Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

10958 Full-Text Articles 17177 Authors 1375792 Downloads 224 Institutions

All Articles in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

Faceted Search

10958 full-text articles. Page 1 of 326.

Potential For Climate Induced Methane Hydrate Dissociation, Graham MacWilliams 2018 Pomona College

Potential For Climate Induced Methane Hydrate Dissociation, Graham Macwilliams

Pomona Senior Theses

Methane hydrates are frozen deposits of methane and water found in high pressure or low temperature sediments. When these deposits destabilize, large quantities of methane can be emitted into the atmosphere. This is significant to climate change because methane has 25 times more greenhouse gas potential than Carbon Dioxide. Worldwide, it is estimated there are between 2500 and 10000 gigatons of methane stored in hydrate deposits. This represents more carbon than all fossil fuels on Earth. It is estimated that between 200 and 2000 gigatons of methane are stored in hydrates in Arctic waters acutely vulnerable to greenhouse warming. Over ...


Ecology Of The Young-Of-The-Year Emerald Shiner (Notropis Atherinoides) In The Upper Niagara River, New York: Growth, Diversity, And Importance As A Forage Species, Jacob L. Cochran 2017 State University of New York College at Buffalo

Ecology Of The Young-Of-The-Year Emerald Shiner (Notropis Atherinoides) In The Upper Niagara River, New York: Growth, Diversity, And Importance As A Forage Species, Jacob L. Cochran

Great Lakes Center Masters Theses

The emerald shiner (Notropis atherinoides) is a relatively understudied Cyprinid that fills a major keystone role in the Niagara River. Little is known about the emerald shiner’s early life history, such as the ecology of their larval and juvenile stages, which is the focus of this study. In the upper Niagara River, larvae first recruited into sampling gear in early July at a mean water temperature of 23oC, with larvae appearing into August. Young-of-the-year (YOY) emerald shiners grew an average of 1.5 mm and 31.5 mg a week throughout the growing season with condition peaking ...


Bridging Post-Wildfire Communication Gaps Between Managers, Researchers, And Local Communities, Including A Biological Soil Crust Case Study, Hilary Louise Whitcomb 2017 Utah State University

Bridging Post-Wildfire Communication Gaps Between Managers, Researchers, And Local Communities, Including A Biological Soil Crust Case Study, Hilary Louise Whitcomb

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Following a wildfire, land management agencies act quickly to protect ecosystem services. We don't currently understand how post-wildfire managers make trade-off decisions in these tight timelines, or if these decisions reflect current science. Using Brunson’s (2014) social-ecological systems multi-scalar model, surveys assessed manager opinions about post-wildfire projects, perceptions of stakeholder opinions, and ability or willingness to consider new science results. Public surveys asked local citizens their opinions about post-wildfire projects. Manager perceptions were measured through semi-structured phone interviews (n = 8) and a structured online survey (n = 256). Public surveys were mailed to 1,000 (971 deliverable, n = 152 ...


Analysis Of Population Structure In A California Newt (Taricha Torosa) Metapopulation, Jessica Vincent 2017 Western Kentucky University

Analysis Of Population Structure In A California Newt (Taricha Torosa) Metapopulation, Jessica Vincent

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

As anthropogenic influences take an ever-increasing toll on the environment, understanding how environmental change affects species is paramount. Concern regarding decline in amphibian populations has spurred research examining the effects of habitat change on the dynamics of populations at landscape levels. One important goal is to understand how gene flow among populations is affected by changes in habitat. Biologists need to consider the relationship between gene flow and habitat alterations so that movements among individual breeding ponds can be maintained over time, reducing risk of local extinction events. This study focuses on patterns of gene flow among thirteen populations of ...


