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Unique Precursors For The Mesenchymal Cells Involved In Injury Response And Fibrosis, J. L. Walker, N. Zhai, L. Zhang, B. Bleaken, I. Wolff, Jacquelyn Gerhart, Mindy George-Weinstein, A. S. Menko 2010 Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine

Unique Precursors For The Mesenchymal Cells Involved In Injury Response And Fibrosis, J. L. Walker, N. Zhai, L. Zhang, B. Bleaken, I. Wolff, Jacquelyn Gerhart, Mindy George-Weinstein, A. S. Menko

PCOM Scholarly Papers

We investigated an alternative pathway for emergence of the mesenchymal cells involved in epithelial sheet wound healing and a source of myofibroblasts that cause fibrosis. Using a mock cataract surgery model, we discovered a unique subpopulation of polyploid mesenchymal progenitors nestled in small niches among lens epithelial cells that expressed the surface antigen G8 and mRNA for the myogenic transcription factor MyoD. These cells rapidly responded to wounding of the lens epithelium with population expansion, acquisition of a mesenchymal phenotype, and migration to the wound edges where they regulate the wound response of the epithelium. These mesenchymal cells also were ...


Neuroaids In Africa, Kevin Robertson, Jeff Liner, James Hakim, Jean-Louis Sankalé, Igor Grant, Scott Letendre, David Clifford, Amadou Gallo Diop, Assan Jaye, Georgette Kanmogne, Alfred Njamnshi, T. Dianne Langford, Tufa Gemechu Weyessa, Charles Wood, Mwanza Banda, Mina Hosseinipour, Ned Sacktor, Noeline Nakasuja, Paul Bangirana, Robert Paul, John Joska, Joseph Wong, Michael Boivin, Penny Holding, Betsy Kammerer, Annelies Van Rie, Prudence Ive, Avindra Nath, Kathy Lawler, Clement Adebamowo, Walter Royal III, Jeymohan Joseph 2010 University of North Carolina

Neuroaids In Africa, Kevin Robertson, Jeff Liner, James Hakim, Jean-Louis Sankalé, Igor Grant, Scott Letendre, David Clifford, Amadou Gallo Diop, Assan Jaye, Georgette Kanmogne, Alfred Njamnshi, T. Dianne Langford, Tufa Gemechu Weyessa, Charles Wood, Mwanza Banda, Mina Hosseinipour, Ned Sacktor, Noeline Nakasuja, Paul Bangirana, Robert Paul, John Joska, Joseph Wong, Michael Boivin, Penny Holding, Betsy Kammerer, Annelies Van Rie, Prudence Ive, Avindra Nath, Kathy Lawler, Clement Adebamowo, Walter Royal Iii, Jeymohan Joseph

Virology Papers

In July 2009, the Center for Mental Health Research on AIDS at the National Institute of Mental Health organized and supported the meeting “NeuroAIDS in Africa.” This meeting was held in Cape Town, South Africa, and was affiliated with the 5th IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention. Presentations began with an overview of the epidemiology of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, the molecular epidemiology of HIV, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs), and HAND treatment. These introductory talks were followed by presentations on HAND research and clinical care in Botswana, Cameroon, Ethiopia, The Gambia, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, Uganda ...


Functional Properties Of The Hiv-1 Subtype C Envelope Glycoprotein Associated With Mother-To-Child Transmission, Hong Zhang, Marzena Rola, John T. West, Damien C. Tully, Piotr Kubis, Jun He, Chipepo Kankasa, Charles Wood 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Functional Properties Of The Hiv-1 Subtype C Envelope Glycoprotein Associated With Mother-To-Child Transmission, Hong Zhang, Marzena Rola, John T. West, Damien C. Tully, Piotr Kubis, Jun He, Chipepo Kankasa, Charles Wood

Virology Papers

Understanding the properties of viruses capable of establishing infection during perinatal transmission of HIV-1 is critical for designing effective means of limiting transmission. We previously demonstrated that the newly transmitted viruses (in infant) were more fit in growth, as imparted by their envelope glycoproteins, than those in their corresponding mothers. Here, we further characterized the viral envelope glycoproteins from six mother-infant transmission pairs and determined whether any specific envelope functions correlate with HIV-1 subtype C perinatal transmission. We found that most newly transmitted viruses were less susceptible to neutralization by their maternal plasma compared to contemporaneous maternal viruses. However, the ...


