Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

16111 Full-Text Articles 27585 Authors 1807686 Downloads 269 Institutions

All Articles in Biology

Faceted Search

16111 full-text articles. Page 1 of 471.

Superresolution Imaging Identifies That Conventional Trafficking Pathways Are Not Essential For Endoplasmic Reticulum To Outer Mitochondrial Membrane Protein Transport., Kyle Salka, Shivaprasad Bhuvanendran, Kassandra Wilson, Petros Bozidis, Mansi Mehta, Kristin Rainey, Hiromi Sesaki, George H Patterson, Jyoti K. Jaiswal, Anamaris M. Colberg-Poley 2017 George Washington University

Superresolution Imaging Identifies That Conventional Trafficking Pathways Are Not Essential For Endoplasmic Reticulum To Outer Mitochondrial Membrane Protein Transport., Kyle Salka, Shivaprasad Bhuvanendran, Kassandra Wilson, Petros Bozidis, Mansi Mehta, Kristin Rainey, Hiromi Sesaki, George H Patterson, Jyoti K. Jaiswal, Anamaris M. Colberg-Poley

Integrative Systems Biology Faculty Publications

Most nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins traffic from the cytosol to mitochondria. Some of these proteins localize at mitochondria-associated membranes (MAM), where mitochondria are closely apposed with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We have previously shown that the human cytomegalovirus signal-anchored protein known as viral mitochondria-localized inhibitor of apoptosis (vMIA) traffics from the ER to mitochondria and clusters at the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM). Here, we have examined the host pathways by which vMIA traffics from the ER to mitochondria and clusters at the OMM. By disruption of phosphofurin acidic cluster sorting protein 2 (PACS-2), mitofusins (Mfn1/2), and dynamin related protein 1 ...


Bridging Post-Wildfire Communication Gaps Between Managers, Researchers, And Local Communities, Including A Biological Soil Crust Case Study, Hilary Louise Whitcomb 2017 Utah State University

Bridging Post-Wildfire Communication Gaps Between Managers, Researchers, And Local Communities, Including A Biological Soil Crust Case Study, Hilary Louise Whitcomb

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Following a wildfire, land management agencies act quickly to protect ecosystem services. We don't currently understand how post-wildfire managers make trade-off decisions in these tight timelines, or if these decisions reflect current science. Using Brunson’s (2014) social-ecological systems multi-scalar model, surveys assessed manager opinions about post-wildfire projects, perceptions of stakeholder opinions, and ability or willingness to consider new science results. Public surveys asked local citizens their opinions about post-wildfire projects. Manager perceptions were measured through semi-structured phone interviews (n = 8) and a structured online survey (n = 256). Public surveys were mailed to 1,000 (971 deliverable, n = 152 ...


Seasonal Development Of The Biological Control Agent Of Dalmatian Toadflax, Mecinus Janthiniformis (Curculionidae: Coleoptera), In Utah: Phenology, Overwintering Success, And Mortality, Samantha A. Willden 2017 Utah State University

Seasonal Development Of The Biological Control Agent Of Dalmatian Toadflax, Mecinus Janthiniformis (Curculionidae: Coleoptera), In Utah: Phenology, Overwintering Success, And Mortality, Samantha A. Willden

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Invasive weeds are threatening ecosystem function and productivity all over the world by outcompeting desirable vegetation and reducing species diversity. One option for long-term control of such weeds is biological control using natural insect enemies. Such a program has been developed for management of Dalmatian toadflax (Linaria dalmatica (L.) Miller (Plantaginaceae)) in North America using a stem-mining weevil, Mecinus janthiniformis Toševski and Caldara (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Although widely effective in northern regions, such as in British Columbia and in the American northwest, this insect has been slow to suppress Dalmatian toadflax in southern most regions of their current range, including areas ...


