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Arabinose Substitution Effect On Xylan Rigidity And Self-Aggregation, Mai Zahran, Utsab Shrestha, Sydney Smith, Sai Venkatesh Pingali, Hui Yang, Llyod Breunig, Liza Wilson, Daniel Cosgrove, Hugh O'Neill, Loukas Petridis 2019 CUNY New York City College of Technology

Arabinose Substitution Effect On Xylan Rigidity And Self-Aggregation, Mai Zahran, Utsab Shrestha, Sydney Smith, Sai Venkatesh Pingali, Hui Yang, Llyod Breunig, Liza Wilson, Daniel Cosgrove, Hugh O'Neill, Loukas Petridis

Publications and Research

Substituted xylans play an important role in the structure and mechanics of the primary cell wall of plants. Arabinoxylans (AX) consist of a xylose backbone substituted with arabinose, while glucuronoarabinoxylans (GAX) also contain glucuronic acid substitutions and ferulic acid esters on some of the arabinoses. We provide a molecular-level description on the dependence of xylan conformational, selfaggregation properties and binding to cellulose on the degree of arabinose substitution. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal fully solubilized xylans with a low degree of arabinose substitution (lsAX) to be stiffer than their highly substituted (hsAX) counterparts. Small-angle neutron scattering experiments indicate that both wild-type ...


Allosteric Mechanism Of The Circadian Protein Vivid Resolved Through Markov State Model And Machine Learning Analysis, Hongyu Zhou, Zheng Dong, Gennady M. Verkhivker, Brian D. Zoltowski, Peng Tao 2019 Southern Methodist University

Allosteric Mechanism Of The Circadian Protein Vivid Resolved Through Markov State Model And Machine Learning Analysis, Hongyu Zhou, Zheng Dong, Gennady M. Verkhivker, Brian D. Zoltowski, Peng Tao

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

The fungal circadian clock photoreceptor Vivid (VVD) contains a photosensitive allosteric light, oxygen, voltage (LOV) domain that undergoes a large N-terminal conformational change. The mechanism by which a blue-light driven covalent bond formation leads to a global conformational change remains unclear, which hinders the further development of VVD as an optogenetic tool. We answered this question through a novel computational platform integrating Markov state models, machine learning methods, and newly developed community analysis algorithms. Applying this new integrative approach, we provided a quantitative evaluation of the contribution from the covalent bond to the protein global conformational change, and proposed an ...


Cloning The Vision Related G Protein Transducin For Live Cell Fluorescence Studies, Deanna M. Bowman 2019 The University of Akron

Cloning The Vision Related G Protein Transducin For Live Cell Fluorescence Studies, Deanna M. Bowman

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

G coupled protein receptors (GCPR) are one of the largest families of receptors and mediate a variety of biological responses. Rhodopsin is the largest family and aids in sight, the α-subunit of the GCPR complex in extremely important to the activation and downstream signaling effects of GCPR. The α-subunit contains a small trans-domain portion and in this project the sequence of that portion will be inserted into a vector containing a fluorescent tag. These vectors will then be used to collect fluorescent cross correlation spectroscopy or FCCS data. The unit was cloned using assembly methods that include PCR and purification ...


Targeted-Ion Mass Spectrometry For The Identification Of Forensically Relevant Biological Fluids And Samples From Sexual Assault Evidence, Heather Erin McKiernan 2019 University of Denver

Targeted-Ion Mass Spectrometry For The Identification Of Forensically Relevant Biological Fluids And Samples From Sexual Assault Evidence, Heather Erin Mckiernan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Forensic practitioners have long sought efficient and reliable means for identifying those samples that are best suited for successful genetic profiling. Traditional serological screening methodologies rely upon enzyme activity and antibody-based serological tests. These tests can be consumptive, laborious and costly while reliance on antibody-based serological testing can be prone to error. Positive results resulting from non-target biological fluids, the potential for cross- reactivity and non-specific binding events yield merely presumptive results. This has led forensic biologists to omit serological testing, at least in the case of sexual assault kit samples, in favor of Y-Screen assays. While these Y-Screen approaches ...


