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Towards An Understanding Of The Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Latency-Reactivation Cycle, Guey-Chuen Perng, Clinton Jones 2010 Emory University School of Medicine

Towards An Understanding Of The Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Latency-Reactivation Cycle, Guey-Chuen Perng, Clinton Jones

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Infection by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) can cause clinical symptoms in the peripheral and central nervous system. Recurrent ocular shedding can lead to corneal scarring and vision loss making HSV-1 a leading cause of corneal blindness due to an infectious agent. The primary site of HSV-1 latency is sensory neurons within trigeminal ganglia. Periodically, reactivation from latency occurs resulting in virus transmission and recurrent disease. During latency, the latency-associated transcript (LAT) is abundantly expressed. LAT expression is important for the latency-reactivation cycle in animal models, in part, because it inhibits apoptosis, viral gene expression, and productive infection. A ...


Method For Identification Of Virulence Determinants, Raul G. Barletta, Beth Harris 2010 Lincoln, NE

Method For Identification Of Virulence Determinants, Raul G. Barletta, Beth Harris

Papers in Veterinary and Biomedical Science

Disclosed are methods for the determination of virulence determinants in bacteria and in particular bacteria of the genus Mycobacterium. Also disclosed are compositions and methods for stimulating an immune response in an animal using bacteria and virulence determinants identified by the methods of the present invention.


Chronology And Evolution Of The Hiv-1 Subtype C Epidemic In Ethiopia, Damien C. Tully, Charles Wood 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Chronology And Evolution Of The Hiv-1 Subtype C Epidemic In Ethiopia, Damien C. Tully, Charles Wood

Virology Papers

Objective—To reconstruct the onset date and evolutionary history of the HIV-1 subtype C epidemic in Ethiopia - one of the earliest recorded subtype C epidemics in the world.

Design—HIV-1 C env sequences with a known sampling year isolated from HIV-1 positive patients from Ethiopia between 1984 and 2003.

Methods—Evolutionary parameters including origin and demographic growth patterns were estimated using a Bayesian coalescent-based approach under either strict or relaxed molecular clock models.

Results—Bayesian evolutionary analysis indicated a most recent common ancestor date of 1965 with three distinct epidemic growth phases. Regression analysis of root-to-tip distances revealed a highly ...


Afm Study Of Structural Changes In Supported Planar Dppc Bilayers Containing General Anesthetic Isofluorane (Plus Additional Afm Experiments), Chad McKell, Hiram Conley, David D. Busath 2010 Brigham Young University

Afm Study Of Structural Changes In Supported Planar Dppc Bilayers Containing General Anesthetic Isofluorane (Plus Additional Afm Experiments), Chad Mckell, Hiram Conley, David D. Busath

Faculty Publications

Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a remarkable tool for assessing the structural properties of supported lipid planar bilayers under different physiological conditions. Previous work has shown that incorporation of anesthetics into artificial lipid bilayers results in domain formation [1], destruction of lipid aggregates and patches [2], anesthetic-lipid mixed micelle formation [2], and the development of interdigitated phases of reduced thickness compared to anesthetic-free bilayers [3]. In particular, these interdigitated phases are suspected to affect the structure and activity of membrane proteins, such as ion channels, and thus further research with proteinembedded bilayers exposed to anesthetics could reveal the mechanism responsible ...


A Macroscopic Study Of The Swedish Human Population, Chaoliang Zhang 2010 Iowa State University

A Macroscopic Study Of The Swedish Human Population, Chaoliang Zhang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The thesis research studies the Swedish human population with Smith's macroscopic approach. In demographic statics, a couple of plots are drawn for each time point (period) of the human populations of Sweden and five other countries namely Belgium, France, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States. One plot is for the probability distribution of a random newborn's mother's age. Another is for the net maternity function. These plots can be used to identify past historical information from the agreement and discrepancy of related curves.

In demographic kinetics, important macroscopic parameters are tracked over time for ...


Identification And Analysis Of Noncoding Genetic Elements In Plant Genomes, Yuanbin Ru 2010 Iowa State University

Identification And Analysis Of Noncoding Genetic Elements In Plant Genomes, Yuanbin Ru

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this dissertation is to identify and analyze two of the noncoding genetic elements, microRNAs (miRNAs) and intorns, in plant genomes.

miRNAs are a class of short noncoding RNAs of which some are shown to regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by complementary base pairing to their target mRNAs. In the early 2000s, a large number of miRNAs were cloned in animals, plants and viruses. Complementary efforts also sought to identify miRNA genes computationally. In the dissertation, I developed a computational method to identify miRNA genes and their target mRNAs in Arabidopsis. Experiments were then performed to ...