Effects Of Mycorrhizal Fungi On Vigna Radiata Growth In Soil Differing In Fertilizer Concentration, Ming Sum Jessica Cheng 2017 Chinese International School Hong Kong

Effects Of Mycorrhizal Fungi On Vigna Radiata Growth In Soil Differing In Fertilizer Concentration, Ming Sum Jessica Cheng

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee

Mycorrhizal fungi form mutualistic relationships with the roots of some plants, allowing the plant access to nutrients and minerals while the fungi obtain food from the plant. Given that this relationship is beneficial to the plant, this paper investigates the nature of the impact of presence of mycorrhizal fungi on the growth of Vigna radiata (mung beans) in soil of differing chemical environments. Through comparing the stem lengths of plants seven days after germination, it is found that in soil with 0.0% fertilizer, the presence of locally collected, unclassified mycorrhizal fungi impacts the growth of Vigna radiata negatively; in ...


Evaluating The Social Behavior And Activity Patterns Of Clouded Leopards (Neofelis Nebulosa) At The Nashville Zoo: Research And Literature Review, Meghan Ryckeley 2017 Western Kentucky University

Evaluating The Social Behavior And Activity Patterns Of Clouded Leopards (Neofelis Nebulosa) At The Nashville Zoo: Research And Literature Review, Meghan Ryckeley

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

The behavior of the elusive clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) is not well understood. In captivity, they are prone to exhibit stress-related behaviors and are often aggressive to conspecifics when paired. The present study built on past research by examining clouded leopards at the Nashville Zoo at Grassmere (NZG) to determine their activity patterns and temperament. Twelve leopards were exposed to familiar and unfamiliar objects and people, as well as their reflection in a mirror over nine trials. The males were often more reactive than the females, and the 5-year olds more reactive than their younger counterparts. The mirror image and ...


Finding A Link Between Circadian Rhythms And The Immune System Of Captive Zebra Finches (Taeniopygia Guttata), Amber Bishop 2017 Western Kentucky University

Finding A Link Between Circadian Rhythms And The Immune System Of Captive Zebra Finches (Taeniopygia Guttata), Amber Bishop

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

Circadian rhythms are commonplace in organisms and are normally controlled by a master clock. More recent evidence suggests that autonomous clocks operate in various systems in the body, including the immune system. This study looks for such a connection between the circadian rhythm and the immune system. In this study, captive zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) were exposed to different light and dark cycles and blood samples were taken every six hours. Birds were exposed to 12 hours of light and then 12 hours of darkness (LD), 24 hours of darkness (DD), or 48 hours of DD. After collecting whole blood ...


Ap1 Balance Between Concentration And Charge Is A Donnan Equilibrium, Paul D. Heideman 2017 College of William and Mary

Ap1 Balance Between Concentration And Charge Is A Donnan Equilibrium, Paul D. Heideman

Paul Heideman

No abstract provided.


The Ethical Considerations Of Physician-Assisted Suicide, Madeline Jordan 2017 Abilene Christian University

The Ethical Considerations Of Physician-Assisted Suicide, Madeline Jordan

Dialogue & Nexus

With respect to physician-assisted suicide, several approaches to adjudicate an ethical position can be processed from the theories of utilitarianism, Kantian deontology, and virtue ethics. This paper will explore these three positions with respect to physician-assisted suicide and the pros and cons of each. In conclusion, based on my research and Christian beliefs, I will define why I reside with virtue ethics and why it leads me to a position that is against physician-assisted suicide at this particular point in my life.


From Beginning To The End: Humans As Caretakers And Co-Creators Of Nature, Amber Grothe 2017 Abilene Christian University

From Beginning To The End: Humans As Caretakers And Co-Creators Of Nature, Amber Grothe

Dialogue & Nexus

Followers of the Christian faith ought to reconsider their role as being created in the ‘image of God,’ their interpretation of the Apocalyptic literature, and the relationship between the two. Different interpretations of these two narratives in Biblical literature (the Creation and the End Times) can create and support the view of humans as care-takers of Earth. A different perspective of the Creation story and Apocalyptic literature can lead to a different view of humans and their role in nature. By realizing their equivalence with nature and nature’s true ownership by God, humans are demoted from nature’s tyrannical ...