Charting A New Frontier Of Science By Integrating Mathematical Modeling To Understand And Predict Complex Biological Systems, Katharine White, Kira McEntire, Nicole R. Buan, Kingshuk Ghosh, Lecia Robinson, Elisar Barbar 2019 University of Notre Dame

Charting A New Frontier Of Science By Integrating Mathematical Modeling To Understand And Predict Complex Biological Systems, Katharine White, Kira Mcentire, Nicole R. Buan, Kingshuk Ghosh, Lecia Robinson, Elisar Barbar

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Biological systems are staggeringly complex. To untangle this complexity and make predictions about biological systems is a continuous goal of biological research. One approach to achieve these goals is to emphasize the use of quantitative measures of biological processes. Advances in quantitative biology data collection and analysis across scales (molecular, cellular, organismal, ecological) has transformed how we understand, categorize, and predict complex biological systems. Simultaneously, thanks to increased computational power, mathematicians, engineers and physical scientists -- collectively termed theoreticians -- have developed sophisticated models of biological systems at different scales. But there is still a disconnect between the two fields. This surge ...


Dna Uptake By Type Iv Filaments, Kurt H. Piepenbrink 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Dna Uptake By Type Iv Filaments, Kurt H. Piepenbrink

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Bacterial uptake of DNA through type IV filaments is an essential component of natural competence in numerous gram-positive and gram-negative species. Recent advances in the field have broadened our understanding of the structures used to take up extracellular DNA. Here, we review seminal experiments in the literature describing DNA binding by type IV pili, competence pili and the flp pili of Micrococcus luteus; collectively referred to here as type IV filaments. We compare the current state of the field on mechanisms of DNA uptake for these three appendage systems and describe the current mechanistic understanding of both DNA-binding and DNA-uptake ...


Downregulation Of A Cyp74 Rubber Particle Protein Increases Natural Rubber Production In Parthenium Argentatum, Dante F. Placido, Niu Dong, Chen Dong, Von Mark V. Cruz, David A. Dierig, Rebecca E. Cahoon, Byung-guk Kang, Trinh Huynh, Maureen Whalen, Grisel Ponciano, Colleen McMahan 2019 USDA, Agricultural Research Service

Downregulation Of A Cyp74 Rubber Particle Protein Increases Natural Rubber Production In Parthenium Argentatum, Dante F. Placido, Niu Dong, Chen Dong, Von Mark V. Cruz, David A. Dierig, Rebecca E. Cahoon, Byung-Guk Kang, Trinh Huynh, Maureen Whalen, Grisel Ponciano, Colleen Mcmahan

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

We report functional genomics studies of a CYP74 rubber particle protein from Parthenium argentatum, commonly called guayule. Previously identified as an allene oxide synthase (AOS), this CYP74 constitutes the most abundant protein found in guayule rubber particles. Transgenic guayule lines with AOS gene expression down-regulated by RNAi (AOSi) exhibited strong phenotypes that included agricultural traits conducive to enhancing rubber yield. AOSi lines had higher leaf and stem biomass, thicker stembark tissues, increased stem branching and improved net photosynthetic rate. Importantly, the rubber content was significantly increased in AOSi lines compared to the wild-type (WT), vector control and AOS overexpressing (AOSoe ...


Biomass Yield In A Genetically Diverse Miscanthus Sinensis Germplasm Panel Evaluated At Five Locations Revealed Individuals With Exceptional Potential, Lindsay V. Clark, Maria S. Dwiyanti, Kossonou G. Anzoua, Joe E. Brummer, Bimal Kumar Ghimire, Katarzyna Glowacka, Megan Hall, Kweon Heo, Xiaoli Jin, Alexander E. Lipka, Junhua Peng, Toshihiko Yamada, Ji Hye Yoo, Chang Yeon Yu, Hua Zhao, Stephen P. Long, Erik J. Sacks 2019 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Biomass Yield In A Genetically Diverse Miscanthus Sinensis Germplasm Panel Evaluated At Five Locations Revealed Individuals With Exceptional Potential, Lindsay V. Clark, Maria S. Dwiyanti, Kossonou G. Anzoua, Joe E. Brummer, Bimal Kumar Ghimire, Katarzyna Glowacka, Megan Hall, Kweon Heo, Xiaoli Jin, Alexander E. Lipka, Junhua Peng, Toshihiko Yamada, Ji Hye Yoo, Chang Yeon Yu, Hua Zhao, Stephen P. Long, Erik J. Sacks