Chlorella Viruses Encode Most, If Not All, Of The Machinery To Glycosylate Their Glycoproteins Independent Of The Endoplasmic Reticulum And Golgi, James L. Van Etten, James Gurnon, Giane M. Yanai-Balser, David Dunigan, Michael V. Graves 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Chlorella Viruses Encode Most, If Not All, Of The Machinery To Glycosylate Their Glycoproteins Independent Of The Endoplasmic Reticulum And Golgi, James L. Van Etten, James Gurnon, Giane M. Yanai-Balser, David Dunigan, Michael V. Graves

Virology Papers

In contrast to all other viruses that use the host machinery located in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi to glycosylate their glycoproteins, the large dsDNA-containing chlorella viruses encode most, if not all, of the components to glycosylate their major capsid proteins. Furthermore, all experimental results indicate that glycosylation occurs independent of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi. (Review article)


Flow Cytometric Analyses On The Activation, Proliferation, And Differentiation State Of B Cells In Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss), Maggie Jeanne Barr 2010 College of William & Mary - Arts & Sciences

Flow Cytometric Analyses On The Activation, Proliferation, And Differentiation State Of B Cells In Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss), Maggie Jeanne Barr

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


The Pax-5 Gene Is Alternatively Spliced In Trout B Cells, Raaj Mahendra Talauliker 2010 College of William & Mary - Arts & Sciences

The Pax-5 Gene Is Alternatively Spliced In Trout B Cells, Raaj Mahendra Talauliker

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


Regulation Of Crbp1 In Mammary Epithelial Cells, Stacy L. Pease 2010 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Regulation Of Crbp1 In Mammary Epithelial Cells, Stacy L. Pease

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

Breast cancer is the second leading cause of death of women in the United States, warranting further investigation into preventative therapies. It has been well documented that early pregnancy results in a lifetime decreased risk of breast cancer in humans and mounting evidence suggests that the retinoic acid pathway may play an important role in this protective effect. Cellular retinol binding protein-1 (CRBP1) is an essential component of the retinoic acid pathway and we propose that it plays an important role in pregnancy-induced protection against breast cancer. In order to investigate the role of CRBP1 in parity-induced protection against breast ...


Mitochondrial Physiology Of Diapausing And Developing Embryos Of The Annual Killifish Austrofundulus Limnaeus: Implications For Extreme Anoxia Tolerance, Jeffrey M. Duerr, Jason E. Podrabsky 2010 George Fox University

Mitochondrial Physiology Of Diapausing And Developing Embryos Of The Annual Killifish Austrofundulus Limnaeus: Implications For Extreme Anoxia Tolerance, Jeffrey M. Duerr, Jason E. Podrabsky

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Diapausing embryos of the annual killifish Austrofundulus limnaeus have the highest reported anoxia tolerance of any vertebrate and previous studies indicate modified mitochondrial physiology likely supports anoxic metabolism. Functional mitochondria isolated from diapausing and developing embryos of the annual killifish exhibited VO2, respiratory control ratios (RCR), and P:O ratios consistent with those obtained from other ectothermic vertebrate species. Reduced oxygen consumption associated with dormancy in whole animal respiration rates are correlated with maximal respiration rates of mitochondria isolated from diapausing versus developing embryos. P:O ratios for developing embryos were similar to those obtained from adult liver, but were ...


Chemosensitization Of Cancer Cells By Sirna Using Targeted Nanogel Delivery, Erin B. Dickerson, William H. Blackburn, Michael H. Smith, Laura B. Kapa, L. Andrew Lyon, John F. McDonald 2010 Georgia Institute of Technology

Chemosensitization Of Cancer Cells By Sirna Using Targeted Nanogel Delivery, Erin B. Dickerson, William H. Blackburn, Michael H. Smith, Laura B. Kapa, L. Andrew Lyon, John F. Mcdonald

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Background: Chemoresistance is a major obstacle in cancer treatment. Targeted therapies that enhance cancer cell sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents have the potential to increase drug efficacy while reducing toxic effects on untargeted cells. Targeted cancer therapy by RNA interference (RNAi) is a relatively new approach that can be used to reversibly silence genes in vivo by selectively targeting genes such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which has been shown to increase the sensitivity of cancer cells to taxane chemotherapy. However, delivery represents the main hurdle for the broad development of RNAi therapeutics.