Lymantria Dispar Iflavirus 1 (Ldiv1), A New Model To Study Iflaviral Persistence In Lepidopterans, Jimena Carrillo-Tripp, Elizabeth N. Krueger, Robert L. Harrison, Amy L. Toth, W. Allen Miller, Bryony C. Bonning 2017 Iowa State University

Lymantria Dispar Iflavirus 1 (Ldiv1), A New Model To Study Iflaviral Persistence In Lepidopterans, Jimena Carrillo-Tripp, Elizabeth N. Krueger, Robert L. Harrison, Amy L. Toth, W. Allen Miller, Bryony C. Bonning

W. Allen Miller

The cell line IPLB-LD-652Y, derived from the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.), is routinely used to study interactions between viruses and insect hosts. Here we report the full genome sequence and biological characteristics of a small RNA virus, designated Lymantria dispar iflavirus 1 (LdIV1), that was discovered to persistently infect IPLB-LD-652Y. LdIV1 belongs to the genus Iflavirus. LdIV1 formed icosahedral particles of approx. 30 nm in diameter and contained a 10 044 nt polyadenylated, positive-sense RNA genome encoding a predicted polyprotein of 2980 aa. LdIV1 was induced by a viral suppressor of RNA silencing, suggesting that acute infection is restricted ...


Conclusive Evidence Of Replication Of A Plant Virus In Honeybees Is Lacking, W. Allen Miller, Jimena Carrillo-Tripp, Bryony C. Bonning, Adam G. Dolezal, Amy L. Toth 2017 Iowa State University

Conclusive Evidence Of Replication Of A Plant Virus In Honeybees Is Lacking, W. Allen Miller, Jimena Carrillo-Tripp, Bryony C. Bonning, Adam G. Dolezal, Amy L. Toth

W. Allen Miller

The recent article by Li et al. (1) lacks adequate evidence to support the authors’ assertion that a plant virus propagates or replicates in honeybees. Instead, it is possible that tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV) virions associate with the honeybee and parasitic Varroa mites in the absence of TRSV replication.


The Second Record Of A Relict Akrav Israchanani Levy, 2007 (Scorpiones: Akravidae) From Levana Cave, Israel, Victor Fet, Michael E. Soleglad, Sergei L. Zonstein, Israel Naaman, Shlomi Lubaton, Boaz Langford, Amos Frumkin 2017 Marshall University

The Second Record Of A Relict Akrav Israchanani Levy, 2007 (Scorpiones: Akravidae) From Levana Cave, Israel, Victor Fet, Michael E. Soleglad, Sergei L. Zonstein, Israel Naaman, Shlomi Lubaton, Boaz Langford, Amos Frumkin

Euscorpius

We report the remnants of five new scorpion specimens discovered dead in Levana Cave in Israel in December 2015. We confirm that they belong to the relict scorpion Akrav israchanani Levy, 2007 (Akravidae), famously described from the neighboring Ayyalon Cave, also from dead specimens. The details of morphology of the new specimens are given; they match completely the characters of A. israchanani redescribed by Fet, Soleglad & Zonstein (2011). This second record indicates a wider distribution of this unique cave scorpion, which, however, is extinct in both caves. There is still no evidence that live populations of this species exist.


Ethical Theories And Perspectives On End-Of-Life Decisions, Lauren Skelton 2017 Abilene Christian University

Ethical Theories And Perspectives On End-Of-Life Decisions, Lauren Skelton

Dialogue & Nexus

This paper approaches several different ethical theories to see how they interact with the issue of withdrawing and withholding life-sustaining care. After the theories of Utilitarianism, Kantian and Prima Facie Deontology, Virtue Ethics, and Evolutionary Ethics are explored at length, Deontological theories are proven to be the best decision-making guide from the perspective of both patients and those in policy-making positions. When used together, Kantian and Prima Facie Deontology offer the overall best combination of ethical instruction and personal freedom.


Ecofeminism: The Path Towards Healing The Earth, Jamie Thompson 2017 Abilene Christian University

Ecofeminism: The Path Towards Healing The Earth, Jamie Thompson

Dialogue & Nexus

The concept of the patriarchy, or any concept in which one group dominates another, is inseparable from the formation of human kind’s domination of nature. This domination of nature has led to the current the ecological crisis humanity faces. Those who deny climate change can admit to the massive amounts of pollution, trash, and deforestation. Despite this worsening economic crisis, those in power have been slow to react. Women can ultimately provide and lead the movement to solve this ecological crisis through the growing movement of Ecofeminism. In the philosophy of Ecofeminism, individuals recognize and reject western dualistic thinking ...


