Manipulating Graded Exercise Test Variables Affects The Validity Of The Lactate Threshold And V_ O2peak, 2018 Edith Cowan University
Manipulating Graded Exercise Test Variables Affects The Validity Of The Lactate Threshold And V_ O2peak, Nicholas A. Jamnick, Javier Botella, David B. Pyne, David Bishop
ECU Publications Post 2013
Background To determine the validity of the lactate threshold (LT) and maximal oxygen uptake (V_ O2max) determined during graded exercise test (GXT) of different durations and using different LT calculations. Trained male cyclists (n = 17) completed five GXTs of varying stage length (1, 3, 4, 7 and 10 min) to establish the LT, and a series of 30-min constant power bouts to establish the maximal lactate steady state (MLSS). V_ O2 was assessed during each GXT and a subsequent verification exhaustive bout (VEB), and 14 different LTs were calculated from four of the GXTs (3, 4, 7 and 10 min ...
Identifying Functional Components Of The Endoplasmic Reticulum Quality Control And Degradation Factor Edem1, 2018 University of Massachusetts Amherst
Identifying Functional Components Of The Endoplasmic Reticulum Quality Control And Degradation Factor Edem1, Lydia Lamriben
The ER Degradation-Enhancing Mannosidase-Like protein 1 (EDEM1) is a critical endoplasmic reticulum (ER) quality control factor involved in identifying and directing non-native proteins to the ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) pathway. However, its recognition and binding properties have remained enigmatic since its discovery. Here we provide evidence for an additional redox-sensitive interaction between EDEM1 and Z/NHK that requires the presence of the single Cys on the α-1 antitrypsin ERAD clients. Moreover, this Cys-dependent interaction is necessary when the proteins are isolated under stringent detergent conditions, ones in which only strong covalent interactions can be sustained. This interaction is inherent to ...
The Role Of The Metallochaperone Hypa In The Acid Survival And Activities Of Nickel Enzymes In Helicobacter Pylori, 2018 University of Massachusetts Amherst
The Role Of The Metallochaperone Hypa In The Acid Survival And Activities Of Nickel Enzymes In Helicobacter Pylori, Heidi Hu
Helicobacter pylori is a bacterium that has colonized the human gastric mucosa of over 50% of the world population. Persistent infection can cause gastritis, peptic ulcers, and cancers. The ability of H. pylori to colonize the acidic environment of the human stomach is dependent on the activity of the nickel containing enzymes, urease and NiFe-hydrogenase. The nickel metallochaperone, HypA, was previously shown to be required for the full activity of both enzymes. In addition to a Ni-binding site, HypA also contains a structural Zn site, which has been characterized to alter its averaged structure depending on pH and the presence ...
Impact Of Phosphoinositides On Regulation Of K-Atp By Atp And Hydrogen Sulfide, 2018 Virginia Commonwealth University
Impact Of Phosphoinositides On Regulation Of K-Atp By Atp And Hydrogen Sulfide, Tyler Hendon
Theses and Dissertations
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) reduces ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury by stimulating adenosine triphosphate (ATP) sensitive potassium channels (KATP) [1-5]. Demonstrating H2S stimulation is unique to KATP, as other inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) channels demonstrate inhibition or are unaffected . We recently showed that H2S inhibits Kir2 and Kir3 by decreasing channel sensitivity to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2 or PIP2) . Here, we test the hypothesis that H2S regulation of Kir6.2, a pore-forming subunit of the KATP channel, is also dependent on PIP2. Using whole-cell patch-clamp we show that H2S increases the activity of Kir6.2 channels expressed ...
Improving The Detection Limit Of Tau Aggregates For Use With Biological Samples, 2018 University of Denver
Improving The Detection Limit Of Tau Aggregates For Use With Biological Samples, Emily Rickman Hager
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
The protein Tau is found in neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer's disease and over 20 other neurodegenerative diseases. An assay has been developed to detect minute amounts of fibrils from human brain tissue. This assay subjects brain tissue extract and recombinant Tau to several rounds of sonication and incubation. Incubation allows recombinant Tau to add itself to the ends of the existing fibrils in brain tissue extract. Sonication breaks the existing fibrils in the brain tissue extract offering more ends for Tau to add onto. Cycles of sonication and incubation have been shown to allow for amplification of Tau fibrils ...
Bioinformatic And Experimental Approaches For Deeper Metaproteomic Characterization Of Complex Environmental Samples, 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Bioinformatic And Experimental Approaches For Deeper Metaproteomic Characterization Of Complex Environmental Samples, Ramsunder Mahadevan Iyer
The coupling of high performance multi-dimensional liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry for characterization of microbial proteins from complex environmental samples has paved the way for a new era in scientific discovery. The field of metaproteomics, which is the study of protein suite of all the organisms in a biological system, has taken a tremendous leap with the introduction of high-throughput proteomics. However, with corresponding increase in sample complexity, novel challenges have been raised with respect to efficient peptide separation via chromatography and bioinformatic analysis of the resulting high throughput data. In this dissertation, various aspects of metaproteomic characterization, including ...
