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Analysis And Exploration Of Novel Antibiotic-Producing Streptomyces Spp. In Spokane County, Washington, Kyle S. Kramer, Jenifer B. Walke Ph.D 2020 Eastern Washington University

Analysis And Exploration Of Novel Antibiotic-Producing Streptomyces Spp. In Spokane County, Washington, Kyle S. Kramer, Jenifer B. Walke Ph.D

2020 Symposium Posters

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, a US citizen is infected by an antibiotic-resistant pathogen every 11 seconds, and every 15 minutes, a patient dies as a result of these infections. Due to the increasing incidence of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic microbes, the study and exploration of novel antibiotics from novel environments are imperative as infectious diseases are the second leading cause of death in the United States. The purpose of this research is to investigate and analyze antibiotic-producing soil microbes in Spokane County, WA, with hopes of discovering novel antibiotic-producing microbes, specifically Streptomyces species, and explore some of ...


Metabolomic Profiling Of Nicotiana Spp. Nectars Indicate That Pollinator Feeding Preference Is A Stronger Determinant Than Plant Phylogenetics In Shaping Nectar Diversity, Fredy A. Silva, Elizabeth C. Chatt, Siti-Nabilla Mahalim, Adel Guirgis, Xingche Guo, Dan S. Nettleton, Basil J. Nikolau, Robert W. Thornburg 2020 Iowa State University

Metabolomic Profiling Of Nicotiana Spp. Nectars Indicate That Pollinator Feeding Preference Is A Stronger Determinant Than Plant Phylogenetics In Shaping Nectar Diversity, Fredy A. Silva, Elizabeth C. Chatt, Siti-Nabilla Mahalim, Adel Guirgis, Xingche Guo, Dan S. Nettleton, Basil J. Nikolau, Robert W. Thornburg

Statistics Publications

Floral nectar is a rich secretion produced by the nectary gland and is offered as reward to attract pollinators leading to improved seed set. Nectars are composed of a complex mixture of sugars, amino acids, proteins, vitamins, lipids, organic and inorganic acids. This composition is influenced by several factors, including floral morphology, mechanism of nectar secretion, time of flowering, and visitation by pollinators. The objective of this study was to determine the contributions of flowering time, plant phylogeny, and pollinator selection on nectar composition in Nicotiana. The main classes of nectar metabolites (sugars and amino acids) were quantified using gas ...


From Tank To Treatment: Modeling Melanoma In Zebrafish, William Tyler Frantz, Craig J. Ceol 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

From Tank To Treatment: Modeling Melanoma In Zebrafish, William Tyler Frantz, Craig J. Ceol

Open Access Articles

Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer and one of few cancers with a growing incidence. A thorough understanding of its pathogenesis is fundamental to developing new strategies to combat mortality and morbidity. Zebrafish-due in large part to their tractable genetics, conserved pathways, and optical properties-have emerged as an excellent system to model melanoma. Zebrafish have been used to study melanoma from a single tumor initiating cell, through metastasis, remission, and finally into relapse. In this review, we examine seminal zebrafish studies that have advanced our understanding of melanoma.


The Role Of Redox Chemistry Of Disulfide Bonds In Cysteine Residues Of Membrane Proteins By Cuprous And Cupric Ions In Cell Death Of E. Coli, Morgan R. Stewart 2020 Portland State University

The Role Of Redox Chemistry Of Disulfide Bonds In Cysteine Residues Of Membrane Proteins By Cuprous And Cupric Ions In Cell Death Of E. Coli, Morgan R. Stewart

University Honors Theses

The antimicrobial properties of copper have been thoroughly researched, but is still unclear what the actual mechanism of cell death is. This study explores the theory that copper ions and other copper sources act as an antibiotic for E. coli by cleaving the disulfide bonds of membrane proteins through redox chemistry, disrupting the cell membrane and causing cell death. The focus of this study is Cu(I) and Cu(II) interactions with the thiol containing amino acid, cysteine, and how these interactions may be responsible for copper’s toxicity. Cuprous ions have been found to be more toxic to E ...


