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Molecular Characterization Of A Gene Encoding Insulin-Like Peptide 5 (Ilp5) In Drosophila Virilis, Nikolas R. Likourentzos, Jae H. Park 2020 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Molecular Characterization Of A Gene Encoding Insulin-Like Peptide 5 (Ilp5) In Drosophila Virilis, Nikolas R. Likourentzos, Jae H. Park

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee

The study of the insulin-like peptides of Drosophila can provide insight of their similarities to mammalian insulin and their potential usage in treating human insulin-related diseases. In this study, we isolated and characterized cDNA encoding insulin-like peptide (ILP) 5 in D. virilis by using RNA purification, reverse transcription, and RACE protocols. Subsequently, various bioinformatic softwares were employed to predict peptide structure. The ILP5 gene (587 base pairs) codes for 121 amino acids that make up prepro-ILP5. After maturation, functional ILP5 is a peptide of two 25 amino acid chains, A- and B-chain, connected by two disulfide bonds. Sequencing genomic DNA ...


The Current Neuroscientific Understanding Of Alzheimer's Disease, Rachel A. Brandes 2020 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

The Current Neuroscientific Understanding Of Alzheimer's Disease, Rachel A. Brandes

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee

Alzheimer’s disease is a degenerative neurological illness characterized by the deterioration of brain regions implicated in memory and cognitive function. While researchers have yet to find a cure or effective treatment, they have gained a better understanding of its pathology and development. Through years of neuroscience research, scientists have discovered much of what happens in the brain during Alzheimer’s disease onset and how this causes its symptoms; many hypotheses regarding this aspect of the illness involve temporal lobe atrophy, neurofibrillary tangles, and amyloid plaques. Although Alzheimer’s disease affects millions of people every day, it seems that most ...


Chemical Tools For Residue-Specific And Secondary Amine Selective Petasis (Sasp) Bioconjugation Of Peptides And Proteins, Yonnette Sim 2020 Seton Hall University

Chemical Tools For Residue-Specific And Secondary Amine Selective Petasis (Sasp) Bioconjugation Of Peptides And Proteins, Yonnette Sim

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Chemical protein synthesis is an invaluable tool that enables the construction of novel protein design, incorporation of non-native functionalities, elucidation of structure-function relationships and enable a wide diversity of modifications (such as Post Translation Modification) to study protein functions. Native Chemical Ligation (NCL) in conjunction with Fmoc Solid Phase Peptide Synthesis (SPPS) is the most used method for synthesis of functional peptides and proteins. The synthesis relies on the reaction of a C-terminal peptide thioester and a N-terminal cysteine peptide. Fmoc SPPS of peptide thioester for chemical protein synthesis via NCL is a challenge. Methods that exist for the synthesis ...


Rapid Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing Platform For Direct Clinical Samples, Terrance Zhang 2020 University of Connecticut

Rapid Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing Platform For Direct Clinical Samples, Terrance Zhang

Honors Scholar Theses

Infectious diseases and septicemia are two of the major causes of death in the U.S., necessitating rapid treatment of septic patients with proper, efficacious antibiotics. Unfortunately, the emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria are continuously being aggravated by an abuse in antibiotic prescription at a clinical and agricultural level. It is known that antibiotic resistance evolves through the sequential accumulation of multiple mutations in bacteria, which is accentuated by prolonged exposure of bacteria to ineffective antibiotics when implementing traditional septicemia treatment. The goal of this project is to develop a novel, easy-to-use AST platform for rapid antimicrobial susceptibility profiling ...


Alternative Polyadenylation Modulates Expression Of Pro-Fibrotic Proteins And Contributes To Lung Fibrosis, Junsuk Ko 2020 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Alternative Polyadenylation Modulates Expression Of Pro-Fibrotic Proteins And Contributes To Lung Fibrosis, Junsuk Ko

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic lung disease which affects about 5 to 8 million individuals in the world. Despite the high prevalence, there is currently no cure for IPF, and the cause of this disease is still unclear. Our laboratory and collaborators have shown that nudix hydrolase 21 (NUDT21, which is also known as cleavage factor 25, CFIm25) is a key regulator of alternative polyadenylation (APA). NUDT21 depletion causes 3’UTR shortening via APA leading to enhanced mRNA stability and protein translation. This NUDT21 reduction promotes tumor growth in glioblastoma by enhancing expression of oncogenes. Cancer and IPF ...


