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The Role Of Fos And Junb In The Reprogramming Of Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells, Kayla Bendinelli 2019 Dickinson College

The Role Of Fos And Junb In The Reprogramming Of Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells, Kayla Bendinelli

Student Honors Theses By Year

Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is the most common form of leukemia in adults and while it has a high remission rate, relapse with therapy resistance is common, indicating the need for more targeted and effective therapies. It is possible to reprogram AML cells in culture to undergo cell cycle arrest, differentiation into “normal” macrophage-like cells, and apoptosis using phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a diacyl glycerol (DAG) mimic. While this is effective in “curing” leukemia in culture, PMA is too toxic to serve as a therapy in AML patients. During these PMA-induced changes, approximately 1250 genes change in expression. The goal ...


Molecular Signatures Of Calpain 10 Isoforms Sequences, Envisage Functional Similarity And Therapeutic Potential, Bushra Chaudhry, Farina Hanif, Kausar Saboohi 2019 Aga Khan University

Molecular Signatures Of Calpain 10 Isoforms Sequences, Envisage Functional Similarity And Therapeutic Potential, Bushra Chaudhry, Farina Hanif, Kausar Saboohi

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

Calpain 10 plays a role in insulin secretion, action and susceptibility to type 2 diabetes. The mechanism through which it influences the insulin secretion and action is not completely defined. A structural bioinformatics approach is applied to envision its mechanism of action using available tools on NCBI (blastp and blastn), EMBL-EBI, Ensembl, Swiss Model Repository websites, I-TASSER, PROCHECK program and Discovery Studio software. Homology of domain I and II of calpain10 (isoform a) was established with super family cysteine proteinase domains (II a and II b, e=1.30e-77, 1.00e-20). Remaining sequences of domain III and T from (isoform ...


Further Characterization Of The Skeletal Phenotype In A Hurler Syndrome Mouse Model And The Ethical Treatment Of Children In Medicine, Anna Marie McWoods 2019 Missouri State University

Further Characterization Of The Skeletal Phenotype In A Hurler Syndrome Mouse Model And The Ethical Treatment Of Children In Medicine, Anna Marie Mcwoods

MSU Graduate Theses

Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder caused by the deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme α-L-iduronidase (IDUA). Absence of IDUA results in the accumulation of dermatan and heparin sulfate and ultimately causes multi-system dysfunction. The most severe form of MPS I is Hurlers syndrome, a rapidly progressive disorder that, if left untreated, is fatal. Current treatment options for diagnosed individuals includes hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). These treatments are able to ameliorate the majority of symptoms with the exception of the bone phenotype. This investigation aimed to further characterize the bone ...


Synthesis, Stabilization, And Modification Of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles For Biological Applications, Allison Kimberly Freese 2019 Missouri State University

Synthesis, Stabilization, And Modification Of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles For Biological Applications, Allison Kimberly Freese

MSU Graduate Theses

Nanoparticles have become very useful as delivery systems in biomedicine. The nanoparticles can be layered with different compounds to produce a vessel for transport of biological materials. Specifically, gold nanoparticles layered with a reducing agent, lysozyme, and polyelectrolytes can be synthesized to transport lysozyme into a cell. However, zinc oxide nanoparticles are cheaper, biocompatible nanoparticles that can be used for the same process. Here in, zinc oxide nanoparticle conjugates were synthesized, modified, and analyzed to be used as a biological material delivery system. The zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized using zinc chloride and sodium hydroxide. The particles were then layered ...


Kinetics Of Hiv-1 Uncoating In C20 Microglial Cells, Melanie Anne Taylor 2019 Missouri State University

Kinetics Of Hiv-1 Uncoating In C20 Microglial Cells, Melanie Anne Taylor

MSU Graduate Theses

Uncoating is a poorly understood yet required step of HIV-1 replication that is defined as the disassembly of the viral capsid structure. The goal of this project is to characterize uncoating in C20 microglial cells. These cells are a natural target of HIV-1 that are infected to establish latent viral reservoirs and HIV-associated neurological disorders. A stable C20 cell line that expresses TRIM-CypA was established to study the kinetics of uncoating with the CsA washout assay. The expression of TRIM-CypA was confirmed by western blot and the functionality of the protein was confirmed by a viral infectivity assay. Using this ...