Differential Effects Of Sodium And Magnesium Sulfate On Water Consumption By Beef Cattle, 2017 University of British Columbia
Differential Effects Of Sodium And Magnesium Sulfate On Water Consumption By Beef Cattle, A. S. Grout, D. M. Veira, D. M. Weary, M. A. G. Von Keyserlingk, D. Fraser
David Fraser, Ph.D.
The existing guidelines for maximum sulfate (SO4) in cattle drinking water are based on Na2SO4, although many water sources contain greater concentrations of MgSO4. Two experiments compared the effect of different SO4 salts on water consumption and fecal DM of cattle. In Exp. 1, 8 yearling heifers (initial BW = 345 ± 8 kg; mean ± SD) were watered twice daily with tapwater or water containing Na2SO4 or MgSO4 at target levels of 1,500, 3,000, or 4,500 mg of SO4/L for 2-d treatment periods separated by 2 d of access to tapwater. In Exp. 2, 16 yearling cattle (initial ...
Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species In Lipotoxic Hearts Induces Post-Translational Modifications Of Akap121, Drp1 And Opa1 That Promote Mitochondrial Fission, Kensuke Tsushima, Heiko Bugger, Adam R. Wende, Jamie Soto, Gregory A. Jenson, Austin R. Tor, Rose Mcglauflin, Helena C. Kenny, Yuan Zhang, Rhonda Souvenir, Xiao X. Hu, Crystal L. Sloan, Renata O. Pereira, Vitor A. Lira, Kenneth W. Spitzer, Terry L. Sharp, Kooresh I. Shoghi, Genevieve C. Sparagna, Eva A. Rog-Zielinska, Peter Kohl, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Jean E. Schaffer, E. Dale Abel
Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications
Rationale: Cardiac lipotoxicity, characterized by increased uptake, oxidation and accumulation of lipid intermediates, contributes to cardiac dysfunction in obesity and diabetes. However, mechanisms linking lipid overload and mitochondrial dysfunction are incompletely understood.
Objective: To elucidate the mechanisms for mitochondrial adaptations to lipid overload in postnatal hearts in vivo.
Methods and Results: Using a transgenic mouse model of cardiac lipotoxicity overexpressing long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 in cardiomyocytes, we show that modestly increased myocardial fatty acid uptake leads to mitochondrial structural remodeling with significant reduction in minimum diameter. This is associated with increased palmitoyl-carnitine oxidation and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation ...
Purification From Human Milk Of Matriptase Complexes With Secreted Serpins: Mechanism For Inhibition Of Matriptase Other Than Hai-1, 2017 University of Maryland at Baltimore
Purification From Human Milk Of Matriptase Complexes With Secreted Serpins: Mechanism For Inhibition Of Matriptase Other Than Hai-1, I-Chu Tseng, Feng-Pai Chou, Sheng-Feng Su, Michael Oberst, Nandakumar Madayiputhiya, Ming-Shyue Lee, Jehng-Kang Wang, David E. Sloane, Michael Johnson, Chen-Yong Lin
Michael C. Johnson
Matriptase, a type 2 transmembrane serine protease, is predominately expressed by epithelial and carcinoma cells in which hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor 1 (HAI-1), a membrane-bound, Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor, is also expressed. HAI-1 plays dual roles in the regulation of matriptase, as a conventional protease inhibitor and as a factor required for zymogen activation of matriptase. As a consequence, activation of matriptase is immediately followed by HAI-1-mediated inhibition, with the activated matriptase being sequestered into HAI-1 complexes. Matriptase is also expressed by peripheral blood leukocytes, such as monocytes and macrophages; however, in contrast to epithelial cells, monocytes and macrophages ...
Ydj1 Governs Fungal Morphogenesis And Stress Response, And Facilitates Mitochondrial Protein Import Via Mas1 And Mas2, Jinglin L. Xie, Iryna Bohovych, Erin O.Y. Wong, Jean-Philippe Lambert, Anne-Claude Gingras, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Leah E. Cowen, Michelle D. Leach
Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications
Mitochondria underpin metabolism, bioenergetics, signalling, development and cell death in eukaryotes. Most of the ~1,000 yeast mitochondrial proteins are encoded in the nucleus and synthesised as precursors in the cytosol, with mitochondrial import facilitated by molecular chaperones. Here, we focus on the Hsp40 chaperone Ydj1 in the fungal pathogen Candida albicans, finding that it is localised to both the cytosol and outer mitochondrial membrane, and is required for cellular stress responses and for filamentation, a key virulence trait. Mapping the Ydj1 protein interaction network highlighted connections with co-chaperones and regulators of filamentation. Furthermore, the mitochondrial processing peptidases Mas1 and ...