Cloning And Expression Of Hydra Innexin 2, A Gap Junction Protein Required For Coordinated Contraction Of The Body Column, Ashley O'Brien 2020 Buffalo State College

Cloning And Expression Of Hydra Innexin 2, A Gap Junction Protein Required For Coordinated Contraction Of The Body Column, Ashley O'Brien

Biology Theses

In invertebrates gap junctions are formed by the innexin family of proteins. Remarkably, the genome of Hydra magnipapillata contains 17 innexin genes. This study focused on Hydra innexin-2 (h-Inx2) which is expressed in nerve cells and plays a role in contraction of the body column. The gene sequence of H-Inx2 was obtained from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), the gene was synthesized externally and transferred to a vector suitable for expression in Xenopus oocytes (pcDNA3.1 CT-GFP TOPO). The TOPO CT-GFP vector includes a priming site for RNA polymerase which allows in vitro preparation of RNA. Another advantage ...


Investigating The Interactions Between Individual Calmodulin And Hiv-1 Protein Domains, Riley K. Kendall, Jerry LaRue 2020 Chapman University

Investigating The Interactions Between Individual Calmodulin And Hiv-1 Protein Domains, Riley K. Kendall, Jerry Larue

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

The World Health Organization found that 37.9 million people were living with HIV by the end of 2018. HIV is a virus that weakens the immune system through viral replication and the destruction of CD4+ T-cells, which are white blood cells that detect infection and make antibodies. A cure for HIV has not yet been discovered. HIV-1 contains a Gag polyprotein which regulates the stages of viral replication. Previous studies suggest that the myristoyl group of a matrix protein peptide found on the Gag polyprotein, MA, forms a complex with a calcium-binding, multifunctional regulatory protein called Calmodulin (CaM). CaM ...


A Putative Cystathionine Beta-Synthase Homolog Of Mycolicibacterium Smegmatis Is Involved In De Novo Cysteine Biosynthesis, Saroj Kumar Mahato 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

A Putative Cystathionine Beta-Synthase Homolog Of Mycolicibacterium Smegmatis Is Involved In De Novo Cysteine Biosynthesis, Saroj Kumar Mahato

Theses and Dissertations

Mycobacteria include serious pathogens of humans and animals. Mycolicibacterium smegmatis is a non-pathogenic model that is widely used to study core mycobacterial metabolism. This thesis explores mycobacterial pathways of cysteine biosynthesis by generating and study of genetic mutants of M. smegmatis. Published in vitro biochemical studies had revealed three independent routes to cysteine synthesis in mycobacteria involving separate homologs of cysteine synthase, namely CysK1, CysK2, and CysM. However, in vivo data were lacking. The M. smegmatis genome encodes only a CysM homolog and lacks orthologs for CysK1 or CysK2. The gene that codes for CysM is a part of an ...


Mechanisms Of Statin Effects On Muscle And Neuronal Proteostasis, Daniel Yu 2020 University of Connecticut

Mechanisms Of Statin Effects On Muscle And Neuronal Proteostasis, Daniel Yu

University Scholar Projects

Statins are widely prescribed and used chronically, but we know little about the effects on long-term protein homeostasis during stress and aging. Our aim was to quantify the effect of statins on stress-induced protein damage. We administered atorvastatin in a dose-response curve in Caenorhabditis elegans under naïve control conditions and in conditions of hypertonic and heat stress known to induce muscle damage measurable as countable puncta in a polyglutamine aggregation model of damage. We observed that there is significant polyglutamine aggregation variability among worms at baseline and thus further study requires within experiment baseline controls, per worm. Our results are ...


Investigating The Redox Sensitivity Of Mitf Splice Variants, Rachel Berryman 2020 Linfield College

Investigating The Redox Sensitivity Of Mitf Splice Variants, Rachel Berryman

Senior Theses

Within pigment-producing cells known as melanocytes, the transcription factor MITF is intimately involved in regulating genes associated with cell cycle maintenance and melanocyte differentiation. Research, however, has provided conflicting results on the relationship between the expression levels of MITF and melanocyte cell fate. To complicate matters, two splice variants of MITF exist, differing by only 18 base pairs. These variants have been observed at variable levels of expression in melanocyte and melanoma cells, raising the question as to their functional purpose. Building upon previous research by the Leachman/Cassidy lab that identified the redox sensitivity of MITF while additionally establishing ...