Proteomic And Transcriptomic Analysis Of Near-Isogenic Soybean Lines Differing In Seed Protein Content, Xiaomin Yu 2010 Iowa State University

Proteomic And Transcriptomic Analysis Of Near-Isogenic Soybean Lines Differing In Seed Protein Content, Xiaomin Yu

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This thesis provides insights to molecular mechanisms and regulatory networks as related to changes in seed protein content in near-isogenic soybean lines. The insights of metabolic regulations from this study will help to point out the factors that may change overall seed composition during seed development, and guide enhancement of protein and oil accumulation in soybean. Ultimately, the understanding of metabolic regulations from this study will guide the expansion of marketability and the increase in economic value of soybean. This thesis focuses on identifying genes and proteins that are important in controlling soybean seed composition by a combination of proteomic ...


Brassinosteroid Regulation Of Plant Height In Maize, Gokhan Kir 2010 Iowa State University

Brassinosteroid Regulation Of Plant Height In Maize, Gokhan Kir

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a type of phytohormone that has important roles in plant development. Even though they are well studied in model species, their role in maize development is poorly understood. To address this issue, two approaches were undertaken. Since it was shown mutations in BRs biosynthesis or signaling cause dwarfism in other plants, novel maize dwarf mutants were screened to see if they are related to the BRs. Phenotypic and genetic characterization led to the identification and genetic mapping of at least 2 likely candidates. The results of this work are presented in Chapter 2. In the second part ...


Global Patterns Of Mutator Transposon Insertions And High-Throughput Strategies For Gene Mapping And Cloning In Maize, Sanzhen Liu 2010 Iowa State University

Global Patterns Of Mutator Transposon Insertions And High-Throughput Strategies For Gene Mapping And Cloning In Maize, Sanzhen Liu

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In this dissertation, a novel adaptor-mediated PCR-based method, Digestion-ligation-amplification (DLA), was developed to overcome difficulties of amplifying unknown sequences flanking known DNA sequences in large genomes. Two DLA-based strategies were developed to isolate Mu-tagged alleles. The utility of each approach was validated by independently cloning the gl4 (glossy4) gene. Mutants of gl4 lack the normal accumulation of epicuticular waxes. The gl4 gene is a homolog of the Arabidopsis CUT1 gene, which encodes a condensing enzyme involved in the synthesis of very-long-chain fatty acids, which are precursors of epicuticular waxes. Using this novel genome walking strategy, >40,000 non-redundant Mu insertion ...


Studies Of Site-Specific Dna Double Strand Break Repair In Plants, Xianyan Kuang 2010 Iowa State University

Studies Of Site-Specific Dna Double Strand Break Repair In Plants, Xianyan Kuang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The maize transposon Ac/Ds transposes by a “cut and paste"” mechanism, leaving a site-specific DSB at the Ds locus for repair. Previous studies in maize and Arabidopsis showed that Ac/Ds excision can stimulate homologous recombination between tandem duplicated repeats and between ectopic homologies. In this study, we tested the efficacy of such Ac/Ds excision-induced homologous recombination to achieve gene targeting in Arabidopsis. A defective visual-selective dual marker harboring Ds element is transformed into Arabidopsis as target locus, and donor homology is provided by Agrobacterium-mediated T-DNA by floral dipping. The DSB inducer Ac is either first crossed into ...


Chemosensitization Of Cancer Cells By Sirna Using Targeted Nanogel Delivery, Erin B. Dickerson, William H. Blackburn, Michael H. Smith, Laura B. Kapa, L. Andrew Lyon, John F. McDonald 2010 Georgia Institute of Technology

Chemosensitization Of Cancer Cells By Sirna Using Targeted Nanogel Delivery, Erin B. Dickerson, William H. Blackburn, Michael H. Smith, Laura B. Kapa, L. Andrew Lyon, John F. Mcdonald

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Background: Chemoresistance is a major obstacle in cancer treatment. Targeted therapies that enhance cancer cell sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents have the potential to increase drug efficacy while reducing toxic effects on untargeted cells. Targeted cancer therapy by RNA interference (RNAi) is a relatively new approach that can be used to reversibly silence genes in vivo by selectively targeting genes such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which has been shown to increase the sensitivity of cancer cells to taxane chemotherapy. However, delivery represents the main hurdle for the broad development of RNAi therapeutics.