Identification Of Potential Tissue-Specific Cancer Biomarkers And Development Of Cancer Versus Normal Genomic Classifiers, 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Identification Of Potential Tissue-Specific Cancer Biomarkers And Development Of Cancer Versus Normal Genomic Classifiers, Akram Mohammed, Greyson Biegert, Jiri Adamec, Tomáš Helikar
Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications
Machine learning techniques for cancer prediction and biomarker discovery can hasten cancer detection and significantly improve prognosis. Recent “OMICS” studies which include a variety of cancer and normal tissue samples along with machine learning approaches have the potential to further accelerate such discovery. To demonstrate this potential, 2,175 gene expression samples from nine tissue types were obtained to identify gene sets whose expression is characteristic of each cancer class. Using random forests classification and ten-fold cross-validation, we developed nine single-tissue classifiers, two multi-tissue cancer-versus-normal classifiers, and one multi-tissue normal classifier. Given a sample of a specified tissue type, the ...
Organ-Specific Regulation Of Atp7a Abundance Is Coordinated With Systemic Copper Homeostasis, 2017 University of Maryland
Organ-Specific Regulation Of Atp7a Abundance Is Coordinated With Systemic Copper Homeostasis, Haarin Chun, Tracy Catterson, Heejeong Kim, Jaekwon Lee, Byung-Eun Kim
Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications
Copper (Cu) is an essential cofactor for various enzymatic activities including mitochondrial electron transport, iron mobilization, and peptide hormone maturation. Consequently, Cu dysregulation is associated with fatal neonatal disease, liver and cardiac dysfunction, and anemia. While the Cu transporter ATP7A plays a major role in both intestinal Cu mobilization to the periphery and prevention of Cu over-accumulation, it is unclear how regulation of ATP7A contributes to Cu homeostasis in response to systemic Cu fluctuation. Here we show, using Cu-deficient mouse models, that steadystate levels of ATP7A are lower in peripheral tissues (including the heart, spleen, and liver) under Cu deficiency ...
Dietary Phytochemicals As Inhibitors Of Primary Amine Oxidase, 2017 Dublin Institute of Technology
Dietary Phytochemicals As Inhibitors Of Primary Amine Oxidase, Padraig Shanahan, Jeffrey O'Sullivan, Keith F. Tipton, Gemma Kinsella, Barry J. Ryan, Gary T. Henehan
Phytochemicals such as methylxanthines, catechins and polyphenols show health benefits in a range of diseases although their mechanism of action is not fully understood. Primary Amine Oxidase (PrAO) is widely recognised as a therapeutic drug target for the treatment of inflammatory, vascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Previous work in our laboratories showed that caffeine inhibited bovine PrAO activity with a Ki of 1.0mM. In the present study we examined a range of methylxanthines and catechins as inhibitors of bovine PrAO. The methylxanthines tested were caffeine, paraxanthine, theophylline, theobromine and 7-methylxanthine. Of these, only theobromine was an inhibitor with an IC50 ...
Metalloproteases Of The Inner Mitochondrial Membrane, 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Metalloproteases Of The Inner Mitochondrial Membrane, Roman M. Levytskyy, Iryna Bohovych, Oleh Khalimonchuk
Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications
The inner mitochondrial membrane (IM) is among most protein-rich cellular compartments. The metastable IM sub-proteome where the concentration of proteins is approaching oversaturation creates a challenging protein folding environment with high probability for protein malfunction or aggregation. Failure to maintain protein homeostasis in such a setting can impair functional integrity of the mitochondria and drive clinical manifestations. The IM is equipped with a series of highly conserved, proteolytic complexes dedicated to the maintenance of normal protein homeostasis within this mitochondrial sub-compartment. Particularly important is a group of membrane-anchored metallopeptidases commonly known as m-AAA and i-AAA proteases, and the ATP-independent Oma1 ...
The Role Of Interactions Of Long Non-Coding Rnas And Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins In Regulating Cellular Functions, 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln
The Role Of Interactions Of Long Non-Coding Rnas And Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins In Regulating Cellular Functions, Xinghui Sun, Mohamed Sham Shihabudeen Haider Ali, Matthew Moran
Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as critical regulators of various biological processes and human diseases. The mechanisms of action involve their interactions with proteins, RNA and genomic DNA. Most lncRNAs display strong nuclear localization. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) are a large family of RNA-binding proteins that are important for multiple aspects of nucleic acid metabolism. hnRNPs are also predominantly expressed in the nucleus. This review discusses the interactions of lncRNAs and hnRNPs in regulating gene expression at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels or by changing genomic structure, highlighting their involvements in glucose and lipid metabolism, immune response, DNA damage response ...