Mutagenesis Of The Btea Gene Encoding A Bordetella Virulence Protein, Xiaolei Mao 2020 Eastern Washington University

Mutagenesis Of The Btea Gene Encoding A Bordetella Virulence Protein, Xiaolei Mao

2020 Symposium Posters

Bordetella Type III Secretion System Effector A (BteA) is a virulence protein found in members of the genus Bordetella which include important pathogens of humans and other mammals. Bordetella pertussis is a causative agent of the whooping cough, a highly contagious respiratory disease that is especially dangerous, and sometimes deadly, for infants. The BteA protein appears to be an important factor in the ability of these pathogens to cause disease, as it leads to rapid killing of a wide range of mammalian cells. The aim of this project is to determine which regions of the DNA are important for mediating ...


Biological Physics Student Edition 2020: Chapter 1, Philip C. Nelson 2020 University of Pennsylvania

Biological Physics Student Edition 2020: Chapter 1, Philip C. Nelson

Department of Physics Papers

Chapter 1: What the Ancients Knew


Biological Physics Student Edition 2020: Contents And Prefaces, Philip C. Nelson 2020 University of Pennsylvania

Biological Physics Student Edition 2020: Contents And Prefaces, Philip C. Nelson

Department of Physics Papers

Brief Contents; Detailed Contents; To the Student; To the Instructor


Thermus Thermophilus Argonaute Functions In The Completion Of Dna Replication, Samson M. Jolly 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Thermus Thermophilus Argonaute Functions In The Completion Of Dna Replication, Samson M. Jolly

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Argonautes (AGOs) are present in all domains of life. Like their eukaryotic counterparts, archaeal and eubacterial AGOs adopt a similar global architecture and bind small nucleic acids. In many eukaryotes, AGOs, guided by short RNA sequences, defend cells against transposons and viruses. In the eubacterium Thermus thermophilus, the DNA-guided Argonaute TtAgo defends against transformation by DNA plasmids. We find that TtAgo also participates in DNA replication. In vivo, TtAgo binds 15–18 nt DNA guides derived from the chromosomal region where replication terminates, and TtAgo complexed to short DNA guides enhances target finding and prefers to bind targets with full ...


Mrna Stem-Loops Can Pause The Ribosome By Hindering A-Site Trna Binding, Chen Bao, Sarah Loerch, Clarence Ling, Andrei A. Korostelev, Nikolaus Grigorieff, Dmitri N. Ermolenko 2020 University of Rochester

Mrna Stem-Loops Can Pause The Ribosome By Hindering A-Site Trna Binding, Chen Bao, Sarah Loerch, Clarence Ling, Andrei A. Korostelev, Nikolaus Grigorieff, Dmitri N. Ermolenko

Open Access Articles

Although the elongating ribosome is an efficient helicase, certain mRNA stem-loop structures are known to impede ribosome movement along mRNA and stimulate programmed ribosome frameshifting via mechanisms that are not well understood. Using biochemical and single-molecule Forster resonance energy transfer (smFRET) experiments, we studied how frameshift-inducing stem-loops from E. coli dnaX mRNA and the gag-pol transcript of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) perturb translation elongation. We find that upon encountering the ribosome, the stem-loops strongly inhibit A-site tRNA binding and ribosome intersubunit rotation that accompanies translation elongation. Electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) reveals that the HIV stem-loop docks into the A site of ...


Molecular Docking Study Of Itpa Protein Substrate Complex, Aulane Mpouli 2020 Eastern Washington University

Molecular Docking Study Of Itpa Protein Substrate Complex, Aulane Mpouli

2020 Symposium Posters

Inosine Triphosphatase (ITPA) is an enzymatic molecule that works to prevent the amassed of an intermediate in the formation of purine nucleotides, Inosine Triphosphate (ITP). DNA consists of purine nucleotides, and its metabolic pathway includes the formation of this intermediate. Overpopulation of ITP causes mutations of DNA leading to cancers, increased Inosine levels in DNA and other immunodeficiencies. In order to regulate the ITP concentration, ITPA binds ITP creating a substrate/enzyme complex. In this study, we used computational docking to explore bound conformation and energy of the binding of ITP to ITPA protein. The docking results reveal how ITPA ...