Methods: We report here the use ...


Afm Study Of Structural Changes In Supported Planar Dppc Bilayers Containing General Anesthetic Isofluorane (Plus Additional Afm Experiments), Chad McKell, Hiram Conley, David D. Busath 2010 Brigham Young University

Afm Study Of Structural Changes In Supported Planar Dppc Bilayers Containing General Anesthetic Isofluorane (Plus Additional Afm Experiments), Chad Mckell, Hiram Conley, David D. Busath

Faculty Publications

Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a remarkable tool for assessing the structural properties of supported lipid planar bilayers under different physiological conditions. Previous work has shown that incorporation of anesthetics into artificial lipid bilayers results in domain formation [1], destruction of lipid aggregates and patches [2], anesthetic-lipid mixed micelle formation [2], and the development of interdigitated phases of reduced thickness compared to anesthetic-free bilayers [3]. In particular, these interdigitated phases are suspected to affect the structure and activity of membrane proteins, such as ion channels, and thus further research with proteinembedded bilayers exposed to anesthetics could reveal the mechanism responsible ...


Impaired M3 And Enhanced M2 Muscarinic Receptor Contractile Function In A Streptozotocin Model Of Mouse Diabetic Urinary Bladder, K. J. Pak, Rennolds S. Ostrom, M. Matsui, F. J. Ehlert 2010 University of California, Irvine

Impaired M3 And Enhanced M2 Muscarinic Receptor Contractile Function In A Streptozotocin Model Of Mouse Diabetic Urinary Bladder, K. J. Pak, Rennolds S. Ostrom, M. Matsui, F. J. Ehlert

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

We investigated the contractile roles of M2 and M3 muscarinic receptors in urinary bladder from streptozotocin-treated mice. Wild-type and M2 muscarinic receptor knockout (M2 KO) mice were given a single injection of vehicle or streptozotocin (125 mg kg−1) 2–24 weeks prior to bladder assays. The effect of forskolin on contractions elicited to the muscarinic agonist, oxotremorine-M, was measured in isolated urinary bladder (intact or denuded of urothelium). Denuded urinary bladder from vehicle-treated wild-type and M2 KO mice exhibited similar contractile responses to oxotremorine-M, when contraction was normalized relative to that elicited by KCl (50 mM). Eight to 9 ...


Skeletal Muscle Stem Cells From Animals I. Basic Cell Biology, Michael V. Dodson, Gary J. Hausman, LeLuo Guan, Min Du, Theodore P. Rasmussen, Sylvia P. Poulos, Priya Mir, Werner G. Bergen, Melinda E. Fernyhough, Douglas C. McFarland, Robert P. Rhoads, Beatrice Soret, James M. Reecy, Sandra G. Velleman, Zhihua Jiang 2010 Washington State University

Skeletal Muscle Stem Cells From Animals I. Basic Cell Biology, Michael V. Dodson, Gary J. Hausman, Leluo Guan, Min Du, Theodore P. Rasmussen, Sylvia P. Poulos, Priya Mir, Werner G. Bergen, Melinda E. Fernyhough, Douglas C. Mcfarland, Robert P. Rhoads, Beatrice Soret, James M. Reecy, Sandra G. Velleman, Zhihua Jiang

Animal Science Publications

Skeletal muscle stem cells from food-producing animals are of interest to agricultural life scientists seeking to develop a better understanding of the molecular regulation of lean tissue (skeletal muscle protein hypertrophy) and intramuscular fat (marbling) development. Enhanced understanding of muscle stem cell biology and function is essential for developing technologies and strategies to augment the metabolic efficiency and muscle hypertrophy of growing animals potentially leading to greater efficiency and reduced environmental impacts of animal production, while concomitantly improving product uniformity and consumer acceptance and enjoyment of muscle foods.