Elucidating Mechanisms Of Protein Aggregation In Alzheimer’S Disease Using Antibody-Based Strategies., 2017 University of Missouri - St. Louis
Elucidating Mechanisms Of Protein Aggregation In Alzheimer’S Disease Using Antibody-Based Strategies., Benjamin A. Colvin
Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder. There are two characteristic histopathological hallmarks in the brain: senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, composed of insoluble aggregates of the amyloids Amyloid-β (Aβ) and tau protein, respectively. These diagnostic markers, though distinctive, are not apparent effectors of AD pathology. Evidence has mounted suggesting smaller soluble aggregates (oligomers) of Aβ or tau are the true drivers of disease progression. This dissertation presents several amyloid biophysics projects. Aggregate biophysical parameters such as weight, shape, and conformation were measured using a range of methodologies, including Multiangle Light Scattering, Dynamic Light Scattering, UV-Circular Dichroism, UV-Fluorescence ...
Correction For Sandai Et Al., The Evolutionary Rewiring Of Ubiquitination Targets Has Reprogrammed The Regulation Of Carbon Assimilation In The Pathogenic Yeast Candida Albicans, 2017 University of Aberdeen
Correction For Sandai Et Al., The Evolutionary Rewiring Of Ubiquitination Targets Has Reprogrammed The Regulation Of Carbon Assimilation In The Pathogenic Yeast Candida Albicans, Doblin Sandai, Zhikang Yin, Laura Selway, David Stead, Janet Walker, Michelle D. Leach, Iryna Bohovych, Iuliana V. Ene, Stavroula Kastora, Susan Budge, Carol A. Munro, Frank C. Odds, Neil A.R. Gow, Alistair J.P. Brown
No abstract provided.
The Evolutionary Rewiring Of Ubiquitination Targets Has Reprogrammed The Regulation Of Carbon Assimilation In The Pathogenic Yeast Candida Albicans, Doblin Sandai, Zhikang Yin, Laura Selway, David Stead, Janet Walker, Michelle D. Leach, Iryna Bohovych, Iuliana V. Ene, Stavroula Kastora, Susan Budge, Carol A. Munro, Frank C. Odds, Neil A.R. Gow, Alistair J.P. Brown
Microbes must assimilate carbon to grow and colonize their niches. Transcript profiling has suggested that Candida albicans, a major pathogen of humans, regulates its carbon assimilation in an analogous fashion to the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, repressing metabolic pathways required for the use of alterative nonpreferred carbon sources when sugars are available. However, we show that there is significant dislocation between the proteome and transcriptome in C. albicans. Glucose triggers the degradation of the ICL1 and PCK1 transcripts in C. albicans, yet isocitrate lyase (Icl1) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pck1) are stable and are retained. Indeed, numerous enzymes required for the ...
Protein-Protein Interactions Of Bacterial Topoisomerase I, 2017 Florida International University
Protein-Protein Interactions Of Bacterial Topoisomerase I, Srikanth Banda
FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are essential features of cellular processes including DNA replication, transcription, translation, recombination, and repair. In my study, the protein interactions of bacterial DNA topoisomerase I, an essential enzyme, were investigated. The topoisomerase I in bacteria relaxes excess negative supercoiling on DNA and maintains genomic stability. Investigating the PPI network of DNA topoisomerase I can further our understanding of the various functional roles of this enzyme. My study is focused on topoisomerase I of Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium smegmatis. Firstly, we have explored the biochemical mechanisms for an interaction between RNA Polymerase, and topoisomerase I in E. coli ...
Industrial Grade 2d Molybdenum Disulphide (Mos2): An In-Vitro Exploration Of The Impact On Cellular Uptake, Cytotoxicity, And Inflammation, 2017 Dublin Institute of Technology
Industrial Grade 2d Molybdenum Disulphide (Mos2): An In-Vitro Exploration Of The Impact On Cellular Uptake, Cytotoxicity, And Inflammation, Caroline Moore, Hugh Byrne, Jonathan N. Coleman, Yuri Volkov, Jennifer Mcintyre
The recent surge in graphene research, since its liquid phase monolayer isolation and characterization in 2004, has led to advancements which are accelerating the exploration of alternative 2D materials such as molybdenum disulphide (MoS2), whose unique physico-chemical properties can be exploited in applications ranging from cutting edge electronic devices to nanomedicine. However, to assess any potential impact on human health and the environment, the need to understand the bio-interaction of MoS2 at a cellular and sub-cellular level is critical. Notably, it is important to assess such potential impacts of materials which are produced by large scale production techniques, rather than ...