Probing Large Intrinsically Disordered Regions Through Novel Sortase-Mediated Ligation, Leah Kjormoe 2020 Western Washinton University

Probing Large Intrinsically Disordered Regions Through Novel Sortase-Mediated Ligation, Leah Kjormoe

Scholars Week

In the realm of proteins, it is widely accepted that structure informs function. However, there are many proteins that contain intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs). These regions are areas in which the protein lacks defined structure, and IDPs are also often unstable, which complicates structural studies. NMR spectroscopy is an established method for probing protein structure and has been applied to that end in small IDRs. However, larger IDRs often have spectral overlap that makes data difficult to interpret. Furthermore, low-concentration samples limit spectral clarity. One method to address these difficulties is to use sortase ligation and segmental labeling, which increases ...


Nonlinear Control Of Biological Dynamical Systems, Megan J. Morrison 2020 University of Washington - Seattle Campus

Nonlinear Control Of Biological Dynamical Systems, Megan J. Morrison

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Dendritic Cell Development And Function, Vivek Durai 2020 Washington University in St. Louis

Dendritic Cell Development And Function, Vivek Durai

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Dendritic cells (DCs) are a group of immune cells that include both classical dendritic cells (cDCs) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). cDCs are further comprised of two distinct subsets, cDC1s and cDC2s, which play critical roles in the initiation of innate and adaptive immune responses. Understanding how these lineages develop and function is therefore paramount. All DCs require the receptor tyrosine kinase Flt3 and its ligand Flt3L for their development, but the loss of Flt3L in mice leads to a more severe DC deficiency than does the loss of Flt3. This has led to speculation that Flt3L can bind to ...


The Enzymatic Function Of The Tir Domain: From Axon Degeneration To Innate Immunity, Kow Essuman 2020 Washington University in St. Louis

The Enzymatic Function Of The Tir Domain: From Axon Degeneration To Innate Immunity, Kow Essuman

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Toll/Interleukin-1 Receptor (TIR) domain is an evolutionarily ancient protein domain conserved from bacteria to eukaryotes, and is an essential signaling component of innate immunity pathways. In animal innate immunity, TIR domains have primarily been described for their scaffolding function in assembling protein complexes in host defense. In plant immunity, TIR domains are key components of the intracellular Nucleotide Binding Leucine rich repeat (NLR) immune receptors that confer resistance to pathogens. These NLR receptors trigger cell death and an immune response upon activation, but their mechanism has remained elusive. In bacteria, TIR domain proteins have been suggested to function ...


Structural Mechanism Of Poxvirus Sabotage Of T-Cell Costimulation, Jabari Issa Elliott 2020 Washington University in St. Louis

Structural Mechanism Of Poxvirus Sabotage Of T-Cell Costimulation, Jabari Issa Elliott

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Poxviruses are characterized by large double stranded DNA genomes that encode numerous proteins tailored for host immune response evasion. Our lab has been investigating a sequence-diverse family of secreted poxvirus proteins that appear to share a conserved beta-sandwich fold, but differ in their immunomodulatory functions. We have termed members of this superfamily Poxvirus Immune Evasion (PIE) proteins, and there appears to be at least 20 distinct subfamilies. As it turns out, cowpox virus (CPXV) encodes 10 PIE proteins, one of which, M2, can inhibit murine T cell activation through specific interactions with co-stimulatory ligands B7. 1 (CD80) and B7. 2 ...


