion of the Missouri River. Second, I documented movement of LWD that entered the river. Lastly, using PRIMER software I analyzed what effect, if any, river segments, bend types, and LWD had on the community composition of the macroinvertebrate and fish that inhabit the river. Abundance of LWD was greater along bends that have ...


Muellerius Capillaris Dominates The Lungworm Community Of Bighorn Sheep At The National Bison Range, Montana, Vanessa O. Ezenwa, Alicia M. Hines, Elizabeth A. Archie, Eric P. Hoberg, Ingrid M. Asmundsson, John T. Hogg 2010 University of Montana - Missoula

Muellerius Capillaris Dominates The Lungworm Community Of Bighorn Sheep At The National Bison Range, Montana, Vanessa O. Ezenwa, Alicia M. Hines, Elizabeth A. Archie, Eric P. Hoberg, Ingrid M. Asmundsson, John T. Hogg

Faculty Publications from the Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology

Lungworm infections are common among bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in North America, and the predominant species reported are Protostrongylus stilesi and P. rushi. The only records of another lungworm species, Muellerius capillaris, infecting bighorns come from South Dakota, USA. At the National Bison Range (NBR), Montana, USA we found that across six sampling periods, 100% of wild bighorn sheep surveyed were passing first-stage dorsal-spined larvae (DSL) which appeared to be consistent with M. capillaris. By contrast, only 39%or fewer sheep were passing Protostrongylus larvae. Using molecular techniques, we positively identified the DSL from the NBR bighorns as M. capillaris ...


Carbon Dynamics In A Phragmites Australis Invaded Riparian Wetland, Steven Walters 2010 UNL

Carbon Dynamics In A Phragmites Australis Invaded Riparian Wetland, Steven Walters

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Invasive plant species are widely recognized as a major threat to biodiversity and ecosystem stability. Wetland ecosystems tend to be much more susceptible to invasions because of their location on the landscape where water, nutrients, and the impacts of disturbances accumulate. Invasive plants have the ability to alter ecosystem processes and community/population dynamics. The ability of invasive plants to alter these processes can have profound economic consequences. In the United States, control of invasive wetland species alone costs approximately 155 million dollars annually. The state of Nebraska spends 2 million dollars annually controlling invasive plant species in the Platte ...


Migration Of Northern Yellowstone Elk: Implications Of Spatial Structuring, P. J. White, Kelly M. Proffitt, L. David Mech, Shaney B. Evans, Julie A. Cunningham, Kenneth L. Hamlin 2010 National Park Service

Migration Of Northern Yellowstone Elk: Implications Of Spatial Structuring, P. J. White, Kelly M. Proffitt, L. David Mech, Shaney B. Evans, Julie A. Cunningham, Kenneth L. Hamlin

USGS Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

Migration can enhance survival and recruitment of mammals by increasing access to higher-quality forage or reducing predation risk, or both. We used telemetry locations collected from 140 adult female elk during 2000– 2003 and 2007–2008 to identify factors influencing the migration of northern Yellowstone elk. Elk wintered in 2 semidistinct herd segments and migrated 10–140 km to at least 12 summer areas in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) and nearby areas of Montana. Spring migrations were delayed after winters with increased snow pack, with earlier migration in years with earlier vegetation green-up. Elk wintering at lower elevations outside YNP ...


What Is The Taxonomic Identity Of Minnesota Wolves?, L. David Mech 2010 USGS Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

What Is The Taxonomic Identity Of Minnesota Wolves?, L. David Mech

USGS Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

The taxonomic identity of the historical and current wolf (Canis lupus L., 1758 or Canis lycaon Schreber, 1775 or their hybrids) population in Minnesota (MN) and the Great Lakes region has been, and continues to be, controversial. So too does its legal status under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. This review summarizes the morphological and genetic information about that population and concludes that historically the MN population consisted of a gray wolf (C. lupus) in the west and an eastern type (Canis lupus lycaon or C. lycaon) in the east with intergrades or hybrids between the two in most ...