Characterization Of Avidin And Case9 Single Protein Molecules By A Solid-State Nanopore Device, Haopeng Li 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Characterization Of Avidin And Case9 Single Protein Molecules By A Solid-State Nanopore Device, Haopeng Li

Theses and Dissertations

The shape and charge of a protein play significant roles in protein dynamics in the biological system of humans and animals. Characterizing and quantifying the shape and charge of a protein at the single-molecule level remains a challenge. Solid-state nanopores made of silicon nitride (SiNx) have emerged as novel platforms for biosensing such as diagnostics for single-molecule detection and DNA sequencing. SSN detection is based on measuring the variations in ionic conductance as charged biomolecules translocate through nanometer-sized channels driven by an external voltage applied across the membrane. In this paper, we observe the translocation of asymmetric cylindrical structure CRISPR-Cas9 ...


An Extended View Of The Temporal Dynamics Of Caspase Activity During The Extrinsic Pathway Of Apoptosis In Jurkat T-Lymphocytes, Catherine Zwemer 2020 University of Mary Washington

An Extended View Of The Temporal Dynamics Of Caspase Activity During The Extrinsic Pathway Of Apoptosis In Jurkat T-Lymphocytes, Catherine Zwemer

Student Research Submissions

Apoptosis, a process in which a cell systematically triggers its own death in response to DNA damage or external stimuli, is widely utilized in the body to maintain a homeostatic quantity of cells. Malfunctions in this process can result in numerous consequences, particularly tumor development. For a cell to undergo apoptosis, there are two major pathways, dependent upon the method of induction: the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. The goal of this research is to elucidate the temporal dynamics of apoptosis in Jurkat T-lymphocytes with respect to caspase activity in the extrinsically-activated pathway, using fluorescence microscopy. Microfluidic devices were fabricated from ...


Surface Runoff Alters Cave Microbial Community Structure And Function, Madison Davis, Maria A. Messina, Giuseppe Nicolosi, Salvatore Petralia, Melvin D. Baker, Christiana K. S. Mayne, Chelsea M. Dinon, Christina J. Moss, Bogdan P. Onac, James R. Garey 2020 University of South Florida

Surface Runoff Alters Cave Microbial Community Structure And Function, Madison Davis, Maria A. Messina, Giuseppe Nicolosi, Salvatore Petralia, Melvin D. Baker, Christiana K. S. Mayne, Chelsea M. Dinon, Christina J. Moss, Bogdan P. Onac, James R. Garey

Cell Biology, Microbiology, and Molecular Biology Faculty Publications

Caves formed by sulfuric acid dissolution have been identified worldwide. These caves can host diverse microbial communities that are responsible for speleogenesis and speleothem formation. It is not well understood how microbial communities change in response to surface water entering caves. Illumina 16S rRNA sequencing and bioinformatic tools were used to determine the impact of surface water on the microbial community diversity and function within a spring pool found deep in the Monte Conca Cave system in Sicily, Italy. Sulfur oxidizers comprised more than 90% of the microbial community during the dry season and were replaced by potential anthropogenic contaminants ...


Ceullular Basis Of Missense Variants Causing Familial Hypercholesterolemia In Uae, Aseel Adnan Khalid Jawabri 2020 United Arab Emirates University

Ceullular Basis Of Missense Variants Causing Familial Hypercholesterolemia In Uae, Aseel Adnan Khalid Jawabri

Biochemistry Theses

Familial hypercholesterolemia is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) carrying cholesterol in the blood. FH is mainly caused by mutations in the gene encoding the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) which causes altered lipid metabolism. LDLR is synthesized and initially modified by glycosylation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and transferred to the plasma membrane by Golgi to carry out LDL clearance from the bloodstream. Defective LDLR can, therefore, lead to increased levels of LDL in the blood which may lead to atherosclerosis and premature coronary artery diseases.

For the past few years, cardiovascular diseases have ...


Genetic Analysis Of Invasive Populations Of Ventenata Dubia (Poaceae): An Assessment Of Propagule Pressure And Pattern Of Range Expansion In The Western United States, Inna Pervukhina-Smith 2020 Boise State University

Genetic Analysis Of Invasive Populations Of Ventenata Dubia (Poaceae): An Assessment Of Propagule Pressure And Pattern Of Range Expansion In The Western United States, Inna Pervukhina-Smith

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Molecular markers prove to be an invaluable tool in assessing the introduction dynamics, pattern of range expansion, and population genetics of an invasive species. Ventenata dubia (Leers) Coss. (Aveneae; ventenata) is a diploid, primarily self-pollinating, annual grass native to Eurasia and Northern Africa. The grass has a detailed herbarium collection history in the western United States since its discovery in eastern Washington in 1952. Genetic analysis of 51 invasive populations (1636 individuals) of V. dubia, coupled with historical records, suggests moderate propagule pressure from multiple introductions, followed by local or regional range expansion. Enzyme electrophoresis detected nine multilocus genotypes (MLGs ...


