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Relative Allelopathic Potential Of Invasive Plant Species In A Young Disturbed Woodland, Nikki Pisula, Scott Meiners 2010 Eastern Illinois University

Relative Allelopathic Potential Of Invasive Plant Species In A Young Disturbed Woodland, Nikki Pisula, Scott Meiners

Faculty Research & Creative Activity

Invasive plant species are often more successful within introduced areas when compared to their natural ranges. Allelopathy has been suggested as a potential mechanism for this success because invasive plants frequently establish monocultures and may produce allelochemicals evolutionarily novel to the recipient community. However, species are typically tested in isolation making the relative strength of allelopathy difficult to assess. We conducted laboratory bioassays for 10 co-occurring non-native species to determine the relative strength of their allelopathic potential. These species represented a suite of successful invaders within a young forest and were from a variety of plant life forms: trees, lianas ...


Spatiotemporal Dynamics Of Lianas During 50 Years Of Succession To Temperate Forest, Laura Ladwig, Scott J. Meiners 2010 Eastern Illinois University

Spatiotemporal Dynamics Of Lianas During 50 Years Of Succession To Temperate Forest, Laura Ladwig, Scott J. Meiners

Faculty Research & Creative Activity

Although they are important components of forest communities, the general ecology and spatiotemporal patterns of temperate lianas during forest regeneration are largely unknown. The dependence of lianas on other plants for physical support makes them a potentially important driver of community dynamics. We examined 50 years of vegetation data from an old-field succession study to determine the dynamics and community controls on liana expansion within the Piedmont region of New Jersey, USA. Four lianas, Lonicera japonica, Parthenocissus quinquefolia, Toxicodendron radicans, and Vitis spp., occurred in enough abundance for detailed analyses. In general, liana cover peaked during mid-succession (20–30 years ...


Dna Double-Strand Breakage As An Endpoint To Examine Metal And Radionuclide Exposure Effects To Water Snakes On A Nuclear Industrial Site, Stephanie M. Murray, Karen F. Gaines, James M. Novak, Michael Gochfeld, Joanna Burger 2010 Rutgers University

Dna Double-Strand Breakage As An Endpoint To Examine Metal And Radionuclide Exposure Effects To Water Snakes On A Nuclear Industrial Site, Stephanie M. Murray, Karen F. Gaines, James M. Novak, Michael Gochfeld, Joanna Burger

Faculty Research & Creative Activity

This study examined metal levels (especially U and Ni) in the tail tissues of water snakes from contaminated (Tim’s Branch) and reference areas on the Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site (SRS). Home ranges of snakes were quantified to determine the ratio of the habitat that they use in relation to the contaminated areas to better estimate exposure Compared to conventional methods that do not. The exposure assessment indicated that water snakes in the contaminated areas could expect U exposure at 3–4 orders of magnitude greater than the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry’sMinimum Risk ...


Responses Of Bats To Forest Fragmentation In The Mississippi River Alluvial Valley, Arkansas, Usa, Rex E. Medlin Jr., Matthew B. Connior, Karen F. Gaines, Thomas S. Risch 2010 Northwest Shoals Community College

Responses Of Bats To Forest Fragmentation In The Mississippi River Alluvial Valley, Arkansas, Usa, Rex E. Medlin Jr., Matthew B. Connior, Karen F. Gaines, Thomas S. Risch

Faculty Research & Creative Activity

Intense conversion of bottomland hardwood forests to rice and soybeans in the Mississippi River Valley of Arkansas has restricted the remaining forest to isolated fragments. Habitat fragmentation has proven to be detrimental to population sustainability of several species, and is the subject of intense study with often species and latitude specific responses. We compared both coarse land area classes and landscape fragmentation metrics from six 30 km × 30 km subsets centered on publicly owned management areas to bat captures obtained from a 2005 population study. Patch density was the strongest predictor of total captures (R 2 = 0.801, p = 0 ...


Tissue-Diet Discrimination Factors And Turnover Of Stable Carbon And Nitrogen Isotopes In White-Footed Mice (Peromyscus Leucopus), Rachel L. DeMots, James M. Novak, Karen F. Gaines, Aaron J. Gregor, Christopher S. Romanek, Daniel A. Soluk 2010 University of South Dakota

Tissue-Diet Discrimination Factors And Turnover Of Stable Carbon And Nitrogen Isotopes In White-Footed Mice (Peromyscus Leucopus), Rachel L. Demots, James M. Novak, Karen F. Gaines, Aaron J. Gregor, Christopher S. Romanek, Daniel A. Soluk

Faculty Research & Creative Activity

Stable isotope analysis has become an increasingly valuable tool in investigating animal ecology. Here we document the turnover rates for carbon in the liver, muscle, and whole blood tissue, as well as the tissue-diet discrimination values for carbon and nitrogen isotopes in the liver, whole blood, muscle, and hair, of the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus (Rafinesque, 1818)). A 168-day diet-switching experiment was conducted with a laboratory population of white-footed mice. The δ13C values for all tissues deviated less than 1‰ from those of the diet except for whole blood, which had a slightly higher tissue-diet discrimination factor of 1.8 ...