The Origins Of Morality, Paulina Sanchez 2017 Abilene Christian University

The Origins Of Morality, Paulina Sanchez

Dialogue & Nexus

In modern society, there exists a standard for moral conduct that seems to reign universal over many societies of people. Pinpointing the origins of morality, however, can become problematic because of how one approaches what morality is and what its purpose is in society. Psychologists may point out the social constructs and norms that allow for morality to unfold. Evolutionary biologists may give evidence of human-related species that have developed similar behavioral standards. A Christian theologian may look to scripture in explaining a Creator who ordained that all abide by the standards of conduct most pleasing to this deity. Which ...


A New Taxonomy Of Altruism In Terms Of Prosocial Behaviors, Kristin Kaiser 2017 Abilene Christian University

A New Taxonomy Of Altruism In Terms Of Prosocial Behaviors, Kristin Kaiser

Dialogue & Nexus

The definition of altruism has been studied, explained, and even confused by many scholars in various fields. The term itself has been inappropriately used to describe prosocial behaviors that do not fall within the definition of altruism. An evaluation of Grant Ramsey’s taxonomy of altruism, which includes biological altruism, psychological altruism, and helping altruism, proves that it is not adequate in categorizing organism’s behaviors. A new taxonomy, with the branches of kin selection, reciprocity, and aesthetic altruism, is presented and explained to clarify the definition of altruism and alleviate confusion about how to describe prosocial behaviors. Both naming ...


The Evolutionary Theodicy Problem, Houston Schoonmaker 2017 Abilene Christian University

The Evolutionary Theodicy Problem, Houston Schoonmaker

Dialogue & Nexus

Evolutionary theodicies attempt to explain how innocent suffering, death, and extinction seen throughout the evolutionary process of evolution can coincide with believing in a loving God. Since Darwin, scholars have questioned the importance of studying natural selection at such an intricate level. With the knowledge of natural selection, the fact that great suffering is witnessed across nature permits doubts in discussions regarding a benevolent God that created the universe. In this paper, I begin with background information about evolution, theodicy, and how they are related. I look at two major perspectives: the belief that evolution ameliorates the theodicy problem or ...


Neuroscience, Materialism, And The Soul: Limit Questions, Jeremy M. Aymard 2017 Abilene Christian University

Neuroscience, Materialism, And The Soul: Limit Questions, Jeremy M. Aymard

Dialogue & Nexus

In light of recent discoveries in neuroscience linking the mind to physical processes, Christian philosophers have resorted to a more materialistic view of the human person, using neuroscience as support for their view that an immaterial soul does not exist. In this essay, I will point out a major flaw in the logic for defending a materialistic view, argue that either a bipartite or tripartite view of the human person is more aligned with Scripture, and hopefully point towards a more reliable means for attaining truth regarding human nature and the soul.


Intelligent Design: Should We Teach It?, Sarah-Kate Oliver 2017 Abilene Christian University

Intelligent Design: Should We Teach It?, Sarah-Kate Oliver

Dialogue & Nexus

Belief about the origins of the universe and mankind is an important aspect of most world religions. While many ‘progressive’ Christians view the Genesis accounts of creation as mythical or allegorical, some ‘fundamentalist’ Christians claim it is a literal and historical account of the origins of life. The scientific community, on the other hand, views Darwin’s Theory of Evolution as the definitive explanation of the origin of all species on Earth including humans. As science has continued to line up behind evolution, it has been integrated into the public school curriculum. The question examined by this paper is: should ...


Family Living Sets The Stage For Cooperative Breeding And Ecological Resilience In Birds, Michael Griesser, Szymon M. Drobniak, Shinichi Nakagawa, Carlos A. Botero 2017 Washington University in St. Louis

Family Living Sets The Stage For Cooperative Breeding And Ecological Resilience In Birds, Michael Griesser, Szymon M. Drobniak, Shinichi Nakagawa, Carlos A. Botero

Biology Faculty Publications & Presentations

Cooperative breeding is an extreme form of cooperation that evolved in a range of lineages, including arthropods, fish, birds, and mammals. Although cooperative breeding in birds is widespread and well-studied, the conditions that favored its evolution are still unclear. Based on phylogenetic comparative analyses on 3,005 bird species, we demonstrate here that family living acted as an essential stepping stone in the evolution of cooperative breeding in the vast majority of species. First, families formed by prolonging parent–offspring associations beyond nutritional independency, and second, retained offspring began helping at the nest. These findings suggest that assessment of the ...