Reversible Inhibition Of Mycobacterial Dnab Protein Splicing By Zinc, Gabrielle Hardison 2020 Murray State University

Reversible Inhibition Of Mycobacterial Dnab Protein Splicing By Zinc, Gabrielle Hardison

Honors College Theses

Inteins are emerging as post-translational regulatory elements, undergoing conditional protein splicing in response to a variety of environmental cues. Inteins are seamlessly removed by self-splicing from exteins, or flanking portions of the host protein, which they interrupt. DnaB of Mycobacterium smegmatis, a helicase essential for replication, harbors two inteins known as DnaBi1 and DnaBi2, each with discrete structural characteristics and insertion positions. DnaBi1 was used here to design a reporter system which links splicing with resistance to the antibiotic kanamycin. We built a construct that strictly requires catalytically active DnaBi1 for survival in the presence of kanamycin and used this ...


Nutritional Supplementation And Skeletal Muscle Health In Chronic Diseases, Hexirui Wu 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Nutritional Supplementation And Skeletal Muscle Health In Chronic Diseases, Hexirui Wu

Theses and Dissertations

Prevalence of chronic diseases in the United States keeps increasing in recent years. There are approximately four in ten adults having chronic diseases in America. Chronic diseases include obesity, aging, heart diseases, cancer and many others. This thesis mainly focuses on obesity and aging. Skeletal muscle performance is impaired in obesity and aging conditions. One common reason causing this could be higher fat mass and lower muscle mass. However, there is no study showing what pathways are involved in the imbalance of body composition. Therefore, the first objective of the thesis is to determine gene expression of selected pathways in ...


Effects Of Nicotinamide Riboside And Beta-Hydroxybutyrate On C. Elegans Lifespan, Jeffery Peters 2020 East Tennessee State University

Effects Of Nicotinamide Riboside And Beta-Hydroxybutyrate On C. Elegans Lifespan, Jeffery Peters

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The nicotinamide riboside (NR) form of vitamin B3and the ketone body ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) are two of the most promising natural compounds yet identified for the treatment of aging and aging-related diseases. Forms of vitamin B3are precursors for the synthesis of the coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(H)) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP(H)). In aged cells levels of NAD+decline, decreasing metabolism and decreasing activity of protective sirtuin protein deacetylases. In aged cells NR, but not more common forms of vitamin B3, boost NAD+levels. BHB is naturally produced by the body when individuals fast ...


Temporary Membrane Permeabilization Via The Pore-Forming Toxin Lysenin, Nisha Shrestha, Christopher A. Thomas, Devon Richtsmeier, Andrew Bogard, Rebecca Hermann, Malyk Walker, Gamid Abatchev, Raquel J. Brown, Daniel Fologea 2020 Boise State University

Temporary Membrane Permeabilization Via The Pore-Forming Toxin Lysenin, Nisha Shrestha, Christopher A. Thomas, Devon Richtsmeier, Andrew Bogard, Rebecca Hermann, Malyk Walker, Gamid Abatchev, Raquel J. Brown, Daniel Fologea

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

Pore-forming toxins are alluring tools for delivering biologically-active, impermeable cargoes to intracellular environments by introducing large conductance pathways into cell membranes. However, the lack of regulation often leads to the dissipation of electrical and chemical gradients, which might significantly affect the viability of cells under scrutiny. To mitigate these problems, we explored the use of lysenin channels to reversibly control the barrier function of natural and artificial lipid membrane systems by controlling the lysenin’s transport properties. We employed artificial membranes and electrophysiology measurements in order to identify the influence of labels and media on the lysenin channel’s conductance ...


Functional Analysis Of A Critical Glycine (Glycine 12) In Beta-Type Connexins Of Human Skin, Rasheed Bailey 2020 State University of New York College at Buffalo - Buffalo State College

Functional Analysis Of A Critical Glycine (Glycine 12) In Beta-Type Connexins Of Human Skin, Rasheed Bailey

Biology Theses

At least five beta-type connexins are expressed in various layers of the skin (Cx26, Cx30, Cx30.3, Cx31, and Cx32) and all include a glycine residue at position 12. Glycine12 (G12) is located about halfway through the cytoplasmic amino terminus and has been the focus of several studies related to connexin diseases and gap junction channel structure. The importance of this residue is evident in the severity and diversity of diseases associated with amino acid substitutions at G12 including hereditary forms of skin disease, deafness and neuropathy. This study uses bioinformatic analysis in combination with mutational analysis and electrophysiology to ...


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