Methods: We report here the use ...


Delineation Of Precursors In Murine Spleen That Develop In Contact With Splenic Endothelium To Give Novel Dendritic-Like Cells., Jonathan Tan, Pravin Periasamy, Helen O'Neill 2009 Australian National University

Delineation Of Precursors In Murine Spleen That Develop In Contact With Splenic Endothelium To Give Novel Dendritic-Like Cells., Jonathan Tan, Pravin Periasamy, Helen O'Neill

Helen O'Neill

Hematopoietic cell lineages are best described in terms of distinct progenitors with limited differentiative capacity. To distinguish cell lineages, it is necessary to define progenitors and induce their differentiation in vitro. We previously reported in vitro development of immature dendritic-like cells (DCs) in long-term cultures (LTCs) of murine spleen, and in cocultures of spleen or bone marrow (BM) over splenic endothelial cell lines derived from LTCs. Cells produced are phenotypically distinct CD11b(hi)CD11c(lo)CD8(-)MHC-II(-) cells, tentatively named L-DCs. Here we delineate L-DC progenitors as different from known DC progenitors in BM and DC precursors in spleen. The ...


Early Cranial Patterning In The Direct-Developing Frog Eleutherodactylus Coqui Revealed Through Gene Expression, Ryan Kerney, Joshua Gross, James Hanken 2009 Gettysburg College

Early Cranial Patterning In The Direct-Developing Frog Eleutherodactylus Coqui Revealed Through Gene Expression, Ryan Kerney, Joshua Gross, James Hanken

Ryan Kerney

Genetic and developmental alterations associated with the evolution of amphibian direct development remain largely unexplored. Specifically, little is known of the underlying expression of skeletal regulatory genes, which may reveal early modifications to cranial ontogeny in direct-developing species. We describe expression patterns of three key skeletal regulators (runx2, sox9, and bmp4) along with the cartilage-dominant collagen 2a1 gene (col2a1) during cranial development in the direct- developing anuran, Eleutherodactylus coqui. Expression patterns of these regulators reveal transient skeletogenic anlagen that correspond to larval cartilages, but which never fully form in E. coqui. Suprarostral anlagen in the frontonasal processes are detected through ...


Haematopoietic Stem Cells In Spleen Have Distinct Differentiative Potential For Antigen Presenting Cells., Jonathan Tan, Helen O'Neill 2009 Australian National University

Haematopoietic Stem Cells In Spleen Have Distinct Differentiative Potential For Antigen Presenting Cells., Jonathan Tan, Helen O'Neill

Helen O'Neill

Dendritic cells (DC) are known to develop from macrophage dendritic progenitors (MDP) in bone marrow (BM), which give rise to conventional (c)DC and monocytes, both dominant antigen presenting cell (APC) subsets in spleen. This laboratory has however defined a distinct dendritic-like cell subset in spleen (L-DC), which can also be derived in long-term cultures of spleen. In line with the restricted in vitro development of only L-DC in these stromal cultures, we questioned whether self-renewing HSC or progenitors exist in spleen with restricted differentiative capacity for only L-DC. Neonatal spleen and BM were compared for their ability to reconstitute ...


Lysophosphatidic Acid Induction Of Interleukin 6 Secretion From Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells Via Lpa1 Regulated, Pkc Dependent And P38alpha Mediated Pathway, F. Hao, M. Tan, D. Wu, X. Xu, Mei Cui 2009 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Lysophosphatidic Acid Induction Of Interleukin 6 Secretion From Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells Via Lpa1 Regulated, Pkc Dependent And P38alpha Mediated Pathway, F. Hao, M. Tan, D. Wu, X. Xu, Mei Cui

Mei-Zhen Cui

Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a potent bioactive lysophospholipid. Accumulated evidence supports a role for LPA in inflammation. To profile LPA-induced cytokine production in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), we used a cytokine antibody array system and found that LPA prominently induces the secretion of IL-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 from human aortic SMCs (HASMCs). The mechanism by which LPA induces MCP-1 expression in SMCs has been previously reported. However, LPA induction of IL-6 secretion from vascular SMCs and its regulatory mechanism are unknown. The present study reveals that LPA induces the expression of IL-6 mRNA and protein in ...