Stochastic Modeling Of Neuronal Transport In Various Cellular Geometries, Abhishek Choudhary Mr., Peter Kramer 2019 Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Stochastic Modeling Of Neuronal Transport In Various Cellular Geometries, Abhishek Choudhary Mr., Peter Kramer

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Modeling Mechanisms Behind Force Generation By Actin Polymerization, Seyed Fowad Motahari 2019 Washington University in St. Louis

Modeling Mechanisms Behind Force Generation By Actin Polymerization, Seyed Fowad Motahari

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Actin polymerization is the primary mechanism for overcoming the large turgor pressure that opposes endocytosis in yeast. While generation of pushing forces by actin polymerization is fairly well understood, it is not clear how actin polymerization produces pulling forces. In order to understand this process, it is necessary to simulate polymerization of filaments having various types of interactions with the membrane. Since existing methodologies in the literature do not treat such problems correctly, we develop a thermodynamically consistent methodology for treating polymerization of filaments having arbitrary interaction potentials with the membrane. Then I perform stochastic simulations for a system of ...


Arf Gtpases And Their Gefs And Gaps: Concepts And Challenges, Elizabeth Sztul, Pei-Wen Chen, James E. Casanova, Jacqueline Cherfils, Joel B. Dacks, David G. Lambright, Fang-Jen S. Lee, Paul A. Randazzo, Lorraine C. Santy, Annette Schurmann, Ilka Wilhelmi, Marielle E. Yohe, Richard A. Kahn 2019 University of Alabama, Birmingham

Arf Gtpases And Their Gefs And Gaps: Concepts And Challenges, Elizabeth Sztul, Pei-Wen Chen, James E. Casanova, Jacqueline Cherfils, Joel B. Dacks, David G. Lambright, Fang-Jen S. Lee, Paul A. Randazzo, Lorraine C. Santy, Annette Schurmann, Ilka Wilhelmi, Marielle E. Yohe, Richard A. Kahn

Program in Molecular Medicine Publications and Presentations

Detailed structural, biochemical, cell biological, and genetic studies of any gene/protein are required to develop models of its actions in cells. Studying a protein family in the aggregate yields additional information, as one can include analyses of their coevolution, acquisition or loss of functionalities, structural pliability, and the emergence of shared or variations in molecular mechanisms. An even richer understanding of cell biology can be achieved through evaluating functionally linked protein families. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of three protein families: the ARF GTPases, the guanine nucleotide exchange factors (ARF GEFs) that activate them, and the GTPase-activating ...


Bridging From Intramuscular To Limb Perfusion Delivery Of Raav: Optimization In A Non-Human Primate Study, Alisha Gruntman, Gwladys Gernoux, Qiushi Tang, Guo-Jie Ye, Dave R. Knop, Gensheng Wang, Janet Benson, Kristen E. Coleman, Allison M. Keeler, Christian Mueller, Louis G. Chicoine, Jeffrey D. Chulay, Terence R. Flotte 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Bridging From Intramuscular To Limb Perfusion Delivery Of Raav: Optimization In A Non-Human Primate Study, Alisha Gruntman, Gwladys Gernoux, Qiushi Tang, Guo-Jie Ye, Dave R. Knop, Gensheng Wang, Janet Benson, Kristen E. Coleman, Allison M. Keeler, Christian Mueller, Louis G. Chicoine, Jeffrey D. Chulay, Terence R. Flotte

Christian Mueller

Phase 1 and phase 2 gene therapy trials using intramuscular (IM) administration of a recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 1 (rAAV1) for replacement of serum alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency have shown long-term (5-year) stable transgene expression at approximately 2% to 3% of therapeutic levels, arguing for the long-term viability of this approach to gene replacement of secreted serum protein deficiencies. However, achieving these levels required 100 IM injections to deliver 135 mL of vector, and further dose escalation is limited by the scalability of direct IM injection. To further advance the dose escalation, we sought to bridge the rAAV-AAT clinical development ...


Role Of The Glycerophosphocholine Acyltransferase, Gpc1, In Phosphatidylcholine (Pc) Biosynthesis And Remodeling In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Sanket Anaokar 2019 Duquesne University

Role Of The Glycerophosphocholine Acyltransferase, Gpc1, In Phosphatidylcholine (Pc) Biosynthesis And Remodeling In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Sanket Anaokar

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Biomembranes are permeable barriers that enclose the cell and the intracellular organelles in a cell. The selective nature of these robust barriers acts as the first line of defense towards the harsh factors that can compromise cell survival. Biomembranes primarily consist of membrane lipids that are organized into layers to form a dynamic bilayer structure. The dynamic nature of the membrane requires the synchronized modulation of lipid composition through de novo synthesis, degradation, intracellular movement, and remodeling. Phospholipids are the major membrane lipid class, and phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the most abundant phospholipid in most eukaryotic biomembranes.

PC is primarily produced ...