Delineation Of Precursors In Murine Spleen That Develop In Contact With Splenic Endothelium To Give Novel Dendritic-Like Cells., Jonathan Tan, Pravin Periasamy, Helen O'Neill 2009 Australian National University

Delineation Of Precursors In Murine Spleen That Develop In Contact With Splenic Endothelium To Give Novel Dendritic-Like Cells., Jonathan Tan, Pravin Periasamy, Helen O'Neill

Helen O'Neill

Hematopoietic cell lineages are best described in terms of distinct progenitors with limited differentiative capacity. To distinguish cell lineages, it is necessary to define progenitors and induce their differentiation in vitro. We previously reported in vitro development of immature dendritic-like cells (DCs) in long-term cultures (LTCs) of murine spleen, and in cocultures of spleen or bone marrow (BM) over splenic endothelial cell lines derived from LTCs. Cells produced are phenotypically distinct CD11b(hi)CD11c(lo)CD8(-)MHC-II(-) cells, tentatively named L-DCs. Here we delineate L-DC progenitors as different from known DC progenitors in BM and DC precursors in spleen. The ...


Early Cranial Patterning In The Direct-Developing Frog Eleutherodactylus Coqui Revealed Through Gene Expression, Ryan Kerney, Joshua Gross, James Hanken 2009 Gettysburg College

Early Cranial Patterning In The Direct-Developing Frog Eleutherodactylus Coqui Revealed Through Gene Expression, Ryan Kerney, Joshua Gross, James Hanken

Ryan Kerney

Genetic and developmental alterations associated with the evolution of amphibian direct development remain largely unexplored. Specifically, little is known of the underlying expression of skeletal regulatory genes, which may reveal early modifications to cranial ontogeny in direct-developing species. We describe expression patterns of three key skeletal regulators (runx2, sox9, and bmp4) along with the cartilage-dominant collagen 2a1 gene (col2a1) during cranial development in the direct- developing anuran, Eleutherodactylus coqui. Expression patterns of these regulators reveal transient skeletogenic anlagen that correspond to larval cartilages, but which never fully form in E. coqui. Suprarostral anlagen in the frontonasal processes are detected through ...


Haematopoietic Stem Cells In Spleen Have Distinct Differentiative Potential For Antigen Presenting Cells., Jonathan Tan, Helen O'Neill 2009 Australian National University

Haematopoietic Stem Cells In Spleen Have Distinct Differentiative Potential For Antigen Presenting Cells., Jonathan Tan, Helen O'Neill

Helen O'Neill

Dendritic cells (DC) are known to develop from macrophage dendritic progenitors (MDP) in bone marrow (BM), which give rise to conventional (c)DC and monocytes, both dominant antigen presenting cell (APC) subsets in spleen. This laboratory has however defined a distinct dendritic-like cell subset in spleen (L-DC), which can also be derived in long-term cultures of spleen. In line with the restricted in vitro development of only L-DC in these stromal cultures, we questioned whether self-renewing HSC or progenitors exist in spleen with restricted differentiative capacity for only L-DC. Neonatal spleen and BM were compared for their ability to reconstitute ...


Lysophosphatidic Acid Induction Of Interleukin 6 Secretion From Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells Via Lpa1 Regulated, Pkc Dependent And P38alpha Mediated Pathway, F. Hao, M. Tan, D. Wu, X. Xu, Mei Cui 2009 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Lysophosphatidic Acid Induction Of Interleukin 6 Secretion From Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells Via Lpa1 Regulated, Pkc Dependent And P38alpha Mediated Pathway, F. Hao, M. Tan, D. Wu, X. Xu, Mei Cui

Mei-Zhen Cui

Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a potent bioactive lysophospholipid. Accumulated evidence supports a role for LPA in inflammation. To profile LPA-induced cytokine production in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), we used a cytokine antibody array system and found that LPA prominently induces the secretion of IL-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 from human aortic SMCs (HASMCs). The mechanism by which LPA induces MCP-1 expression in SMCs has been previously reported. However, LPA induction of IL-6 secretion from vascular SMCs and its regulatory mechanism are unknown. The present study reveals that LPA induces the expression of IL-6 mRNA and protein in ...


Investigation Of Murine Spleen As A Niche For Hematopoiesis., Jonathan Tan, Helen O'Neill 2009 Australian National University

Investigation Of Murine Spleen As A Niche For Hematopoiesis., Jonathan Tan, Helen O'Neill

Helen O'Neill

Background Spleen as a lymphoid tissue is specialized for monitoring blood and mounting immunity against blood-borne antigens. Antigen-presenting cells present in spleen commonly develop from bone marrow-derived precursors that enter blood circulation. However, a distinct splenic myeloid antigen-presenting cell subset described in this laboratory, namely “dendritic-like cells” (L-DC), has been hypothesized not to share a bone marrow origin. Methods In this study, the presence of endogenous hematopoietic progenitors in spleen was investigated by transplanting intact spleen into allotype-distinct recipients and monitoring development of progeny cells in grafted tissues. Results Successful engraftment of donor spleens was achieved for up to 4 ...


Expression Of Hcmv Ie1 In The U87mg Cell Line Augments Resistance To Temozolomide, Richard Rovin, Johnathan Lawrence, Justin Segula, Robert Winn 2009 Northern Michigan University

Expression Of Hcmv Ie1 In The U87mg Cell Line Augments Resistance To Temozolomide, Richard Rovin, Johnathan Lawrence, Justin Segula, Robert Winn

Johnathan Lawrence

INTRODUCTION: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) DNA and protein are found in gliomas but not in normal brain or other primary brain tumors. The role of HCMV infection in glioma biology is unclear. While it is unlikely that HCMV infection causes glioma, viral proteins might impart a proliferative and antiapoptotic phenotype that confers a survival advantage. Does this oncomodulation translate into a clinically relevant effect in glioma cells? To answer this question, we compared the response of the U87IE1 and U87MG malignant glioma cell lines to temozolomide. U87IE1 cells are U87MG cells that have been genetically engineered to produce HCMV IE1 protein ...


Regulatory Elements Of Xenopus Col2a1 Drive Cartilaginous Gene Expression In Transgenic Frogs, Ryan Kerney, Brian K. Hall, James Hanken 2009 Dalhousie University

Regulatory Elements Of Xenopus Col2a1 Drive Cartilaginous Gene Expression In Transgenic Frogs, Ryan Kerney, Brian K. Hall, James Hanken

Ryan Kerney

This study characterizes regulatory elements of collagen 2α1 (col2a1) in Xenopus that enable transgene expression in cartilage-forming chondrocytes. The reporters described in this study drive strong cartilage-specific gene expression, which will be a valuable tool for further investigations of Xenopus skeletal development. While endogenous col2a1 mRNA is expressed in many embryonic tissues, its expression becomes restricted to tadpole and adult chondrocytes. This chondrocyte-specific expression is recapitulated by col2a1 reporter constructs, which were tested through I-SceI meganuclease-mediated transgenesis. These constructs contain a portion of the Xenopus tropicalis col2a1 intron, which aligns to a cartilage-specific intronic enhancer that has been well characterized ...


The Apoptotic Effect Of 1 ' S-1 '-Acetoxychavicol Acetate From Alpinia Conchigera On Human Cancer Cells, Noor Hasima Nagoor 2009 University of Malaya

The Apoptotic Effect Of 1 ' S-1 '-Acetoxychavicol Acetate From Alpinia Conchigera On Human Cancer Cells, Noor Hasima Nagoor

Noor Hasima Nagoor

1'-(S)-1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA) isolated from the Malaysian ethnomedicinal plant Alpinia conchigera Griff. was investigated for its potential as an anticancer drug. In this communication, we describe the cytotoxic and apoptotic properties of ACA on five human tumour cell lines. Data from MTT cell viability assays indicated that ACA induced both time-and dose-dependent cytotoxicity on all tumour cell lines tested and had no adverse cytotoxic effects on normal cells. Total mortality of the entire tumour cell population was achieved within 30 hrs when treated with ACA at 40.0 mu M concentration. Flow cytometric analysis for annexin-V and ...


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