Surveys Of Stylisma Pickeringii Var. Pattersonii (Convolvulaceae), Its Associated Plant Species, And Its Insect Visitors, Ann E. Claerbout, Brent L. Todd, Janice M. Coons, Henry R. Owen, Donald W. Webb, John E. Ebinger, William E. McClain 2010 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Surveys Of Stylisma Pickeringii Var. Pattersonii (Convolvulaceae), Its Associated Plant Species, And Its Insect Visitors, Ann E. Claerbout, Brent L. Todd, Janice M. Coons, Henry R. Owen, Donald W. Webb, John E. Ebinger, William E. Mcclain

Faculty Research & Creative Activity

Stylisma pickeringii var. pattersonii (Convolvulaceae) is endangered in Illinois and Iowa, and occurs in scattered populations in other states. During 1999 and 2000, two insect species previously unreported from Illinois were observed visiting its flowers. This study was undertaken to survey additional insect visitors, as well as to characterize the plant community where S. pickeringii occurs. The objectives were to survey: 1) floral traits (anthesis and flower density) of S. pickeringii, 2) associated plant species, and 3) insect visitor characteristics. Floral traits were determined and associated plant species surveyed in Mason County (degraded hay field on private property) and Henderson ...


Impacts Of A Herbivorous Fish, Campostoma Anomalum (Central Stoneroller), On Nitrogen Fixation By Benthic Algae, Chad Robert Schwinnen 2010 Wright State University

Impacts Of A Herbivorous Fish, Campostoma Anomalum (Central Stoneroller), On Nitrogen Fixation By Benthic Algae, Chad Robert Schwinnen

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

Herbivorous fish negatively impact algal biomass and promote the growth of cyanobacteria. In nutrient poor conditions that sustain high levels of productivity nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria can supply up to 28% of the available nitrogen (Higgins et al. 2001) We investigated the role of grazing fish in sustaining high levels of productivity in nutrient poor conditions. We used the grazing minnow, Campostoma anomalum, and the acetylene reduction technique in a controlled environment to analyze rates of nitrogen fixation and primary production by the periphyton. Fish grazing reduced algal biomass and promoted the growth of cyanobacteria but had no impact on overall ...


Ecological Speciation In A Multi-Trophic Complex: Gall Midges, Goldenrods, And Parasitoids, Brenda L. Wells 2010 Wright State University

Ecological Speciation In A Multi-Trophic Complex: Gall Midges, Goldenrods, And Parasitoids, Brenda L. Wells

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

The importance of ecological interactions in the origin and maintenance of species diversity remains unclear. The current study assesses how ecological interactions shape the process of evolutionary diversification using a gall midge-host plant system in Ohio involving the gall midge, Asteromyia carbonifera (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), and its goldenrod (Solidago) host-plants. A. carbonifera form four morphologically distinctive gall morphs and differ genetically. I studied phenology, host-plant specialization, and parasitism at three field sites in Southwestern Ohio. Phenology was assessed for twelve weeks while host-plant distribution and pressure from parasitoids were measured by monthly plot and rearing gall collections. Relative gall frequencies and ...


Microbial Community Characterization And Pathogen Analysis Within Constructed Wetlands Of Varying Scale Designed For Contaminant Removal, Michael R. Mitzel 2010 Wilfrid Laurier University

Microbial Community Characterization And Pathogen Analysis Within Constructed Wetlands Of Varying Scale Designed For Contaminant Removal, Michael R. Mitzel

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Constructed wetlands (CWs) are complex treatment environments, requiring an integrative research approach to improve our understanding of them. The goal of this thesis was to establish an understanding of the functional and structural characteristics of microbial communities within bench-, field- and industrial-scale environmental treatment systems. The impact of pathogenic and/or antibiotic contaminants on these communities based on their functional and structural profiles using community-level physiological profiling (CLPP) and denaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), respectively, was investigated. Under normal operation, bench-, field- and industrial-scale treatment systems were able to produce similarly behaving structural and functional profiles. Increased retention time was consistently ...