The Effect Of Simulated Storm Passage On The Behavior Of Whitespotted Bamboo Sharks, Chiloscyllium Plagiosum And Golden Shiners, Notemigonus Chrysoleucas, Jordan A. Healy 2019 University of Mississippi

The Effect Of Simulated Storm Passage On The Behavior Of Whitespotted Bamboo Sharks, Chiloscyllium Plagiosum And Golden Shiners, Notemigonus Chrysoleucas, Jordan A. Healy

Honors Theses

Environmental changes during a storm can affect animal behavior; for example, tagged sharks leave shallow waters during tropical storms. While changes in shark behavior during storm passage have been documented, there have been no experimental tests to determine which environmental parameters are responsible. In this study, we experimentally manipulated two environmental cues: barometric pressure, and thunder sounds, to determine their effect on whitespotted bamboo sharks, Chiloscyllium plagiosum, and golden shiners, Notemigonus crysoleucas. Elasmobranchs do not have a swim bladder to detect pressure change; therefore, we used golden shiners to compare the reaction of a fish with a swim bladder. The ...


On The Ability Of Pnicogen Atoms To Engage In Both Σ And Π-Hole Complexes. Heterodimers Of Zf2C6H5 (Z = P, As, Sb, Bi) And Nh3, Wiktor Zierkiewicz, Mariusz Michalczyk, Rafał Wysokiński, Steve Scheiner 2019 Wrocław University of Science and Technology

On The Ability Of Pnicogen Atoms To Engage In Both Σ And Π-Hole Complexes. Heterodimers Of Zf2C6H5 (Z = P, As, Sb, Bi) And Nh3, Wiktor Zierkiewicz, Mariusz Michalczyk, Rafał Wysokiński, Steve Scheiner

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

When bound to a pair of F atoms and a phenyl ring, a pyramidal pnicogen (Z) atom can form a pnicogen bond wherein an NH3 base lies opposite one F atom. In addition to this σ-hole complex, the ZF2C6H5 molecule can distort in such a way that the NH3 approaches on the opposite side to the lone pair on Z, where there is a so-called π-hole. The interaction energies of these π-hole dimers are roughly 30 kcal/mol, much larger than the equivalent quantities for the σ-hole complexes, which are only 4–13 ...


Studies On Luminescent Gold And Platinum Nanoclusters For Biological Sensing And Catalysis, Richard Covington 2019 University of Mississippi

Studies On Luminescent Gold And Platinum Nanoclusters For Biological Sensing And Catalysis, Richard Covington

Honors Theses

Nanoclusters are small nanoparticles that usually range around a micrometer in diameter. Gold Nanoclusters are known for their unique size and surface qualities and do not share metallic properties with nanoparticles or their respective bulk material. Some metal nanoclusters show high fluorescence and can be synthesized with protein mediation. Nanocluster formation depends on a number of variables, including temperature, pH, and type of reducing agent. This experiment was done to begin to understand how these variables may affect synthesis and what exactly they are. Pure Wild Type CSP-1 protein was induced, transformed, and purified in order to mediate gold and ...


Enhanced Cas12a Editing In Mammalian Cells And Zebrafish, Pengpeng Liu, Kevin Luk, Masahiro Shin, Feston Idrizi, Samantha F. Kwok, Benjamin P. Roscoe, Esther Mintzer, Sneha Suresh, Kyle Morrison, Josias B. Frazao, Mehmet Fatih Bolukbasi, Karthikeyan Ponnienselvan, Jeremy Luban, Lihua Julie Zhu, Nathan D. Lawson, Scot A. Wolfe 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Enhanced Cas12a Editing In Mammalian Cells And Zebrafish, Pengpeng Liu, Kevin Luk, Masahiro Shin, Feston Idrizi, Samantha F. Kwok, Benjamin P. Roscoe, Esther Mintzer, Sneha Suresh, Kyle Morrison, Josias B. Frazao, Mehmet Fatih Bolukbasi, Karthikeyan Ponnienselvan, Jeremy Luban, Lihua Julie Zhu, Nathan D. Lawson, Scot A. Wolfe

Open Access Articles

Type V CRISPR-Cas12a systems provide an alternate nuclease platform to Cas9, with potential advantages for specific genome editing applications. Here we describe improvements to the Cas12a system that facilitate efficient targeted mutagenesis in mammalian cells and zebrafish embryos. We show that engineered variants of Cas12a with two different nuclear localization sequences (NLS) on the C terminus provide increased editing efficiency in mammalian cells. Additionally, we find that pre-crRNAs comprising a full-length direct repeat (full-DR-crRNA) sequence with specific stem-loop G-C base substitutions exhibit increased editing efficiencies compared with the standard mature crRNA framework. Finally, we demonstrate in zebrafish embryos that the ...