The Origins Of Morality, Paulina Sanchez 2017 Abilene Christian University

The Origins Of Morality, Paulina Sanchez

Dialogue & Nexus

In modern society, there exists a standard for moral conduct that seems to reign universal over many societies of people. Pinpointing the origins of morality, however, can become problematic because of how one approaches what morality is and what its purpose is in society. Psychologists may point out the social constructs and norms that allow for morality to unfold. Evolutionary biologists may give evidence of human-related species that have developed similar behavioral standards. A Christian theologian may look to scripture in explaining a Creator who ordained that all abide by the standards of conduct most pleasing to this deity. Which ...


The Altruistic Self, Nathan Dougherty 2017 Abilene Christian University

The Altruistic Self, Nathan Dougherty

Dialogue & Nexus

Altruism as a purely naturalistic phenomenon self-defeats the term altogether; however, theology also makes unsubstantiated claims that some behaviors are purely selfless. I will first define various conceptual forms of altruism and then offer explanations of the term from neurological, evolutionary and psychological investigations. Despite the position that altruism can be reduced to a fantastical impossibility bearing neither the arms of science nor theology, it is also a fallacy to separate it from a religiously derived supernatural altruism that carries no implications for the realm of morality.


A New Taxonomy Of Altruism In Terms Of Prosocial Behaviors, Kristin Kaiser 2017 Abilene Christian University

A New Taxonomy Of Altruism In Terms Of Prosocial Behaviors, Kristin Kaiser

Dialogue & Nexus

The definition of altruism has been studied, explained, and even confused by many scholars in various fields. The term itself has been inappropriately used to describe prosocial behaviors that do not fall within the definition of altruism. An evaluation of Grant Ramsey’s taxonomy of altruism, which includes biological altruism, psychological altruism, and helping altruism, proves that it is not adequate in categorizing organism’s behaviors. A new taxonomy, with the branches of kin selection, reciprocity, and aesthetic altruism, is presented and explained to clarify the definition of altruism and alleviate confusion about how to describe prosocial behaviors. Both naming ...


The Evolutionary Theodicy Problem, Houston Schoonmaker 2017 Abilene Christian University

The Evolutionary Theodicy Problem, Houston Schoonmaker

Dialogue & Nexus

Evolutionary theodicies attempt to explain how innocent suffering, death, and extinction seen throughout the evolutionary process of evolution can coincide with believing in a loving God. Since Darwin, scholars have questioned the importance of studying natural selection at such an intricate level. With the knowledge of natural selection, the fact that great suffering is witnessed across nature permits doubts in discussions regarding a benevolent God that created the universe. In this paper, I begin with background information about evolution, theodicy, and how they are related. I look at two major perspectives: the belief that evolution ameliorates the theodicy problem or ...


Neuroscience, Materialism, And The Soul: Limit Questions, Jeremy M. Aymard 2017 Abilene Christian University

Neuroscience, Materialism, And The Soul: Limit Questions, Jeremy M. Aymard

Dialogue & Nexus

In light of recent discoveries in neuroscience linking the mind to physical processes, Christian philosophers have resorted to a more materialistic view of the human person, using neuroscience as support for their view that an immaterial soul does not exist. In this essay, I will point out a major flaw in the logic for defending a materialistic view, argue that either a bipartite or tripartite view of the human person is more aligned with Scripture, and hopefully point towards a more reliable means for attaining truth regarding human nature and the soul.


Intelligent Design: Should We Teach It?, Sarah-Kate Oliver 2017 Abilene Christian University

Intelligent Design: Should We Teach It?, Sarah-Kate Oliver

Dialogue & Nexus

Belief about the origins of the universe and mankind is an important aspect of most world religions. While many ‘progressive’ Christians view the Genesis accounts of creation as mythical or allegorical, some ‘fundamentalist’ Christians claim it is a literal and historical account of the origins of life. The scientific community, on the other hand, views Darwin’s Theory of Evolution as the definitive explanation of the origin of all species on Earth including humans. As science has continued to line up behind evolution, it has been integrated into the public school curriculum. The question examined by this paper is: should ...