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

To breed improved biomass cultivars of Miscanthus ×giganteus, it will be necessary to select the highest‐yielding and best‐adapted genotypes of its parental species, Miscanthus sinensis and Miscanthus sacchariflorus. We phenotyped a diverse clonally propagated panel of 569 M. sinensis and nine natural diploid M. ×giganteus at one subtropical (Zhuji, China) and five temperate locations (Sapporo, Japan; Leamington, Ontario, Canada; Fort Collins, CO; Urbana, IL; and Chuncheon, Korea) for dry biomass yield and 14 yield‐component traits, in trials grown for 3 years. Notably, dry biomass yield of four Miscanthus accessions exceeded 80 Mg/ha in Zhuji, China, approaching ...


The Mitochondrial Nad+ Transporter (Ndt1) Plays Important Roles In Cellular Nad+ Homeostasis In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Izabel de Souza Chaves, Elias Feitosa-Araujo, Alexandra Florian, David B. Medeiros, Paula da Fonseca-Pereira, Lennart Charton, Elmien Heyneke, Jorge A. C. Apfata, Marcel V. Pires, Tabea Mettler-Altmann, Wagner L. Arajuo, H. Ekkehard Neuhaus, Ferdinando Palmieri, Toshihiro Obata, Andreas P. M. Weber, Nicole Linka, Alisdair R. Femie, Adriano Nunes-Nesi 2019 Universidade Federal de Vicosa

The Mitochondrial Nad+ Transporter (Ndt1) Plays Important Roles In Cellular Nad+ Homeostasis In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Izabel De Souza Chaves, Elias Feitosa-Araujo, Alexandra Florian, David B. Medeiros, Paula Da Fonseca-Pereira, Lennart Charton, Elmien Heyneke, Jorge A. C. Apfata, Marcel V. Pires, Tabea Mettler-Altmann, Wagner L. Arajuo, H. Ekkehard Neuhaus, Ferdinando Palmieri, Toshihiro Obata, Andreas P. M. Weber, Nicole Linka, Alisdair R. Femie, Adriano Nunes-Nesi

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is an essential coenzyme required for all living organisms. In eukaryotic cells, the final step of NAD+ biosynthesis is exclusively cytosolic. Hence, NAD+ must be imported into organelles to support their metabolic functions. Three NAD+ transporters belonging to the mitochondrial carrier family (MCF) have been biochemically characterized in plants. AtNDT1 (At2g47490), focus of the current study, AtNDT2 (At1g25380), targeted to the inner mitochondrial membrane, and AtPXN (At2g39970), located in the peroxisomal membrane. Although AtNDT1 was presumed to reside in the chloroplast membrane, subcellular localization experiments with green fluorescent protein ...


An Arabidopsis Protoplast Isolation Method Reduces Cytosolic Acidification And Activation Of The Chloroplast Stress Sensor Sensitive To Freezing 2, Allison C. Barnes, Christian G. Elowsky, Rebecca Roston 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

An Arabidopsis Protoplast Isolation Method Reduces Cytosolic Acidification And Activation Of The Chloroplast Stress Sensor Sensitive To Freezing 2, Allison C. Barnes, Christian G. Elowsky, Rebecca Roston

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Chloroplasts adapt to freezing and other abiotic stresses in part by modifying their membranes. One key-remodeling enzyme is SENSITIVE TO FREEZING2 (SFR2). SFR2 is unusual because it does not respond to initial cold stress or cold acclimation, instead it responds during freezing conditions in Arabidopsis. This response has been shown to be sensitive to cytosolic acidification. The unique lipid products of SFR2 have also been detected in response to non-freezing stresses, but what causes SFR2 to respond in these stresses is unknown. Here, we investigate protoplast isolation as a representative of wounding stress. We show that SFR2 oligogalactolipid products accumulate ...