Expression Levels Of Non-Autonomous Retrotransposons In Germ-Line Rodent Tissues, Catherine Elaine Wiesner 2010 Eastern Michigan University

Expression Levels Of Non-Autonomous Retrotransposons In Germ-Line Rodent Tissues, Catherine Elaine Wiesner

Master's Theses and Doctoral Dissertations

SINEs (short interspersed DNA elements) are families of non-coding regions of DNA that amplify within genomes via an RNA intermediate and are referred to as retrotransposons. These elements mobilize using machinery from other retrotransposons and therefore are non-autonomous. It has been demonstrated that both nucleotide sequence and the 3’ A-tail are important contributors for successful amplification. We propose that the level of germ-line transcription of SINE “master genes” is a primary factor in their successful mobility and vertical transmission. RT-PCR and qPCR results suggested higher expression of both SINE and LINE elements in germ-line tissues over somatic. Additionally, the qPCR ...


Evaluation Of The Rate Of Artificial Coverboard Use By The Salamander, Plethodon Cinereus, In The Vicinity Of Natural Cover Objects, K. Ciul, L. Simpson, Geoffrey R. Smith, Jessica E. Rettig 2010 Denison University

Evaluation Of The Rate Of Artificial Coverboard Use By The Salamander, Plethodon Cinereus, In The Vicinity Of Natural Cover Objects, K. Ciul, L. Simpson, Geoffrey R. Smith, Jessica E. Rettig

Denison Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Racism, Eugenics, And Ernst Mayr’S Account Of Species, Ladelle McWhorter 2010 University of Richmond

Racism, Eugenics, And Ernst Mayr’S Account Of Species, Ladelle Mcwhorter

Philosophy Faculty Publications

At his death at age one hundred in 2005, Ernst Mayr was hailed as the greatest evolutionary biologist of the twentieth century. His definition of species, published in 1942 in Systematics and the Origin of Species and known as the “biological species concept,” is familiar to every tenth grader: “Species are groups of interbreeding natural populations that are reproductively isolated from other such groups.” That definition, together with Mayr’s and Theodosius Dobzhansky’s theory of speciation, enabled the integration of modern genetics and Darwinian evolutionary theory. In this paper I will argue that it imported racism into the heart ...


Seasonal Patterns Of Arthropod Diversity And Abundance On Big Sagebrush, Artemisia Trientata, M P. Stanford, Nancy J. Huntly 2010 Utah State University

Seasonal Patterns Of Arthropod Diversity And Abundance On Big Sagebrush, Artemisia Trientata, M P. Stanford, Nancy J. Huntly

Biology Faculty Publications

The sagebrush biotype is the largest in the western United States. This vast sagebrush community is thought to harbor equally vast and diverse arthropod communities, but these remain little explored. Our objective was to examine the diversity, abundance, and seasonal phenology of arthropod taxa found on the dominant shrub of the sagebrush ecosystem, big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata). We wanted to improve understanding of this little-studied arthropod assemblage that may play significant roles in the dynamics of sagebrush populations and the sagebrush ecosystem. We sampled free-living and gall-forming arthropods from a stratified random sample of sagebrush plants at the Barton Road ...


Impacts Of The Spotted Spiny Lobster (Panulirus Guttatus) On The Long-Spined Sea Urchin (Diadema Antillarum) And Patch Reef Communities In The Florida Keys, Meredith D. Kintzing 2010 Old Dominion University

Impacts Of The Spotted Spiny Lobster (Panulirus Guttatus) On The Long-Spined Sea Urchin (Diadema Antillarum) And Patch Reef Communities In The Florida Keys, Meredith D. Kintzing

Biological Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Caribbean coral reefs have undergone a phase shift from a system dominated by corals to one where algae are pervasive. This shift was precipitated by the loss of herbivores, including the mass mortality of the long spined sea urchin (Diadema antillarum), coupled with disease and the recruitment failure of hermatypic corals. Diadema populations have recovered in some areas of the Caribbean, but are still below historical levels in the Florida Keys, likely due to low larval supply coupled with predation on juveniles. Lobsters are sea urchin predators in other systems and the spotted spiny lobster (Panulirus guttatus ) is abundant on ...