Conformational Basis And Small Molecule Antagonists Of E. Coli Adhesion To The Urinary Tract, Vasilios Kalas 2020 Washington University in St. Louis

Conformational Basis And Small Molecule Antagonists Of E. Coli Adhesion To The Urinary Tract, Vasilios Kalas

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most prevalent infections, afflicting 15 million women per year in the United States with annual healthcare costs exceeding $2-3 billion. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are the main etiological agent of UTIs and employ numerous virulence factors for host colonization. The most common adhesive mechanism by which UPEC mediate host-pathogen interactions is the chaperone-usher pathway (CUP), which is responsible for the assembly of proteinaceous surface appendages termed pili. Generally, CUP pili function in adherence or invasion of host tissues and in biofilm formation on medical devices and body habitats. CUP pili are highly ...


Phantoms To Placentas: Mr Methods For Oxygen Quantification, Kelsey Meinerz 2020 Washington University in St. Louis

Phantoms To Placentas: Mr Methods For Oxygen Quantification, Kelsey Meinerz

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Molecular oxygen (O2) is vital for efficient energy production and improper oxygenation is a hallmark of disease or metabolic dysfunction. In many pathologies, knowledge of tissue oxygen levels (pO2) could aid in diagnosis and treatment planning. The gold standard for pO2 measures in tissue are implantable probes, which are invasive, require surgery for placement, and are inaccessible to certain regions of the body. Methods for determining pO2 both non-invasively and quantitatively are lacking. The slight paramagnetic nature of O2 provides opportunities to non-invasively characterize pO2 in tissue via magnetic resonance (MR) techniques. As such, O2 can be treated as a ...


Elucidating The Effect Of Myopathy-Causing Mutations And Second-Site Suppressors On Client Processing By J-Domain Proteins, Melanie Y. Pullen 2020 Washington University in St. Louis

Elucidating The Effect Of Myopathy-Causing Mutations And Second-Site Suppressors On Client Processing By J-Domain Proteins, Melanie Y. Pullen

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Defects in protein quality control may lead to protein misfolding and aggregation often associated with protein conformational disorders such as Alzheimerճ Disease and Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophy, among others. Molecular chaperones protect against protein misfolding and aggregation. A chaperone of interest is the ubiquitously expressed type II Hsp40 co-chaperone DNAJB6, which assists in protein folding and disaggregation. Mutations within the DNAJB6 G/F domain have been associated with the dominantly inherited disease Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy type 1D (LGMD1D), now referred to as LGMDD1. Our collaborators recently discovered novel LGMDD1-associated mutations in the J-domain of DNAJB6. In the enclosed body of ...


Development Of An In Vitro Culture System For Cryptosporidium Parvum, Georgia Wilke 2020 Washington University in St. Louis

Development Of An In Vitro Culture System For Cryptosporidium Parvum, Georgia Wilke

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cryptosporidium is a genus of protozoan parasites that causes diarrheal disease in humans and other animals. There are two major species that cause disease in humans: C. parvum, which infects both humans and animals, and C. hominis, which primarily infects humans. A recent study investigating the etiologies of pediatric diarrheal illness in Africa and South Asia found that Cryptosporidium is the 2nd most prevalent cause of diarrhea in infants and may be a contributing factor to chronic malnutrition. This discovery has led to renewed interest in studying this parasite and a reexamination of the barriers to studying Cryptosporidium. The main ...


Integrated Unicellular/Filamentous Algal Production, Harvesting And Remediation System, Paul N. Black, James Allen, Timothy J Nicodemus 2020 Center for Metabolic Disease, Ordway Research Institute

Integrated Unicellular/Filamentous Algal Production, Harvesting And Remediation System, Paul N. Black, James Allen, Timothy J Nicodemus

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

A method of removing nitrogen-bound nitrate from at least one of groundwater, surface water, or waste water is disclosed. The method includes providing contaminant-containing water from groundwater, surface water, and/or waste water sources. The method further includes adding the contaminant-containing water to an algal photobioreactor system. The method further includes adding an alga culture to the alga photobioreactor system. The method further includes adjusting temperature, CO2 concentration, pH, light wavelength, and/or light intensity in the algal photobioreactor system to optimize the growth of the algea. The method further includes separating the aglae from the water and harvesting algal ...


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