Trade-Offs Shape Carotenoid-Based Color Variation In Redheaded Pine Sawfly (Neodiprion Lecontei) Larvae, Maranda Gaines 2019 University of Kentucky

Trade-Offs Shape Carotenoid-Based Color Variation In Redheaded Pine Sawfly (Neodiprion Lecontei) Larvae, Maranda Gaines

Lewis Honors College Capstone Collection

Carotenoids serve various ecological roles in animals including coloration, immune responses, and vision. Carotenoid-derived coloration is greatly emphasized in the literature, particularly relating to mate choice and aposematic warning. However, the trade-offs between the color and non-color functions of carotenoids are not thoroughly explored. In the redheaded pine sawfly (Neodiprion lecontei), some larval populations have yellow pigmentation, using carotenoids derived from their diets for aposematic warning coloration. Other larval populations are white in color, having genetically lost the ability to produce the yellow pigment. Because carotenoids are essential to life functions in both the yellow and white populations, we aim ...


Visualizing The Invisible: A Guide To Designing, Printing, And Incorporating Dynamic 3d Molecular Models To Teach Structure–Function Relationships, Michelle Howell, Karin van Dijk, Christine S. Booth, Tomáš Helikar, Brain A. Couch, Rebecca Roston 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Visualizing The Invisible: A Guide To Designing, Printing, And Incorporating Dynamic 3d Molecular Models To Teach Structure–Function Relationships, Michelle Howell, Karin Van Dijk, Christine S. Booth, Tomáš Helikar, Brain A. Couch, Rebecca Roston

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Understanding the intricate relationship between macromolecular structure and function represents a central goal of undergraduate biology education (1–3). In teaching complex three-dimensional (3D) concepts, instructors typically depend on static two-dimensional (2D) textbook images or computer-based visualization software, which can lead to unintended misconceptions (4–6). While chemical and molecular kits exist, these models cannot handle the size and detail of macromolecules. Consequently, students may graduate in the life sciences without understanding how structure underlies function or acquiring skills to translate between 2D and 3D molecular models (5, 7). Building on recent technological advances, 3D printing (3DP) potentiates an era ...


Autophagy In Adipocyte Browning: Emerging Drug Target For Intervention In Obesity, Seung-Hyun Ro, Yura Jang, Jiyoung Bae, Isaac M. Kim, Cameron Schaecher, Zachery D. Shomo 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Autophagy In Adipocyte Browning: Emerging Drug Target For Intervention In Obesity, Seung-Hyun Ro, Yura Jang, Jiyoung Bae, Isaac M. Kim, Cameron Schaecher, Zachery D. Shomo

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Autophagy, lipophagy, and mitophagy are considered to be the major recycling processes for protein aggregates, excess fat, and damaged mitochondria in adipose tissues in response to nutrient status-associated stress, oxidative stress, and genotoxic stress in the human body. Obesity with increased body weight is often associated with white adipose tissue (WAT) hypertrophy and hyperplasia and/or beige/brown adipose tissue atrophy and aplasia, which significantly contribute to the imbalance in lipid metabolism, adipocytokine secretion, free fatty acid release, and mitochondria function. In recent studies, hyperactive autophagy in WAT was observed in obese and diabetic patients, and inhibition of adipose autophagy ...