Spatial Variation In Carbon And Nitrogen In Cultivated Soils In Henan Province, China: Potential Effect On Crop Yield, Xuelin Zhang, Qun Wang, Frank S. Gilliam, Yilun Wang, Feina Cha, Chaohai Li 2017 Marshall University

Spatial Variation In Carbon And Nitrogen In Cultivated Soils In Henan Province, China: Potential Effect On Crop Yield, Xuelin Zhang, Qun Wang, Frank S. Gilliam, Yilun Wang, Feina Cha, Chaohai Li

Qun Wang

Improved management of soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) storage in agro-ecosystems represents an important strategy for ensuring food security and sustainable agricultural development in China. Accurate estimates of the distribution of soil C and N stores and their relationship to crop yield are crucial to developing appropriate cropland management policies. The current study examined the spatial variation of soil organic C (SOC), total soil N (TSN), and associated variables in the surface layer (0–40 cm) of soils from intensive agricultural systems in 19 counties within Henan Province, China, and compared these patterns with crop yield. Mean soil C ...


In Situ Nitrogen Mineralization, Nitrification, And Ammonia Volatilization In Maize Field Fertilized With Urea In Huanghuaihai Region Of Northern China, Xuelin Zhang, Qun Wang, Jun Xu, Frank S. Gilliam, Nicolas Tremblay, Chaohai Li 2017 Marshall University

In Situ Nitrogen Mineralization, Nitrification, And Ammonia Volatilization In Maize Field Fertilized With Urea In Huanghuaihai Region Of Northern China, Xuelin Zhang, Qun Wang, Jun Xu, Frank S. Gilliam, Nicolas Tremblay, Chaohai Li

Qun Wang

Nitrogen (N) fertilization potentially affects soil N mineralization and leaching, and can enhance NH3 volatilization, thus impacting crop production. A fertilizer experiment with five levels of N addition (0, 79, 147, 215 and 375 kg N ha-1) was performed in 2009 and 2010 in a maize field in Huanghuaihai region, China, where > 300 kg N ha-1 has been routinely applied to soil during maize growth period of 120 days. Responses of net N mineralization, inorganic N flux (0–10cm), NH3 volatilization, and maize yield to N fertilization were measured. During the growth period, net N mineralization and nitrification varied seasonally ...


Growth And Survival Of Salamanders Exposed To Different Formulations Of Glyphosate-Based Herbicide, Jessica Johnson 2017 Western Kentucky University

Growth And Survival Of Salamanders Exposed To Different Formulations Of Glyphosate-Based Herbicide, Jessica Johnson

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

Amphibian populations have been experiencing rapid declines worldwide in the past few decades. There are many proposed causations, including the use of agricultural chemicals such as herbicides. Glyphosate based herbicides are one of the most widely used herbicides. This study looks at the effects of different brands of glyphosate-based herbicides, including those intended for aquatic use, on the survival and growth of axolotl salamander larvae. Out of four brands of glyphosate herbicide (Aquamaster, Aquaneat, Helosate plus, and Roundup Pro), the survival rates of Roundup Pro were the lowest. Most mortality occurred between the 3 mg/L and 6 mg/L ...