Assessing The Potential Impact Of Nanotechnology On The Purification Of Water, Noor Khan 2019 Collin College

Assessing The Potential Impact Of Nanotechnology On The Purification Of Water, Noor Khan

Quest

Independent Research Paper

Research in progress for PHYS 2426: University Physics II

Faculty Mentor: Raji Kannampuzha, Ph.D.

The following paper represents research work done by students in a University Physics 2426 class, the second half of a two-semester introductory course in physics. It is a calculus-based physics course, intended primarily for physics, chemistry, math, and engineering majors. Students are introduced to the concept of academic research by learning to ask research-focused questions and then use the library resources to pursue outside research to find answers. For this assignment, students are asked to investigate a physical science, biological science, or ...


Circular Dichroism And Molecular Modeling Yield A Structure For The Complex Of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Trans-Activation Response Rna And The Binding Region Of Tat, The Trans-Acting Transcriptional Activator, Erwann P. Loret, Philippe T. Georgel, W. Curtis Johnson Jr., Pui Shing Ho 2019 Marshall University

Circular Dichroism And Molecular Modeling Yield A Structure For The Complex Of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Trans-Activation Response Rna And The Binding Region Of Tat, The Trans-Acting Transcriptional Activator, Erwann P. Loret, Philippe T. Georgel, W. Curtis Johnson Jr., Pui Shing Ho

Philippe T. Georgel

Transcription in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) retrovirus is regulated by binding the viral Tat protein (trans-acting transcriptional activator) to the trans-activation response (TAR) RNA sequence. Here, vacuum UV circular dichroism (VUV-CD) is used to study the structure of TAR and its complex with two peptide fragments that are important for Tat binding to TAR. The VUV-CD spectrum of TAR is typical of A-form RNA and is minimally perturbed when bound to either the short or the long Tat peptide. The CD spectra ofthe complexes indicate an extended structure in the argnine-rich region of Tat from amino acid ...


Biotransformation Of Praziquantel By Cunninghamella Elegans, Umbelopsis Ramanniana, And Yarrowia Lipolytica Metabolism, Samuel Chivers 2019 University of the Incarnate Word

Biotransformation Of Praziquantel By Cunninghamella Elegans, Umbelopsis Ramanniana, And Yarrowia Lipolytica Metabolism, Samuel Chivers

Samuel Chivers

No abstract provided.


Decrypting Female Attractivity In Garter Snakes, Holly Rucker 2019 James Madison University

Decrypting Female Attractivity In Garter Snakes, Holly Rucker

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

Pheromones are utilized by many species as sexual signals driving mate choice, and pheromone production in vertebrates hinges on sex hormone action. Female red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) produce a skin-based sex pheromone used by males for mate detection and selection. Estradiol is necessary for pheromone production, yet the specific mechanisms within the skin are unknown. Central to this is the metabolism of testosterone to estradiol via the enzyme aromatase. It is hypothesized that female garter snakes synthesize estradiol locally in the skin and maintain pheromone production via tissue-specific regulation of aromatase. Further, I hypothesize that female attractiveness, and ...


Experimental Evidence Supportive Of The Quantum Dna Model, F. Matthew Mihelic 2019 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Experimental Evidence Supportive Of The Quantum Dna Model, F. Matthew Mihelic

Faculty Publications

The DNA molecule can be modeled as a quantum logic processor in which electron spin qubits are held coherently in each nucleotide in a logically and thermodynamically reversible enantiomeric symmetry, and can be coherently conducted along the pi-stacking interactions of aromatic nucleotide bases, while simultaneously being spin-filtered via the helicity of the DNA molecule. Entangled electron pairs can be separated by that spin-filtering, held coherently at biological temperatures in the topologically insulated nucleotide quantum gates, and incorporated into separate DNA strands during DNA replication. Two separate DNA strands that share quantum entangled electrons can be mitotically divided into individual cells ...


When Life Gives You Lemons: Comparing Two Diffusion Methods For A Psychological Screening Tool In The Medical Field, Jessica Tran 2019 University of Mississippi

When Life Gives You Lemons: Comparing Two Diffusion Methods For A Psychological Screening Tool In The Medical Field, Jessica Tran

Honors Theses

E.M. Rogers’ Diffusion of Innovation Theory is used to explain the process of how an idea or technology gains momentum and spreads through a particular population. The result of the diffusion is called adoption, meaning that over time the group has changed their initial behavior (i.e. using the new technology, purchasing and performing new behavior, etc.). There is considerable evidence for successful use of this theory in various fields. The study investigates the theory using a new psychological screening technology. A solicitation to hear information about the tool was presented to 19 physicians who were separated into two ...


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