Ligand Binding And Signaling Of Hare/Stabilin-2, Edward N. Harris, Fatima Cabral 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Ligand Binding And Signaling Of Hare/Stabilin-2, Edward N. Harris, Fatima Cabral

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

The Stabilin receptors are a two-member family in the type H class of scavenger receptors. These dynamic receptors bind and internalize multiple ligands from the cell surface for the purpose of clearing extracellular material including some synthetic drugs and for sensing the external environment of the cell. Stabilin-1 was the first receptor to be cloned, though the biological activity of Hyaluronic Acid Receptor for Endocytosis (HARE)/Stabilin-2 was observed about 10 years prior to the cloning of Stabilin-1. Stabilin-1 has a more diverse expression profile among the tissues than HARE/Stabilin-2. This review will focus on HARE/Stabilin-2 and its ...


Genome‐Wide Association And Genomic Prediction For Biomass Yield In A Genetically Diverse Miscanthus Sinensis Germplasm Panel Phenotyped At Five Locations In Asia And North America, Lindsay V. Clark, Maria S. Dwiyanti, Kossonou G. Anzoua, Joe E. Brummer, Bimal Kumar Ghimire, Katarzyna Glowacka, Megan Hall, Kweon Heo, Xiaoli Jin, Alexander E. Lipka, Junhua Peng, Toshihiko Yamada, Ji Hye Yoo, Chang Yeon Yu, Hua Zhao, Stephen P. Long, Erik J. Sacks 2019 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Genome‐Wide Association And Genomic Prediction For Biomass Yield In A Genetically Diverse Miscanthus Sinensis Germplasm Panel Phenotyped At Five Locations In Asia And North America, Lindsay V. Clark, Maria S. Dwiyanti, Kossonou G. Anzoua, Joe E. Brummer, Bimal Kumar Ghimire, Katarzyna Glowacka, Megan Hall, Kweon Heo, Xiaoli Jin, Alexander E. Lipka, Junhua Peng, Toshihiko Yamada, Ji Hye Yoo, Chang Yeon Yu, Hua Zhao, Stephen P. Long, Erik J. Sacks

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

To improve the efficiency of breeding of Miscanthus for biomass yield, there is a need to develop genomics‐assisted selection for this long‐lived perennial crop by relating genotype to phenotype and breeding value across a broad range of environments. We present the first genome‐wide association (GWA) and genomic prediction study of Miscanthus that utilizes multilocation phenotypic data. A panel of 568 Miscanthus sinensis accessions was genotyped with 46,177 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and evaluated at one subtropical and five temperate locations over 3 years for biomass yield and 14 yield‐component traits. GWA and genomic prediction were ...


Student Understanding Of Dna Structure–Function Relationships Improves From Using 3d Learning Modules With Dynamic 3d Printed Models, Michelle E. Howell, Christine S. Booth, Sharmin M. Sikich, Tomáš Helikar, Rebecca Roston, Brain A. Couch, Karin van Dijk 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Student Understanding Of Dna Structure–Function Relationships Improves From Using 3d Learning Modules With Dynamic 3d Printed Models, Michelle E. Howell, Christine S. Booth, Sharmin M. Sikich, Tomáš Helikar, Rebecca Roston, Brain A. Couch, Karin Van Dijk

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Understanding the relationship between molecular structure and function represents an important goal of undergraduate life sciences. Although evidence suggests that handling physical models supports gains in student understanding of structure–function relationships, such models have not been widely implemented in biochemistry classrooms. Three-dimensional (3D) printing represents an emerging cost-effective means of producing molecular models to help students investigate structure–function concepts. We developed three interactive learning modules with dynamic 3D printed models to help biochemistry students visualize biomolecular structures and address particular misconceptions. These modules targeted specific learning objectives related to DNA and RNA structure, transcription factor-DNA interactions, and DNA ...