Fitness Variation Due To Sexual Antagonism And Linkage Disequilibrium, Manus Patten, David Haig, Fransisco Úbeda de Torres 2009 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Fitness Variation Due To Sexual Antagonism And Linkage Disequilibrium, Manus Patten, David Haig, Fransisco Úbeda De Torres

Francisco Úbeda de Torres

Extensive fitness variation for sexually antagonistic characters has been detected in nature. However, current population genetic theory suggests that sexual antagonism is unlikely to play a major role in the maintenance of variation. We present a twolocus model of sexual antagonism that is capable of explaining greater fitness variance at equilibrium than previous single-locus models. The second genetic locus provides additional fitness variance in two complementary ways. First, linked loci can maintain gene variants that are lost in single-locus models of evolution, expanding the opportunity for polymorphism. Second, linkage disequilibrium results between any two sexually antagonistic genes, producing an excess ...


Root Contraction Helps Protect The "Living Rock" Cactus Ariocarpus Fissuratus From Lethal High Temperatures When Growing In Rocky Soil, Gretchen North, T.Y. Garrett, C.V. Huynh 2009 Occidental College

Root Contraction Helps Protect The "Living Rock" Cactus Ariocarpus Fissuratus From Lethal High Temperatures When Growing In Rocky Soil, Gretchen North, T.Y. Garrett, C.V. Huynh

Gretchen North

• Premise of the study: We investigated how the “living rock” cactus Ariocarpus fissuratus, like other low-growing desert plants, can endure potentially lethal high temperatures at the soil surface. Specifically, we examined how shoot descent by root contraction in the presence or absence of soil rocks influences shoot temperatures and transpiration. • Methods: Root contraction was identified by measuring shoot descent and anatomical analysis. Temperatures and transpiration were measured for plants at two heights in sandy and rocky soil, and temperature tolerances were determined by vital staining. • Key results: Plants embedded in rocky soil survived an extreme heat episode, unlike plants in ...


Functional Anatomy Of Penaeid Shrimp, Gary Martin, Jo Hose 2009 Occidental College

Functional Anatomy Of Penaeid Shrimp, Gary Martin, Jo Hose

Gary Martin

A comprehensive source of information on all aspects of shrimp production, this reference covers not only the global status of shrimp farming, but also examines shrimp anatomy and physiology. From nutrition to health management and harvesting issues to biosecurity, this well-researched volume evaluates existing knowledge, proposes new concepts, and questions common practices. With an extensive review on worldwide production systems, this compilation will be highly relevant to research scientists, students, and shrimp producers.


Response To Vaccination With A Commercial Inactivated Rabies Vaccine In A Captive Colony Of Brazilian Free-Tailed Bats (Tadarida Brasiliensis), Amy Turmelle, Louise Allen, Barbara Schmidt-French, Felix Jackson, Thomas Kunz, Charles Rupprecht, Gary McCracken 2009 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Response To Vaccination With A Commercial Inactivated Rabies Vaccine In A Captive Colony Of Brazilian Free-Tailed Bats (Tadarida Brasiliensis), Amy Turmelle, Louise Allen, Barbara Schmidt-French, Felix Jackson, Thomas Kunz, Charles Rupprecht, Gary Mccracken

Gary F. McCracken

A captive colony of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) was vaccinated with a commercial monovalent inactivated rabies virus (RABV) vaccine (RABVAC 1). Baseline rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (VNA) and the response to vaccination were measured in 50 bats. Rabies VNA was detected in the plasma of 64% (27/42) of bats that had been vaccinated 1 yr prior, but only 19% (8/42) had levels considered adequate. Rabies VNA was detected in the plasma of 63% (5/8) of bats with no record of previous vaccination, suggesting natural RABV exposure before captivity. All bats demonstrated a VNA response by 10 ...


Host Immunity To Repeated Rabies Virus Infection In Big Brown Bats, Gary McCracken 2009 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Host Immunity To Repeated Rabies Virus Infection In Big Brown Bats, Gary Mccracken

Gary F. McCracken

Bats are natural reservoirs for the majority of lyssaviruses globally, and are unique among mammals in having exceptional sociality and longevity. Given these facets, and the recognized status of bats as reservoirs for rabies viruses (RABVs) in the Americas, individual bats may experience repeated exposure to RABV during their lifetime. Nevertheless, little information exists with regard to within-host infection dynamics and the role of immunological memory that may result from abortive RABV infection in bats. In this study, a cohort of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) was infected intramuscularly in the left and right masseter muscles with varying doses [10 ...


Biological Stoichiometry Of Plant Production: Metabolism, Scaling, And Ecological Response To Global Change, Andrew Kerkhoff, J.J. Elser, W.F. Fagan, B.J. Enquist 2009 Kenyon College

Biological Stoichiometry Of Plant Production: Metabolism, Scaling, And Ecological Response To Global Change, Andrew Kerkhoff, J.J. Elser, W.F. Fagan, B.J. Enquist

Andrew J Kerkhoff

No abstract provided.


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