Proportion Of Calves And Adult Muskoxen, Ovibos Moschatus Killed By Gray Wolves, Canis Lupus, In July On Ellesmere Island, L. David Mech 2010 USGS Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

Proportion Of Calves And Adult Muskoxen, Ovibos Moschatus Killed By Gray Wolves, Canis Lupus, In July On Ellesmere Island, L. David Mech

USGS Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

Generally Gray Wolves (Canis lupus L., 1758) tend to focus predation on young-of-the-year ungulates during summer, and I hypothesized that wolves preying on Muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus Zimmerman, 1780) in summer would follow that trend. Over 23 July periods observing wolves on Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada, I found that packs of 2-12 adult wolves killed seven calves, one yearling, and five adult muskoxen at distances of 2.9 to 32 km from their current dens and pups. Given a possible bias against finding calves because of their fewer remains, these results do not necessarily refute the hypothesis, but they do make ...


Prolonged Intensive Dominance Behavior Between Gray Wolves, Canis Lupus, L. David Mech, H. Dean Cluff 2010 USGS Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

Prolonged Intensive Dominance Behavior Between Gray Wolves, Canis Lupus, L. David Mech, H. Dean Cluff

USGS Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

Dominance is one of the most pervasive and important behaviors among wolves in a pack, yet its significance in free-ranging packs has been little studied. Insights into a behavior can often be gained by examining unusual examples of it. In the High Arctic near Eureka, Nunavut, Canada, we videotaped and described an unusually prolonged and intensive behavioral bout between an adult male Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) and a male member of his pack, thought to be a maturing son.With tail raised, the adult approached a male pack mate about 50 m from us and pinned and straddled this packmate ...


Pedigree Analyses Of The Mississippi Sandhill Crane, JESSICA R. HENKEL 2010 University of New Orleans

Pedigree Analyses Of The Mississippi Sandhill Crane, Jessica R. Henkel

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

The genetic status of the critically endangered Mississippi sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pulla) was analyzed using 2008 studbook data from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service managed captive breeding and release program. Since the captive breeding program was established in 1964, gene diversity has decreased 6%, average mean kinship is at the level of first cousin, and inbreeding coefficients have been observed as high as 0.375. These high inbreeding levels were correlated with lower survivorship, and an analysis of the mate suitability of current pairs at the release site revealed poor mate suitability indices. These factors may be ...


Video Surveillance Of Nesting Whooping Cranes, TIMOTHY A. DELLINGER, MARTIN J. FOLK 2010 Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission

Video Surveillance Of Nesting Whooping Cranes, Timothy A. Dellinger, Martin J. Folk

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

The primary objective of the whooping crane (Grus americana) recovery plan is to establish and maintain 3 selfsustaining wild populations, 1 being a non-migratory Florida population. From 1993 to 2005, we released 289 captive cranes in central Florida, with 31 surviving as of 1 June 2008. From 1995 to 2008 we monitored 68 nests of the Florida population; from those, only 32 chicks hatched and 9 fledged. It often was not apparent why nests failed, and it was not practical to conduct labor-intensive observations at nests; therefore, we collected behavioral data using 12-volt VHS video surveillance cameras at 13 nests ...


Behavior And Habitat Use Of Greater Sandhill Cranes Wintering In East Tennessee, DAVID A. ABORN 2010 University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

Behavior And Habitat Use Of Greater Sandhill Cranes Wintering In East Tennessee, David A. Aborn

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

An increase of eastern greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) stopping over and wintering at the Hiwassee Wildlife Refuge in east Tennessee has led to overcrowding at the refuge, resulting in crane use of private property. Proper management is needed to prevent the cranes from becoming a nuisance, increase the suitability of the refuge for waterfowl, and reduce the likelihood of a disease outbreak. Observations of cranes revealed that cranes spent 83% of their time foraging, alert, or preening. Sandhill cranes foraged primarily in agricultural and grassy fields, whereas mudflats and shallow water were used for preening and loafing. Cranes ...


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