Winter Hardiness Of Miscanthus (Iii): Genome‐Wide Association And Genomic Prediction For Overwintering Ability In Miscanthus Sinensis, Hongxu Dong, Lindsay V. Clark, Alexander E. Lipka, Joe E. Brummer, Katarzyna Glowacka, Megan C. Hall, Kweon Heo, Xiaoli Jin, Junhua Peng, Toshihiko Yamada, Bimal Kumar Ghimire, Ji Hye Yoo, Chang Yeon Yu, Hua Zhao, Stephen P. Long, Erik J. Sacks 2019 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Winter Hardiness Of Miscanthus (Iii): Genome‐Wide Association And Genomic Prediction For Overwintering Ability In Miscanthus Sinensis, Hongxu Dong, Lindsay V. Clark, Alexander E. Lipka, Joe E. Brummer, Katarzyna Glowacka, Megan C. Hall, Kweon Heo, Xiaoli Jin, Junhua Peng, Toshihiko Yamada, Bimal Kumar Ghimire, Ji Hye Yoo, Chang Yeon Yu, Hua Zhao, Stephen P. Long, Erik J. Sacks

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Overwintering ability is an important selection criterion for Miscanthus breeding in temperate regions. Insufficient overwintering ability of the currently leading Miscanthus biomass cultivar, M. ×giganteus (M×g) ‘1993–1780’, in regions where average annual minimum temperatures are −26.1°C (USDA hardiness zone 5) or lower poses a pressing need to develop new cultivars with superior cold tolerance. To facilitate breeding of Miscanthus, this study characterized phenotypic and genetic variation of overwintering ability in an M. sinensis germplasm panel consisting of 564 accessions, evaluated in field trials at three locations in North America and two in Asia. Genome‐wide association ...


Chronic Alcohol Exposure Alters Circulating Insulin And Ghrelin Levels: Role Of Ghrelin In Hepatic Steatosis, Karuna Rasineni, Paul G. Thomes, Jacy L. Kubik, Edward N. Harris, Kusum K. Kharbanda, Carol A. Casey 2019 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Chronic Alcohol Exposure Alters Circulating Insulin And Ghrelin Levels: Role Of Ghrelin In Hepatic Steatosis, Karuna Rasineni, Paul G. Thomes, Jacy L. Kubik, Edward N. Harris, Kusum K. Kharbanda, Carol A. Casey

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Fatty liver is the earliest response of the liver to excessive ethanol consumption. Central in the development of alcoholic steatosis is increased mobilization of nonesterified free fatty acids (NEFAs) to the liver from the adipose tissue. In this study, we hypothesized that ethanol-induced increase in ghrelin by impairing insulin secretion, could be responsible for the altered lipid metabolism observed in adipose and liver tissue. Male Wistar rats were fed for 5–8 wk with control or ethanol Lieber-DeCarli diet, followed by biochemical analyses in serum and liver tissues. In addition, in vitro studies were conducted on pancreatic islets isolated from ...


Acyltransferases And Methods Of Using, Edgar Cahoon, Umidjon Iskandarov, Hae Jin Kim, Jillian Collins-Silva 2019 Lincoln, NE

Acyltransferases And Methods Of Using, Edgar Cahoon, Umidjon Iskandarov, Hae Jin Kim, Jillian Collins-Silva

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Provided herein are novel acyltransferases and methods of using such novel acyltransferases in making medium - chain fatty acids.


Reintegrating Biology Through The Nexus Of Information And Energy, Kim L. Hoke, Sara L. Zimmer, Mary Jo Ondrechen, Amedee des Georges, Adam B. Roddy, Nicole R. Buan, Craig E. Williamson 2019 Colorado State University - Fort Collins

Reintegrating Biology Through The Nexus Of Information And Energy, Kim L. Hoke, Sara L. Zimmer, Mary Jo Ondrechen, Amedee Des Georges, Adam B. Roddy, Nicole R. Buan, Craig E. Williamson

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Recent rapid advances in biology have led to diversification and sub-specialization of many fields, as well as a corresponding explosion of new findings. Advances in tools ranging from genomic techniques and high-resolution imaging to automated ecosystem- and biosphere-level sensors, along with correspondingly advanced analytics, have led to critical new insights that are transforming our understanding of biological systems. One of the consequences of these rapid advances has been accelerated splintering of biology into sub-disciplines with highly focused questions, vocabulary, and techniques. This splintering creates barriers to synergy across fields of biology and hinders the insights that could be gained at ...


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