Investigation Of Murine Spleen As A Niche For Hematopoiesis., Jonathan Tan, Helen O'Neill 2009 Australian National University

Investigation Of Murine Spleen As A Niche For Hematopoiesis., Jonathan Tan, Helen O'Neill

Helen O'Neill

Background Spleen as a lymphoid tissue is specialized for monitoring blood and mounting immunity against blood-borne antigens. Antigen-presenting cells present in spleen commonly develop from bone marrow-derived precursors that enter blood circulation. However, a distinct splenic myeloid antigen-presenting cell subset described in this laboratory, namely “dendritic-like cells” (L-DC), has been hypothesized not to share a bone marrow origin. Methods In this study, the presence of endogenous hematopoietic progenitors in spleen was investigated by transplanting intact spleen into allotype-distinct recipients and monitoring development of progeny cells in grafted tissues. Results Successful engraftment of donor spleens was achieved for up to 4 ...


Expression Of Hcmv Ie1 In The U87mg Cell Line Augments Resistance To Temozolomide, Richard Rovin, Johnathan Lawrence, Justin Segula, Robert Winn 2009 Northern Michigan University

Expression Of Hcmv Ie1 In The U87mg Cell Line Augments Resistance To Temozolomide, Richard Rovin, Johnathan Lawrence, Justin Segula, Robert Winn

Johnathan Lawrence

INTRODUCTION: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) DNA and protein are found in gliomas but not in normal brain or other primary brain tumors. The role of HCMV infection in glioma biology is unclear. While it is unlikely that HCMV infection causes glioma, viral proteins might impart a proliferative and antiapoptotic phenotype that confers a survival advantage. Does this oncomodulation translate into a clinically relevant effect in glioma cells? To answer this question, we compared the response of the U87IE1 and U87MG malignant glioma cell lines to temozolomide. U87IE1 cells are U87MG cells that have been genetically engineered to produce HCMV IE1 protein ...


Regulatory Elements Of Xenopus Col2a1 Drive Cartilaginous Gene Expression In Transgenic Frogs, Ryan Kerney, Brian K. Hall, James Hanken 2009 Dalhousie University

Regulatory Elements Of Xenopus Col2a1 Drive Cartilaginous Gene Expression In Transgenic Frogs, Ryan Kerney, Brian K. Hall, James Hanken

Ryan Kerney

This study characterizes regulatory elements of collagen 2α1 (col2a1) in Xenopus that enable transgene expression in cartilage-forming chondrocytes. The reporters described in this study drive strong cartilage-specific gene expression, which will be a valuable tool for further investigations of Xenopus skeletal development. While endogenous col2a1 mRNA is expressed in many embryonic tissues, its expression becomes restricted to tadpole and adult chondrocytes. This chondrocyte-specific expression is recapitulated by col2a1 reporter constructs, which were tested through I-SceI meganuclease-mediated transgenesis. These constructs contain a portion of the Xenopus tropicalis col2a1 intron, which aligns to a cartilage-specific intronic enhancer that has been well characterized ...


The Apoptotic Effect Of 1 ' S-1 '-Acetoxychavicol Acetate From Alpinia Conchigera On Human Cancer Cells, Noor Hasima Nagoor 2009 University of Malaya

The Apoptotic Effect Of 1 ' S-1 '-Acetoxychavicol Acetate From Alpinia Conchigera On Human Cancer Cells, Noor Hasima Nagoor

Noor Hasima Nagoor

1'-(S)-1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA) isolated from the Malaysian ethnomedicinal plant Alpinia conchigera Griff. was investigated for its potential as an anticancer drug. In this communication, we describe the cytotoxic and apoptotic properties of ACA on five human tumour cell lines. Data from MTT cell viability assays indicated that ACA induced both time-and dose-dependent cytotoxicity on all tumour cell lines tested and had no adverse cytotoxic effects on normal cells. Total mortality of the entire tumour cell population was achieved within 30 hrs when treated with ACA at 40.0 mu M concentration. Flow cytometric analysis for annexin-V and ...


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