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Ecology Of Estuarine Birds: Differences In Desensitization Of Year-Round And Transient Species, Sarah Thomas 2021 Coastal Carolina University

Ecology Of Estuarine Birds: Differences In Desensitization Of Year-Round And Transient Species, Sarah Thomas

Honors Theses

Huntington Beach State Park in Murrells Inlet, SC, USA is considered a “hotspot” for birds, according to the eBird database (eBird, 2020). The park is also visited by approximately 300,000 people, annually (Hobdy, 2019). The causeway at the park is an area of high human and wildlife activity. Here, the differences in desensitization, or lack thereof, of year-round and transient bird species to the stimuli of vehicles and humans were determined. Multiple surveys of the birds at Huntington Beach State Park were conducted from 22nd September, 2019 to 13th June, 2020. Desensitization was quantified by use of a range ...


Effect Of A Near-Zero Magnetic Field On Development And Flight Of Oriental Armyworm (Mythimna Separata), Meng-meng Yan, Lei Zhang, Yun-xia Cheng, Thomas W. Sappington, Wei-dong Pan, Xing-fu Jiang 2021 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences

Effect Of A Near-Zero Magnetic Field On Development And Flight Of Oriental Armyworm (Mythimna Separata), Meng-Meng Yan, Lei Zhang, Yun-Xia Cheng, Thomas W. Sappington, Wei-Dong Pan, Xing-Fu Jiang

Entomology Publications

The geomagnetic field affects all living organisms on the Earth. In this study we investigated the developmental and behavioral effects of rearing Mythimna separata in a near-zero magnetic field (<500 nT) compared to the local geomagnetic field (approximately 50 µT). The near-zero magnetic field produced by a Helmholtz coil system significantly lengthened larval and pupal development durations, increased male longevity, and reduced pupal weight, female reproduction, and the relative expression level of the vitellogenin (Vg) gene in newly emerged females. Moreover, the near-zero magnetic field had a considerable negative effect on the mating ratio of M. separata adults. In addition, the moths in the near-zero magnetic field displayed less flight activity late in the night than those in the Earth's normal geomagnetic field, indicating that the flight rhythm of M. separata may be affected by the near-zero magnetic field. Reduction in magnetic field intensity may have negative effects on the development and flight of oriental armyworm, with consequent additional effects on its migration.


Conspecific Aggression Of Invasive Crayfish, P. Clarkii, In Response To Chemical Cues, Elyse Vetter, Elise DeArment, Audrey Fontes, Gary Bucciarelli, Lee Kats 2021 Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, UCLA

Conspecific Aggression Of Invasive Crayfish, P. Clarkii, In Response To Chemical Cues, Elyse Vetter, Elise Dearment, Audrey Fontes, Gary Bucciarelli, Lee Kats

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

Red Swamp Crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, have caused vast damage to the stream ecosystem of the Santa Monica Mountains, following their invasive introduction. Through their extensive eating habits, high levels of aggression, and responsiveness to environmental stimuli, P. clarkii have a tremendous impact on the success of native species in the Santa Monica Mountains. With exposure to chemical cues, crayfish are able to perceive threats and react accordingly. To determine the extent of such chemoreception, pairs of P. clarkii were tested in the laboratory for conspecific aggression in the presence of native newt, native frog, and conspecific alarm cues. The level ...


The Effects Of Symbiote Ostracods On Invasive Crayfish Behavior, Audrey Fontes, Elyse Vetter, Gary Bucciarelli, Lee Kats 2021 Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, UCLA

The Effects Of Symbiote Ostracods On Invasive Crayfish Behavior, Audrey Fontes, Elyse Vetter, Gary Bucciarelli, Lee Kats

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

Invasive crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, are known to negatively impact the biodiversity of Santa Monica Mountain streams. Small symbiotes, ostracods, live on Procambarus clarkii in some local streams. However, their effect on the behaviour of invasive crayfish is unknown. We used an aqueous chlorobutanol solution to remove ostracods from crayfish. We paired control crayfish with those that had ostracods removed and scored aggressive interactions. Crayfish without ostracods were found to be significantly more aggressive towards crayfish with ostracods. When we compared feeding behavior, we found that crayfish without ostracods consumed food more quickly than control crayfish. We again subjected crayfish to ...


Kleptoparasitic Hawk-Dove Games, Isabella H. Evans-Riester, Chasity T. Kay, Karina L. Ortiz-Suarez, Jan Rychtář, Dewey Taylor 2021 Virginia Commonwealth University

Kleptoparasitic Hawk-Dove Games, Isabella H. Evans-Riester, Chasity T. Kay, Karina L. Ortiz-Suarez, Jan Rychtář, Dewey Taylor

Spora: A Journal of Biomathematics

The Hawk-Dove game is a classical game-theoretical model of potentially aggressive animal conflicts. In this paper, we apply game theory to a population of foraging animals that may engage in stealing food from one another. We assume that the population is composed of two types of individuals, Hawks and Doves. Hawks try to escalate encounters into aggressive contests while Doves engage in non-aggressive displays between themselves or concede to aggressive Hawks. The fitness of each type depends upon various natural parameters, such as food density, the mean handling time of a food item, as well as the mean times of ...


S Is For Sandhill: A Crane Alphabet, Paul A. Johnsgard 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

S Is For Sandhill: A Crane Alphabet, Paul A. Johnsgard

Zea E-Books

This is a book of cranes, from A to Z, written and illustrated by the world’s foremost authority on the 15 species of these wonderful and ancient birds. It is a book for all ages, and for all who love and marvel at the beauty, order, and variety of the natural world.

Cranes exhibit complex behavior, pair-bonding, and fascinating social interactions. They migrate huge distances, crossing continents, oceans, and mountains between their nesting and wintering areas. Seven of the world’s 15 crane species are listed as “vulnerable,” three as “endangered,” one as “critically endangered,” and only three as ...


Applying Ecological Theory To Amphibian Populations To Determine If Wood Frogs (Lithobates Sylvaticus) Are Ideal And Free When Selecting Breeding Habitat, Taylor M. Braunagel 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Applying Ecological Theory To Amphibian Populations To Determine If Wood Frogs (Lithobates Sylvaticus) Are Ideal And Free When Selecting Breeding Habitat, Taylor M. Braunagel

Masters Theses

Amphibian populations are declining globally due to a litany of factors including pollution, disease, climate change, and most importantly, habitat destruction. As most amphibian life histories involve their populations being recruitment limited, focusing on the mechanism behind breeding habitat selection will reveal useful cues that managers may use to increase abundance and breeding success. Though there are many theoretical models that describe the distribution of animals in response to a resource, the ideal free distribution (IFD) theory has not yet been applied to amphibian settling decisions. Through this application of the IFD, I have found that a population of wood ...


Anticipation Induces Polarized Collective Motion In Attraction Based Models, Daniel Strömbom, Alice Antia 2021 Lafayette College

Anticipation Induces Polarized Collective Motion In Attraction Based Models, Daniel Strömbom, Alice Antia

Northeast Journal of Complex Systems (NEJCS)

Moving animal groups are prime examples of natural complex systems. In most models of such systems each individual updates its heading based on the current positions and headings of its neighbors. However, recently, a number of models where the heading update instead is based on the future anticipated positions/headings of the neighbors have been published. Collectively these studies have established that including anticipation may have drastically different effects in different models. In particular, anticipation inhibits polarization in alignment-based models and in one alignment-free model, but promotes polarization in another alignment-free model. Indicating that our understanding of how anticipation affects ...


Population Fluctuation And Diurnal Time Budgeting Of White-Headed Duck (Oxyura Leucocephala) During Winter At Garaet Hadj Tahar (Skikda, North East Algerian), Merzoug Seyf Eddine, Abdi Soumia, Bara Mouslim, Houhamdi Moussa 2021 Department of Biology, Institute of Sciences and Technology, University Abdelhafid Boussouf, Mila Algeria

Population Fluctuation And Diurnal Time Budgeting Of White-Headed Duck (Oxyura Leucocephala) During Winter At Garaet Hadj Tahar (Skikda, North East Algerian), Merzoug Seyf Eddine, Abdi Soumia, Bara Mouslim, Houhamdi Moussa

Journal of Bioresource Management

This study was focused on the ecology and behavior of the White-headed Duck (Oxyura leucocephala) at Garaet Hadj Tahar (Guerbes-Sanhadja, North East of Algeria). Sampling was carried out during two wintering seasons (2017-2018 and 2018-2019). High number of this duck was recorded in 2018/19 (350 individuals). We observed two Oxyura population, the first sedentary, and the second, hosted the Garaet during the wintering season. Diurnal time budget was dominated by the comfort activities the sleeping with a rate of 39.13%. Following by swimming (37.76%), feeding (17.59%) grooming (4.58%), courtship ritual (0.56%) and flying (0 ...


Sex-Specific Variation Of Social Play In Wild Immature Tibetan Macaques, Macaca Thibetana, Tong Wang, Xi Wang, Paul A. Garber, Bing-Hua Sun, Lixing Sun, Dong-Po Xia, Jin-Hua Li 2021 Anhui University

Sex-Specific Variation Of Social Play In Wild Immature Tibetan Macaques, Macaca Thibetana, Tong Wang, Xi Wang, Paul A. Garber, Bing-Hua Sun, Lixing Sun, Dong-Po Xia, Jin-Hua Li

Biology Faculty Scholarship

Theories proposed to explain social play have centered on its function in establishing social relationships critical for adulthood, its function in developing motor skills needed to survive, and promoting cognitive development and social learning. In this study, we compared variations in social play among infant and juvenile male and female Macaca thibetana. Given that this species is characterized by female philopatry and male dispersal, we hypothesized that immature females use social play as a mechanism to develop bonds that persist through adulthood whereas immature males use play to develop social skills needed to successfully enter new groups. The results indicated ...


Effects Of Hierarchical Steepness On Grooming Patterns In Female Tibetan Macaques (Macaca Thibetana), Dong-Po Xia, Xi Wang, Paul A. garber, Bing-Hua Sun, Lori K. Sheeran, Lixing Sun, Jin-Hua Li 2021 Anhui University

Effects Of Hierarchical Steepness On Grooming Patterns In Female Tibetan Macaques (Macaca Thibetana), Dong-Po Xia, Xi Wang, Paul A. Garber, Bing-Hua Sun, Lori K. Sheeran, Lixing Sun, Jin-Hua Li

Anthropology and Museum Studies Faculty Scholarship

Hierarchical steepness, defined as status asymmetries among conspecifics living in the same group, is not only used as a main characteristic of animal social relationships, but also represents the degree of discrepancy between supply and demand within the framework of biological market theory. During September and December 2011, we studied hierarchical steepness by comparing variation in grooming patterns in two groups of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana), a primate species characterized by a linear dominance hierarchy. Using a focal sampling method, we collected behavioral data from two provisioned, free-ranging groups (YA1 and YA2) at Mt. Huangshan, China. We found that female ...


Sexual Interference Behaviors In Male Adult And Subadult Tibetan Macaques (Macaca Thibetana), Kui-Hai Pang, Amanda K. Rowe, Lori K. Sheeran, Dong-Po Xia, Lixing Sun, Jin-Hua Li 2021 Anhui University

Sexual Interference Behaviors In Male Adult And Subadult Tibetan Macaques (Macaca Thibetana), Kui-Hai Pang, Amanda K. Rowe, Lori K. Sheeran, Dong-Po Xia, Lixing Sun, Jin-Hua Li

Anthropology and Museum Studies Faculty Scholarship

Male nonhuman primate sexual interference, which includes copulation interruption and copulation harassment, has been related to reproductive success, but its significance has been challenging to test. Copulation interruption results in the termination of a copulation before ejaculation, whereas copulation harassment does not. We conducted this study using the all-occurrence behavior sampling method on sexual interference behaviors of seven adult and four subadult male Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) in mating and non-mating seasons at Mt. Huangshan, China, from August 2016 to May 2017. Our results showed that males’ individual proportion of copulation interruption and harassment was higher during the mating season ...


Monitoring For Wolves, Jeff Hansen, Cat Urbigkit 2021 USDA-APHIS-Wildlife Services Mountain View, Wyoming

Monitoring For Wolves, Jeff Hansen, Cat Urbigkit

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

Gray wolves (Canis lupus) and Mexican wolves (Canis lupus baileyi) once again roam across landscapes where they have been absent for decades (Figure 1). With wolf range expansion comes increased opportunities for conflicts when wolves harass or prey on domestic livestock or other animals. Wolves have relatively high reproductive and dispersal rates but detecting individual animals in low-density populations is difficult without a concerted monitoring effort. In fact, wolf presence in an area often is not known until there is a confirmed livestock depredation. Ranchers and wildlife damage management experts need not wait for livestock depredations to occur before wolves ...


Sociality Sculpts Similar Patterns Of Molecular Evolution In Two Independently Evolved Lineages Of Eusocial Bees, Wyatt A. Shell, Michael A. Steffen, Hannah K. Pare, Arun S. Seetharam, Andrew J. Severin, Amy L. Toth, Sandra M. Rehan 2021 York University

Sociality Sculpts Similar Patterns Of Molecular Evolution In Two Independently Evolved Lineages Of Eusocial Bees, Wyatt A. Shell, Michael A. Steffen, Hannah K. Pare, Arun S. Seetharam, Andrew J. Severin, Amy L. Toth, Sandra M. Rehan

Genome Informatics Facility Publications

While it is well known that the genome can affect social behavior, recent models posit that social lifestyles can, in turn, influence genome evolution. Here, we perform the most phylogenetically comprehensive comparative analysis of 16 bee genomes to date: incorporating two published and four new carpenter bee genomes (Apidae: Xylocopinae) for a first-ever genomic comparison with a monophyletic clade containing solitary through advanced eusocial taxa. We find that eusocial lineages have undergone more gene family expansions, feature more signatures of positive selection, and have higher counts of taxonomically restricted genes than solitary and weakly social lineages. Transcriptomic data reveal that ...


Behavioral Analysis Of The Cryptoprocta Ferox In An Ex-Situ Condition, Emilie Alfonso 2021 University of Central Florida

Behavioral Analysis Of The Cryptoprocta Ferox In An Ex-Situ Condition, Emilie Alfonso

The Pegasus Review: UCF Undergraduate Research Journal

Fossas (Cryptoprocta ferox) are the top, endemic predators of Madagascar. Their populations are dwindling and are reported as “Vulnerable” by IUCN. In an effort to combat this, zoological facilities have placed the species on a captive breeding program. This study focuses on concerns one of those zoos had about their captive C. ferox. The purpose of this study was to collect activity budgets on the C. ferox to determine if there is a change in behavior due to construction occurring around the C. ferox’s habitat, analyze behavior changes during estrus, determine any behavior changes, as well as addressing other ...


Observational Study Of Two Ex Situ North American River Otters (Lontra Canadensis), Julia Rifenberg 2021 University of Central Florida

Observational Study Of Two Ex Situ North American River Otters (Lontra Canadensis), Julia Rifenberg

The Pegasus Review: UCF Undergraduate Research Journal

Zoos enable the ability to study how captive conditions impact the behaviors of animals. In this study, I observed two North American river otters housed at the Central Florida Zoo to evaluate behavioral changes after the male had been removed from the female for a month-long medical examination. The aim of this study was to 1) determine if mating behaviors were still occurring between the two river otters following the male’s removal and 2) to assess the welfare of the male and female river otters in captivity by observing their interactions and individual behaviors. Observed behaviors were compared to ...


Baboon And Vervet Monkey Crop-Foraging Behaviors On A Commercial South African Farm: Preliminary Implications For Damage Mitigation, Leah J. Findlay, Russell A. Hill 2021 Durham University

Baboon And Vervet Monkey Crop-Foraging Behaviors On A Commercial South African Farm: Preliminary Implications For Damage Mitigation, Leah J. Findlay, Russell A. Hill

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Conflict between crop farmers and wild nonhuman primates is a worldwide conservation issue of increasing concern. Most of the research on wild primate crop foraging has so far focused on the conflicts with subsistence agriculture. Crop damage caused by primate foraging in large-scale commercial agriculture is also a major facet of human–wildlife conflict. Despite its increasing severity, there are very few published accounts of on-farm wild primate crop-foraging behavior or effective techniques to deter primates from field crops on commercial farms. To address this knowledge gap and identify some mitigation strategies, we used direct observation from a hide to ...


Field Guarding As A Crop Protection Method: Preliminary Implications For Improving Field Guarding, Leah J. Findlay, Russell A. Hill 2021 Durham University

Field Guarding As A Crop Protection Method: Preliminary Implications For Improving Field Guarding, Leah J. Findlay, Russell A. Hill

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Negative interactions between crop farmers and wild primates are an issue of significant concern. Despite many crop farmers using field guards as a method of crop protection against foraging primates, there are very few published accounts of how effective this technique is and how it might be improved. To bridge this knowledge gap, we used direct observations from a hide to collect the behaviors of field guards, chacma baboons (Papio ursinus; baboons), and vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus pygerythrus; vervets) foraging in a 1-ha butternut squash (Cucurbita moschata) field for 4 months (May to August) in 2013 on a 564-ha commercial farm ...


Increased Cave Use By Butterflies And Moths: A Response To Climate Warming?, Otto Moog, Erhard Christian, Rudolf Eis 2021 University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences

Increased Cave Use By Butterflies And Moths: A Response To Climate Warming?, Otto Moog, Erhard Christian, Rudolf Eis

International Journal of Speleology

Between 2015 and 2019, the list of Lepidoptera from “cave” habitats (i.e., proper caves, rock shelters and artificial subterranean structures) in Austria grew from 17 to 62 species, although the effort of data collection remained nearly constant from the late 1970s onwards. The newly recorded moths and butterflies were resting in caves during daytime in the the warm season, three species were also overwintering there. We observed Catocala elocata at 28 cave inspections, followed by Mormo maura (18), Catocala nupta (7), Peribatodes rhomboidaria, and Euplagia quadripunctaria (6). More than half of the species have been repeatedly observed in caves ...


The Impact Of Tidal Elevation And Climate Change On The Growth And Performance Of Balanus Glandula, Sam Martin 2021 Claremont Colleges

The Impact Of Tidal Elevation And Climate Change On The Growth And Performance Of Balanus Glandula, Sam Martin

Pitzer Senior Theses

Tidal elevation affects the survival, growth, and performance of intertidal organisms because it regulates their exposure to heat, waves, food availability, and a variety of other abiotic factors. While previous research has explored the relationship between temperature and the performance of the barnacle Balanus glandula, there are unanswered questions about how tidal elevation affects B. glandula performance and growth. I compared the growth of B. glandula at three tidal elevations in Friday Harbor, Washington, and estimated the metabolic cost of emersion at each tidal elevation using a cost equation gained from thermal performance curves and average daily maximum temperatures. I ...


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