Predicting Invasion In Grassland Ecosystems: Is Exotic Dominance The Real Embarrassment Of Richness?, Eric W. Seabloom, Elizabeth T. Borer, Yvonne Buckley, Elsa E. Cleland, Kendi Davies, Jennifer Firn, W. Stanley Harpole, Yann Hautier, Eric Lind, Andrew Macdougall, John L. Orrock, Suzanne M. Prober, Peter Andler, Juan Alberti, T. Michael Anderson, Jonathan D. Bakker, Lori A. Biederman, Dana Blumenthal, Cynthia S. Brown, Lars A. Brudvig, Maria Caldeira, Chengjin Chu, Michael J. Crawley, Pedro Daleo, Ellen I. Damschen, Carla M. D'Antonio, Nicole M. Decrappeo, Chris R. Dickman, Guozhen Du, Philip A. Fay, Paul Frater, Daniel S. Gruner, Nicole Hagenah, Andrew Hector, Aveliina Helm, Helmut Hillebrand, Kirsten S. Hofmockel, Hope C. Humphries, Oscar Iribarne, Virginia L. Jin, Adam Kay, Kevin P. Kirkman, Julia A. Klein, Johannes M. N. Knops, Kimberly J. La Pierre, Laura M. Ladwig, John G. Lambrinos, Andrew D. B. Leakey, Qi Li, Wei Li, Rebecca McCulley, Brett Melbourne, Charles E. Mitchell, Joslin L. Moore, John Morgan, Brent Mortensen, Lydia R. O'Halloran, Meelis Partel, Jesus Pascual, David A. Pyke, Anita C. Risch, Roberto Salguero-Gomez, Mahesh Sankaran, Martin Schuetz, Anna Simonsen, Melinda Smith, Carly Stevens, Lauren Sullivan, Glenda M. Wardle, Elizabeth M. Wolkovich, Peter D. Wragg, Justin Wright, Louie Yang 2017 University of Minnesota

Predicting Invasion In Grassland Ecosystems: Is Exotic Dominance The Real Embarrassment Of Richness?, Eric W. Seabloom, Elizabeth T. Borer, Yvonne Buckley, Elsa E. Cleland, Kendi Davies, Jennifer Firn, W. Stanley Harpole, Yann Hautier, Eric Lind, Andrew Macdougall, John L. Orrock, Suzanne M. Prober, Peter Andler, Juan Alberti, T. Michael Anderson, Jonathan D. Bakker, Lori A. Biederman, Dana Blumenthal, Cynthia S. Brown, Lars A. Brudvig, Maria Caldeira, Chengjin Chu, Michael J. Crawley, Pedro Daleo, Ellen I. Damschen, Carla M. D'Antonio, Nicole M. Decrappeo, Chris R. Dickman, Guozhen Du, Philip A. Fay, Paul Frater, Daniel S. Gruner, Nicole Hagenah, Andrew Hector, Aveliina Helm, Helmut Hillebrand, Kirsten S. Hofmockel, Hope C. Humphries, Oscar Iribarne, Virginia L. Jin, Adam Kay, Kevin P. Kirkman, Julia A. Klein, Johannes M. N. Knops, Kimberly J. La Pierre, Laura M. Ladwig, John G. Lambrinos, Andrew D. B. Leakey, Qi Li, Wei Li, Rebecca Mcculley, Brett Melbourne, Charles E. Mitchell, Joslin L. Moore, John Morgan, Brent Mortensen, Lydia R. O'Halloran, Meelis Partel, Jesus Pascual, David A. Pyke, Anita C. Risch, Roberto Salguero-Gomez, Mahesh Sankaran, Martin Schuetz, Anna Simonsen, Melinda Smith, Carly Stevens, Lauren Sullivan, Glenda M. Wardle, Elizabeth M. Wolkovich, Peter D. Wragg, Justin Wright, Louie Yang

Lori A. Biederman

Invasions have increased the size of regional species pools, but are typically assumed to reduce native diversity. However, global-scale tests of this assumption have been elusive because of the focus on exotic species richness, rather than relative abundance. This is problematic because low invader richness can indicate invasion resistance by the native community or, alternatively, dominance by a single exotic species. Here, we used a globally replicated study to quantify relationships between exotic richness and abundance in grass-dominated ecosystems in 13 countries on six continents, ranging from salt marshes to alpine tundra. We tested effects of human land use, native ...


The Effects Of Nitrogen And Potassium On The Growth Of Brassica Rapa, Kimberly Truong 2017 Wright State University

The Effects Of Nitrogen And Potassium On The Growth Of Brassica Rapa, Kimberly Truong

Best Integrated Writing

Truong conducted an experiment to observe the effect that nitrogen and potassium from organic sources has on plant growth. Truong makes suggestions for further research.


Digital Commons powered by bepress