Effects Of Stocking Rate, Botanical Composition, And Stream Bank Erosion On The Physical Characteristics Of The Streamside Zones Of Pastures (Three-Year Progress Report), Douglas Allen Bear, James R. Russell, Daniel G. Morrical, Mustafa Tufekcioglu, Thomas M. Isenhart, John L. Kovar 2017 Iowa State University

Effects Of Stocking Rate, Botanical Composition, And Stream Bank Erosion On The Physical Characteristics Of The Streamside Zones Of Pastures (Three-Year Progress Report), Douglas Allen Bear, James R. Russell, Daniel G. Morrical, Mustafa Tufekcioglu, Thomas M. Isenhart, John L. Kovar

Thomas M. Isenhart

Grazing management practices that allow cattle to congregate near pasture streams may result in the loss of vegetative cover and promote accumulation of manure near the streams, increasing the risk of nonpoint source pollution of the stream


A Simulation Model Of The Devils Hole Pupfish Population Using Monthly Length-Frequency Distributions, Maria Dzul, Stephen J. Dinsmore, Michael C. Quist, D. Bailey Gaines, Kevin Patrick Wilson, Michael Roy Bower, Philip M. Dixon 2017 Iowa State University

A Simulation Model Of The Devils Hole Pupfish Population Using Monthly Length-Frequency Distributions, Maria Dzul, Stephen J. Dinsmore, Michael C. Quist, D. Bailey Gaines, Kevin Patrick Wilson, Michael Roy Bower, Philip M. Dixon

Stephen J Dinsmore

The Devils Hole pupfish, Cyprinodon diabolis, is a federally-endangered fish that is endemic to Devils Hole, a discontiguous part of Death Valley National Park in Nye County, Nevada. Due to its status, Devils Hole pupfish monitoring must be non-obtrusive and thereby exclude techniques that require handling fish. Due to a recent decline in pupfish abundance, Devils Hole pupfish managers have expressed a need for a model that describes population dynamics. This population model would be used to identify vulnerable life history stage(s) and inform management actions. We constructed a set of individualbased simulation models designed to explore effects of ...


Habitat Associations Of Secretive Marsh Birds In Iowa, Tyler Harms, Stephen J. Dinsmore 2017 Iowa State University

Habitat Associations Of Secretive Marsh Birds In Iowa, Tyler Harms, Stephen J. Dinsmore

Stephen J Dinsmore

Drastic losses of wetland habitats across North America over the past century have resulted in population declines of many marsh birds therefore emphasizing the need for proper management of remaining wetlands for the conservation of marsh birds. Our objective was to evaluate the probability of site occupancy of secretive marsh birds in Iowa in response to habitat variables at multiple scales. We conducted call-broadcast surveys for eight species of marsh birds at wetlands in Iowa from 16 May–15 July 2009 and from 20 April–10 July 2010. We utilized occupancy models in Program MARK to estimate site occupancy probability ...


Density, Abundance, And Habitat Associations Of The Inland Swamp Sparrow (Melospiza Georgiana Georgiana) In Iowa, Tyler Harms, Stephen J. Dinsmore 2017 Iowa State University

Density, Abundance, And Habitat Associations Of The Inland Swamp Sparrow (Melospiza Georgiana Georgiana) In Iowa, Tyler Harms, Stephen J. Dinsmore

Stephen J Dinsmore

Wetlands continue to decline throughout North America and the Prairie Pothole Region, thus emphasizing the importance of understanding population trends and habitat associations of wetland species to ensure effective conservation and habitat management of those species. We estimated density and abundance and evaluated habitat associations of the Inland Swamp Sparrow (Melospiza georgiana georgiana) in Iowa. We conducted standardized distance sampling surveys for Swamp Sparrows and measured habitat characteristics at 307 wetlands in two regions of Iowa in 2009 and 2010. We used Program Distance to model detection probability and estimate region-specific breeding densities of Swamp Sparrows at Iowa wetlands. We ...


Sustainability, Resiliance, And Dependency: The Great Plains Model, Sebastian Braun 2017 Iowa State University

Sustainability, Resiliance, And Dependency: The Great Plains Model, Sebastian Braun

Sebastian Braun

Over the past 400 to 500 years, the Great Plains have seen a rapid succession of ecological regimes. The ecological historian Dan Flores has written that plains ecological history "centers around a series of ecological crashes and simplifications."1 This text attempts to give an overview of these successive ecological systems and to provide an analysis of the lessons in sustainability, resilience, and ideology offered by plains ecological history of the past few centuries. The plains, a semi-arid ecosystem, have "fewer of the safeguards built into more diverse systems."2 Because natural resources "in semi-arid countries are often set in ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress