Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Cell Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

3,423 Full-Text Articles 7,915 Authors 443,989 Downloads 159 Institutions

All Articles in Cell Biology

Faceted Search

3,423 full-text articles. Page 6 of 128.

Mmp-7 Is Required For Tgf-Β And Egf Induced Migration And Invasion In Prostate Cancer Cells, Clement Bolton II 2018 Atlanta University Center

Mmp-7 Is Required For Tgf-Β And Egf Induced Migration And Invasion In Prostate Cancer Cells, Clement Bolton Ii

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

Prostate cancer micrometastasis allows cancer cells to vacate their original tumor sites and migrate to distant parts of the body via the bloodstream, lymphatic system, or by direct extension. Cells synthesize and secrete matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that degrade proteins of the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM); thus allowing them to escape into the lymphatic or circulatory systems to invade other tissues. Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) induces the migration and invasion of cancer cells and the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), specifically MMP-2, and -9 in several malignancies. In this study, we examined the role of MMP-7, a known activator of ...


A Population Of Gut Epithelial Enterochromaffin Cells Is Mechanosensitive And Requires Piezo2 To Convert Force Into Serotonin Release, Constanza Alcaino, Kaitlyn R. Knutson, Anthony J. Treichel, Gulcan Yildiz, Peter R. Strege, David R. Linden, Joyce H. Li, Andrew B. Leiter, Joseph H. Szurszewski, Gianrico Farrugia, Arthur Beyder 2018 Mayo Clinic

A Population Of Gut Epithelial Enterochromaffin Cells Is Mechanosensitive And Requires Piezo2 To Convert Force Into Serotonin Release, Constanza Alcaino, Kaitlyn R. Knutson, Anthony J. Treichel, Gulcan Yildiz, Peter R. Strege, David R. Linden, Joyce H. Li, Andrew B. Leiter, Joseph H. Szurszewski, Gianrico Farrugia, Arthur Beyder

Open Access Articles

Enterochromaffin (EC) cells constitute the largest population of intestinal epithelial enteroendocrine (EE) cells. EC cells are proposed to be specialized mechanosensory cells that release serotonin in response to epithelial forces, and thereby regulate intestinal fluid secretion. However, it is unknown whether EE and EC cells are directly mechanosensitive, and if so, what the molecular mechanism of their mechanosensitivity is. Consequently, the role of EE and EC cells in gastrointestinal mechanobiology is unclear. Piezo2 mechanosensitive ion channels are important for some specialized epithelial mechanosensors, and they are expressed in mouse and human EC cells. Here, we use EC and EE cell ...


Tumor-Stroma Interactions Differentially Alter Drug Sensitivity Based On The Origin Of Stromal Cells, Benjamin D. Landry, Thomas Leete, Ryan Richards, Peter Cruz-Gordillo, Hannah R. Schwartz, Megan E. Honeywell, Gary Ren, Alyssa D. Schwartz, Shelly R. Peyton, Michael J. Lee 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Tumor-Stroma Interactions Differentially Alter Drug Sensitivity Based On The Origin Of Stromal Cells, Benjamin D. Landry, Thomas Leete, Ryan Richards, Peter Cruz-Gordillo, Hannah R. Schwartz, Megan E. Honeywell, Gary Ren, Alyssa D. Schwartz, Shelly R. Peyton, Michael J. Lee

Program in Systems Biology Publications and Presentations

Due to tumor heterogeneity, most believe that effective treatments should be tailored to the features of an individual tumor or tumor subclass. It is still unclear, however, what information should be considered for optimal disease stratification, and most prior work focuses on tumor genomics. Here, we focus on the tumor microenvironment. Using a large-scale coculture assay optimized to measure drug-induced cell death, we identify tumor-stroma interactions that modulate drug sensitivity. Our data show that the chemo-insensitivity typically associated with aggressive subtypes of breast cancer is not observed if these cells are grown in 2D or 3D monoculture, but is manifested ...


Are Membranes Non-Apoptotic Compartments For Apoptotic Caspases, Andreas Bergmann 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Are Membranes Non-Apoptotic Compartments For Apoptotic Caspases, Andreas Bergmann

Open Access Articles

Critical mediators of apoptotic cell death are caspases, a highly specialized class of Cys-proteases that cleave substrates after Asp residues. Under normal conditions, caspases are cytosolic proteins. After their activation, they cleave a large number of cytosolic proteins and execute apoptosis (Figure 1, left). However, in addition to their well-studied role in apoptosis, caspases also have many non-apoptotic functions [1, 2]. It is not very well understood how cells escape the potential harmful action of caspases when they perform nonapoptotic functions. In our recent work, we now show that epithelial cells may prevent apoptosis by sequestration of caspases at the ...


Structural And Functional Characterization Of Hyper-Phosphorylated Grk5 Protein Expressed From E. Coli, Joseph M. Krampen, John Tesmer, Qiuyan Chen 2018 Purdue University

Structural And Functional Characterization Of Hyper-Phosphorylated Grk5 Protein Expressed From E. Coli, Joseph M. Krampen, John Tesmer, Qiuyan Chen

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinases (GRKs) are proteins in the cell responsible for regulating GPCRs located on the cell membrane. GRKs regulate active GPCRs by phosphorylating them at certain sites which causes them to stop normal signaling on the membrane. This ultimately affects how the cell responds to its environment. GRK5 is a kinase of particular interest due to its involvement in the pathology of diseases such as cardiac failure, cancers, and diabetes. Understanding the structure and function of GRK5 is essential for discovering ways to manipulate its behavior with these diseases, but not much is known about how GRK5 ...


Targeting Pro-Inflammatory Function Of Microglia Using Small Molecules To Combat Neurodegeneration, Gabrielle C. Williams, Priya Prakash, Gaurav Chopra 2018 Purdue University

Targeting Pro-Inflammatory Function Of Microglia Using Small Molecules To Combat Neurodegeneration, Gabrielle C. Williams, Priya Prakash, Gaurav Chopra

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Microglia are the brain’s resident immune cells that are responsible for maintaining homeostasis in healthy conditions. During injury or infection, resting microglia get activated and produce pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1b, IL-1a, IL-6, etc. along with reactive oxygen species like nitric oxide (NO) to combat neuroinflammatory diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Inflammation is characterized by the activation of resident-immune cells in the brain called microglia that respond to the eat-me signals released by the toxic amyloid beta peptides as well as the dying neurons in the microenvironment. Recent studies have shown that activated microglia induce neuronal death ...


Jnk Regulates Muscle Remodeling Via Myostatin/Smad Inhibition, Sarah J. Lessard, Tara L. MacDonald, Prerana Pathak, Myoung Souk Han, Vernon G. Coffey, Johann Edge, Donato A. Rivas, Michael F. Hirshman, Roger J. Davis, Laurie J. Goodyear 2018 Harvard Medical School

Jnk Regulates Muscle Remodeling Via Myostatin/Smad Inhibition, Sarah J. Lessard, Tara L. Macdonald, Prerana Pathak, Myoung Souk Han, Vernon G. Coffey, Johann Edge, Donato A. Rivas, Michael F. Hirshman, Roger J. Davis, Laurie J. Goodyear

Open Access Articles

Skeletal muscle has a remarkable plasticity to adapt and remodel in response to environmental cues, such as physical exercise. Endurance exercise stimulates improvements in muscle oxidative capacity, while resistance exercise induces muscle growth. Here we show that the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is a molecular switch that when active, stimulates muscle fibers to grow, resulting in increased muscle mass. Conversely, when muscle JNK activation is suppressed, an alternative remodeling program is initiated, resulting in smaller, more oxidative muscle fibers, and enhanced aerobic fitness. When muscle is exposed to mechanical stress, JNK initiates muscle growth via phosphorylation of the transcription factor ...


Evaluation Of Endothelial Cell Responses To Elevated Glucose, Gabriella Sugerman 2018 Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo

Evaluation Of Endothelial Cell Responses To Elevated Glucose, Gabriella Sugerman

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Developing a tissue-engineered Blood Vessel Mimic (BVM) to represent diabetic macrovascular disease could expedite design of new vascular devices specifically tailored to diabetic patients. In contribution toward this model, this thesis assessed Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cell (HUVEC) responses to high glucose conditions. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and Cluster of Differentiation 36 (CD36) were selected to signify oxidative stress activity, a hallmark of diabetic macrovascular disease. Next, activity of potential reference genes B2M, HPRT1, and ACTB was assessed. All genes were found to exceed acceptable variability, so the E-ΔC T method of data analysis was selected. Next, cellular responses to high ...


Characterization Of Theranostic Peptides For Glioblastoma Multiforme, Aaron Mellesmoen 2018 Northern Michigan University

Characterization Of Theranostic Peptides For Glioblastoma Multiforme, Aaron Mellesmoen

All NMU Master's Theses

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a type of primary CNS tumor in which viable treatment options do not exist. Standard of care including tumor resection, chemotherapy, and radiation does little to extend the 5-year survival expectancy past 5.1%. Herein, two small-peptide molecules with inherent antitumor activity, blood-brain barrier permeability, and capability for tumor-specific drug deliverance and intraoperative visualization (termed theranostic) were of focus. Confocal microscopy was employed to characterize in vitro specificity of chlorotoxin, a 4 kDa scorpion venom peptide, and rBSG, the recombinant 25 kDa non-glycosylated extracellular domain of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN; Basigin ...


Egfr Signaling From The Early Endosome., Julie A. Gosney 2018 University of Louisville

Egfr Signaling From The Early Endosome., Julie A. Gosney

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that is an integral component of proliferative signaling. When activated by a ligand at the plasma membrane, EGFR dimerizes with another ErbB family receptor, leading to kinase domain activation and transphosphorylation of C-terminus tyrosine residues. These phosphotyrosines act as crucial regulators of EGFR signaling as effector proteins dock to the receptor at these sites. The receptor undergoes clathrin-mediated endocytosis into early endosomes, where it can then be trafficked to a lysosome for degradation. However, the kinase domain of EGFR retains its activity during trafficking, suggesting that EGFR can continue ...


Unfolded Protein Response Pathways In Skeletal Muscle Homeostasis., Kyle R. Bohnert 2018 University of Louisville

Unfolded Protein Response Pathways In Skeletal Muscle Homeostasis., Kyle R. Bohnert

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Skeletal muscle mass, contractile properties, and metabolic function are regulated through the coordinated activation of multiple intracellular signaling pathways and genetic reprogramming. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays a pivotal role in protein folding and calcium homeostasis in many cell types, including skeletal muscle. Disruption of calcium levels or accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER lumen leads to stress, which results in the activation of a signaling network called the unfolded protein response (UPR). Further, recent studies have suggested that in certain conditions, UPR pathways can be activated independent of ER stress. However, the role of ER stress and the ...


Peptide Antigen Concentration Modulates Digital Nfat1 Activation In Primary Mouse Naive Cd8(+) T Cells As Measured By Flow Cytometry Of Isolated Cell Nuclei, Michael P. Gallagher, James M. Conley, Leslie J. Berg 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Peptide Antigen Concentration Modulates Digital Nfat1 Activation In Primary Mouse Naive Cd8(+) T Cells As Measured By Flow Cytometry Of Isolated Cell Nuclei, Michael P. Gallagher, James M. Conley, Leslie J. Berg

Open Access Articles

Circulating naive T cells exist in a quiescent state. After TCR contact with the cognate peptide presented by APCs in secondary lymphoid structures, T cells undergo a period of rapid transcriptional changes that set the stage for fate-determining effector or memory programming. We describe a novel method to analyze TCR signaling pathway activation in nuclei isolated from primary mouse naive T cells after stimulation with natural peptide Ags. We prelabeled cells with cell tracking dye to easily distinguish CD8(+) T cell nuclei from APC nuclei by conventional flow cytometry. Using this approach, we observed clear digital activation of NFAT1 transcription ...


The Role Of Rad4 In Dna Repair And Its Interplay With Telomeres In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Emily Nischwitz 2018 Missouri State University

The Role Of Rad4 In Dna Repair And Its Interplay With Telomeres In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Emily Nischwitz

MSU Graduate Theses

Telomeres are repetitive parts of the genome that act as a protective end cap to the chromosomes. Telomeres are critical to the integrity and stability of the genome, therefore, ensuring that their sequence is maintained, even after damage, is crucial. Much of the pioneering work responsible for explaining telomeres has been conducted in ciliates, specifically in Tetrahymena thermophila. Telomeres in T. thermophila have a high amount of tandem thymine repeats (GGGGTT) and, thus, are susceptible to ultraviolet light (UV) induced lesions called pyrimidine dimers, which must be repaired by nucleotide excision repair (NER). In humans, Xeroderma Pigmentosum C (XPC) is ...


Investigating The Role Of The Rough Deal Protein In Spindle Assembly Complex Signaling, Ryan P. Mihealsick 2018 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Investigating The Role Of The Rough Deal Protein In Spindle Assembly Complex Signaling, Ryan P. Mihealsick

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Determining The Effect Of Locally Delivered Bioactive Modulators On Macrophage Activation At The Implantation Site Of Different Biomaterials In Rats, Kamel Alkhatib 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Determining The Effect Of Locally Delivered Bioactive Modulators On Macrophage Activation At The Implantation Site Of Different Biomaterials In Rats, Kamel Alkhatib

Theses and Dissertations

Altering the foreign body reaction by targeting macrophages has been of interest in the biomaterials field to improve the integration of longevity of implanted biomedical devices. The objective of this dissertation was to study the effect of locally delivered bioactive modulators on macrophage activation at the implantation site of different biomaterials in rats. Iloprost, a prostacyclin analog, was tested for its ability to direct macrophages to their pro-wound healing phenotype after the implantation of microdialysis probe in the subcutaneous space of male Sprague Dawley rats. This study showed that iloprost can shift macrophage activation states in vivo to the pro-wound ...


Effect Of Morinda Citrifolia (Noni)-Enriched Diet On Hepatic Heat Shock Protein And Lipid Metabolism-Related Genes In Heat Stressed Broiler Chickens, Joshua Flees 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effect Of Morinda Citrifolia (Noni)-Enriched Diet On Hepatic Heat Shock Protein And Lipid Metabolism-Related Genes In Heat Stressed Broiler Chickens, Joshua Flees

Theses and Dissertations

Heat stress (HS) has been reported to alter fat deposition in broilers, however the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well-defined; therefore, the objectives of the current study were to: (1) determine the effects of acute (2 h) and chronic (3 wk) HS on the expression of key molecular signatures involved in hepatic lipogenic and lipolytic programs; and (2) assess if diet supplementation with dried Noni medicinal plant (0.2% of the diet) modulates these effects. Broilers (n=480 males, 1 d) were randomly assigned to 12 environmental chambers, subjected to two environmental conditions (HS at 35°C vs. thermoneutral condition ...


Dissecting The Mechanism Of Action Of A Novel Antifungal Peptide, Cody Bullock 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Dissecting The Mechanism Of Action Of A Novel Antifungal Peptide, Cody Bullock

Theses and Dissertations

There is an urgent need for novel treatments for Candida infections. The utility of antimicrobial peptides for antifungal therapy has garnered interest in recent years. One promising family of peptides is the Histatins, a family of naturally-occurring peptides secreted into the oral cavity that display antimicrobial activity. Histatin 5 is a twenty-four amino acid peptide with strong antifungal activity. Studies from our laboratory have identified a small histatin-derived peptide, KM29, that yields fungicidal activity 10-fold greater than Histatin 5 against multiple Candida species. Our laboratory has focused on understanding the mechanism of action of KM29 to further develop it as ...


Assessment Of Melanocyte-Specific Primary And Memory Autoimmune Responses In Vitiligo-Prone Smyth And Vitiligo-Susceptible, Non-Expressing Brown Line Chickens, Daniel Morales Falcon 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Assessment Of Melanocyte-Specific Primary And Memory Autoimmune Responses In Vitiligo-Prone Smyth And Vitiligo-Susceptible, Non-Expressing Brown Line Chickens, Daniel Morales Falcon

Theses and Dissertations

Vitiligo is an acquired de-pigmentation disorder characterized by the post-natal loss of epidermal melanocytes (pigment-producing cells) resulting in the appearance of white patches in the skin. The Smyth line of chicken is the only model for vitiligo that shares all the characteristics of the human condition including: spontaneous post-natal loss of melanocytes, interactions between genetic, environmental and immunological factors and associations with other autoimmune diseases. In addition, an avian model for vitiligo has the added benefit of an easily accessible target tissue (a growing feather) that allows for the repeated sampling of an individual and thus the continuous monitoring of ...


Conformationally-Controlled Late-Stage Modifications For Sar Studies Of The C-3-Glcp Moiety Of Ipomoeassin F, Lucas Whisenhunt 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Conformationally-Controlled Late-Stage Modifications For Sar Studies Of The C-3-Glcp Moiety Of Ipomoeassin F, Lucas Whisenhunt

Theses and Dissertations

The resin glycoside, ipomoeassin F has been shown to be extremely potent against multiple cancer lines (IC50 = 4.2-36 nM). However, the mechanism of action of this potent and complex natural product is still not fully understood. The α,β-unsaturated esters of the glucosyl moiety have been shown to be vital for the overall cytotoxicity of ipomoeassin F. Nevertheless, the importance of the tigloyl ester of the glucosyl moiety is still largely unknown. This work aimed to study the pharmacophore importance of the tigloyl ester by creating, an efficient, scalable, and flexible synthesis route for various analogs. The 18-linear step ...


Anti-Inflammatory Activity Of Phenolic And Volatile Compounds In Cranberries (Vaccinium Macrocarpon L), Katherine Moore 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Anti-Inflammatory Activity Of Phenolic And Volatile Compounds In Cranberries (Vaccinium Macrocarpon L), Katherine Moore

Theses and Dissertations

The primary objective of this study was to compare the anti-inflammatory effects of phenolic and volatile compounds extracted from cranberries. The Griess Reagent System assay was used to measure the in vitro anti-inflammatory capabilities of cranberry phenolic and volatile extracts on RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cells. This study tested the anti-inflammatory capabilities of the cranberry phenolic and volatile extracts before, as a preventative treatment, and after, as a means of treating pre-existing inflammation, inducing inflammation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). All experiments were conducted in the following manner, varying only in whether treated with the extracts before or after LPS: 1 ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress