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Length Of Weaning Period But Not Timing Of Vaccination Affects Feedlot Receiving Performance And Health Of Fall-Weaned, Ranch-Direct Beef Calves, M.J. Macek, J.W. Iliff, Todd W. Schmidt, L.A. Pacheco, K. C. Olson, John R. Jaeger, Daniel U. Thomson 2010 Kansas State University Libraries

Length Of Weaning Period But Not Timing Of Vaccination Affects Feedlot Receiving Performance And Health Of Fall-Weaned, Ranch-Direct Beef Calves, M.J. Macek, J.W. Iliff, Todd W. Schmidt, L.A. Pacheco, K. C. Olson, John R. Jaeger, Daniel U. Thomson

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Weaning and preconditioning programs are thought to be crucial to calf health and performance during the finishing period. The stress of maternal separation, changes in diet, environmental changes, and exposure to unfamiliar pathogens increase susceptibility of recently weaned calves to bovine respiratory disease. Vaccination programs are implemented near weaning to decrease the incidence of respiratory disease. Many vaccination strategies are practiced by cow-calf producers in the United States. The most cautious strategy involves vaccination against respiratory disease pathogens 2 to 4 weeks before maternal separation followed by a booster at weaning. This strategy is used in instances in which time ...


Feed-Based Metaphylaxis Programs Did Not Affect Health Or Performance Of High-Risk Calves Mass Medicated With Draxxin On Arrival, M.P. Epp, R. Derstein, Dale A. Blasi 2010 Kansas State University Libraries

Feed-Based Metaphylaxis Programs Did Not Affect Health Or Performance Of High-Risk Calves Mass Medicated With Draxxin On Arrival, M.P. Epp, R. Derstein, Dale A. Blasi

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Bovine respiratory disease continues to be the most costly disease affecting productivity and profitability in the stocker segment. Despite their high cost, longer-acting, injectable therapeutic antimicrobials such as Draxxin (Tulathromycin; Pfizer Animal Health, New York, NY) can extend the window of treatment duration, thereby reducing the incidence and severity of bovine respiratory disease. Use of feed-based metaphylaxis programs, such as therapeutic administration of multiple 5-day pulses of Aureomycin (αrma, Inc., Bridgewater, NJ), in conjunction with an injectable metaphylaxis program may be a cost-effective way to improve bovine respiratory disease therapy without having to physically handle and stress cattle.


Round Bale Alfalfa Processing Method Does Not Influence Feeding Or Mixing Characteristics In A Total Mixed Ration, S.Q. Jones, T.T. Marston, T.J. Kraus, Joel M. DeRouchey, Justin W. Waggoner, Ryan M. Breiner 2010 Kansas State University Libraries

Round Bale Alfalfa Processing Method Does Not Influence Feeding Or Mixing Characteristics In A Total Mixed Ration, S.Q. Jones, T.T. Marston, T.J. Kraus, Joel M. Derouchey, Justin W. Waggoner, Ryan M. Breiner

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Nutritionists and producers often assume that ingredients in a total mixed ration are uniformly mixed. However, many factors may affect ration homogeneity, including particle size, shape, and density and mixer discharge location. Forages are often ground prior to mixing in a total mixed ration to reduce variation in forage particle length. However, preprocessing forages while baling may facilitate particle length reduction and eliminate the need to grind forages prior to mixing. Objectives of this study were to determine the effects of forage processing method on uniformity and particle length of the total mixed ration at different discharge locations throughout mixing.


Beta Acid Extracts Of Hops Have A Modest Effect On Ruminal Metabolism And Apparent Total Tract Digestibility By Steers Fed High- Concentrate Diets, S. Uwituze, J.M. Heidenreich, James J. Higgins, James S. Drouillard 2010 Kansas State University Libraries

Beta Acid Extracts Of Hops Have A Modest Effect On Ruminal Metabolism And Apparent Total Tract Digestibility By Steers Fed High- Concentrate Diets, S. Uwituze, J.M. Heidenreich, James J. Higgins, James S. Drouillard

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Hops have been used for centuries to control bacterial contamination in beer production. Today, α acids are extracted from hops for use in flavoring beer, leaving residues that are rich in beta acids. Beta acid fractions of hops can selectively inhibit specific ruminal Gram-positive bacteria that are responsible for major digestive disturbances, such as acidosis and bloat, and have a chemical structure similar to that of ionophores used in feedlot production. Use of ionophores improves efficiency of feed utilization and decreases the incidence of digestive disturbances that are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in cattle feeding operations. The ...


Long-Term Cidr Program For Synchronization Of Estrus In Beef Heifers Produces Acceptable Ai Pregnancy Rates, Sandra K. Johnson, J.W. Bolte, John R. Jaeger 2010 Kansas State University Libraries

Long-Term Cidr Program For Synchronization Of Estrus In Beef Heifers Produces Acceptable Ai Pregnancy Rates, Sandra K. Johnson, J.W. Bolte, John R. Jaeger

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Routinely achieving pregnancy rates greater than 50% with fixed-time artificial insemination (AI) in heifers has been difficult. The Beef Reproduction Task Force recently added the intravaginal progesterone-releasing device (CIDR)-Select to its list of recommended fixed-time AI protocols. Research and field trials in Missouri have achieved AI pregnancy rates in the range of 55% to 60%. Another relatively new protocol is the 5-day CO-Synch, a timed AI protocol + CIDR that has produced pregnancy rates similar to or higher than those obtained with the standard 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol. It is not known whether these two systems differ in terms of ...


Precutting Round Alfalfa And Cornstalk Bales Decreases Time And Fuel Required For Bale Breakup In A Vertical Mixer, S.Q. Jones, T.T. Marston, R.M. Kraus, Joel M. DeRouchey, Justin W. Waggoner, Ryan M. Breiner 2010 Kansas State University Libraries

Precutting Round Alfalfa And Cornstalk Bales Decreases Time And Fuel Required For Bale Breakup In A Vertical Mixer, S.Q. Jones, T.T. Marston, R.M. Kraus, Joel M. Derouchey, Justin W. Waggoner, Ryan M. Breiner

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Properly mixing and distributing nutrients throughout a ration can be equally as important as including them in the formulation. Many factors, including forage type, particle length, and mixer type, affect the homogeneity of total mixed rations. Particle size plays an important role in digestion and animal performance and, therefore, is an important consideration from harvest through feeding. An increase in particle size results in a less uniform distribution of nutrients throughout the total mixed ration. Typically, diets with a high proportion of forages have the lowest uniformity of nutrients in individual batches of complete feed.


Round Bale Alfalfa Processing Method Affects Heifer Growth But Does Not Influence Wastage Or Eating Preference, S.Q. Jones, T.T. Marston, T.J. Kraus, Joel M. DeRouchey, Justin W. Waggoner, Ryan M. Breiner 2010 Kansas State University Libraries

Round Bale Alfalfa Processing Method Affects Heifer Growth But Does Not Influence Wastage Or Eating Preference, S.Q. Jones, T.T. Marston, T.J. Kraus, Joel M. Derouchey, Justin W. Waggoner, Ryan M. Breiner

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Many factors affect forage quality, including moisture level at baling, compaction, bulk density, and maturity at harvest. Losses of dry matter and nutrient value occur during field curing. Hay baled at or above 18% moisture should have less nutrient loss in the field. However, hay baled at these moisture levels has the potential to heat during storage, causing dry matter loss and nutrient degradation. Also, as particle length of forage decreases, packing ability of forage and bulk density of bales increase. Although particle length is reduced by grinding baled forage, this can result in nutrient losses. Also, when cattle are ...


Botanical Composition Of Diets Grazed By Beef Cows In The Kansas Flint Hills During Winter, G.J. Eckerle, K. C. Olson, Walter H. Fick, L.A. Pacheco, John R. Jaeger 2010 Kansas State University Libraries

Botanical Composition Of Diets Grazed By Beef Cows In The Kansas Flint Hills During Winter, G.J. Eckerle, K. C. Olson, Walter H. Fick, L.A. Pacheco, John R. Jaeger

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Analysis of microscopic plant fragments recovered from the gut of wild herbivores (i.e., microhistological analysis) has been used to estimate diet composition, but there is debate as to whether microhistological analysis of fecal samples is an appropriate method for characterizing diets of grazing beef cattle. Therefore, our goal was to determine whether this approach could effectively quantify the botanical composition of diets grazed by mature beef cows in the Kansas Flint Hills during winter.


Dried Distillers Grains Supplemented At Different Frequencies To Stocker Heifers Grazing Late-Season Flint Hills Native Pastures, M.P. Epp, W.L. Metzen, Brandon E. Oleen, Dale A. Blasi 2010 Kansas State University Libraries

Dried Distillers Grains Supplemented At Different Frequencies To Stocker Heifers Grazing Late-Season Flint Hills Native Pastures, M.P. Epp, W.L. Metzen, Brandon E. Oleen, Dale A. Blasi

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Wetter-than-normal summer grazing seasons can produce excessive forage beyond what the typical Flint Hills double-stock harvest rate can remove. These late-summer native grasses do not contain adequate protein to sustain economical gains for stocker cattle, but producers can extend the grazing season by using a protein-based supplement to generate economically feasible rates of gain. Use of dried distillers grains as a supplementation program can help promote overall productivity during the fall grazing season. However, the drawback is the potential high labor input for supplement delivery. Delivering supplements at reduced frequencies per week may be able to sustain daily gains of ...


Effects Of Smartlic Hi-Pro 40 Block Supplements On Ruminal Microbes In Cattle Fed Low-Quality Forages, K.D. Derstein, James S. Drouillard 2010 Kansas State University Libraries

Effects Of Smartlic Hi-Pro 40 Block Supplements On Ruminal Microbes In Cattle Fed Low-Quality Forages, K.D. Derstein, James S. Drouillard

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Dormant pastures and native grass hays often are deficient in protein and other nutrients needed to support optimum performance of beef cattle. These nutrients are essential for maintaining viable populations of symbiotic rumen microorganisms that digest the fiber in forages. When nutrient deficiencies occur, microbial populations in the rumen decrease, thereby limiting digestion of low-quality forages. This study was conducted to evaluate changes in rumen microbial populations and digestive activity when cattle consuming low-protein native grass hay are given access to high-protein, free-choice block supplements.


Effects Of Extended Zilpaterol-Hcl Withdrawal On Performance And Carcass Traits Of Finishing Beef Heifers, G.L. Parsons, Brandon E. Depenbusch, Christopher D. Reinhardt, D.A. Yates, J.P. Hutcheson, James S. Drouillard 2010 Kansas State University Libraries

Effects Of Extended Zilpaterol-Hcl Withdrawal On Performance And Carcass Traits Of Finishing Beef Heifers, G.L. Parsons, Brandon E. Depenbusch, Christopher D. Reinhardt, D.A. Yates, J.P. Hutcheson, James S. Drouillard

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Zilpaterol-HCl (Zilmax; Intervet/Schering-Plough Animal Health, Millsboro; DE) is an orally active β2-adrenergic agonist that is approved for use in feedlot cattle at the rate of 7.56 g/ton of diet dry matter for the final 20 to 40 days on feed. The minimum withdrawal time for Zilmax is 3 days. Zilmax increases hot carcass weight and dressing percentage, primarily as a result of increasing lean muscle mass and decreasing body fat. Zilmax also decreases marbling and increases shear-force values (i.e., less tender) of steaks. This study was conducted to determine whether the benefits of Zilmax would be ...


Supplementing Feedlot Steers And Heifers With Zilmax Increases Proportions Of Strip Loin, Chuck Clod, And Top Sirloin Steaks Exceeding Warner-Bratzler Shear Force Thresholds, Whereas Aging Moderates This Effect, H.C. Claus, J.C. Brooks, J. Shook, G.G. Hilton, T.E. Lawrence, J.M. Mehaffey, B.J. Johnson, Dell M. Allen, M.N. Streeter, W.T. Nichols, C. Melvin, J. Killefer, Michael E. Dikeman 2010 Kansas State University Libraries

Supplementing Feedlot Steers And Heifers With Zilmax Increases Proportions Of Strip Loin, Chuck Clod, And Top Sirloin Steaks Exceeding Warner-Bratzler Shear Force Thresholds, Whereas Aging Moderates This Effect, H.C. Claus, J.C. Brooks, J. Shook, G.G. Hilton, T.E. Lawrence, J.M. Mehaffey, B.J. Johnson, Dell M. Allen, M.N. Streeter, W.T. Nichols, C. Melvin, J. Killefer, Michael E. Dikeman

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Ractopamine hydrochloride (Elanco, Greenfield, IN) and Zilmax (zilpaterol hydrochloride; Intervet/Schering-Plough, Millsboro, DE) are β-adrenergic agonists approved in the United States and several other countries to increase growth rate, improve efficiency of feed utilization, and increase carcass meat yield. Zilmax has been shown to improve feed efficiency by 26% and increase hot carcass weight, longissimus muscle area, and meat yield. However, a few studies have shown that Zilmax significantly increased Warner-Bratzler shear force values (decreased tenderness). The objectives of our research were to determine the effects of supplementing feedlot diets of steers and heifers with Zilmax for 0, 20, 30 ...


Initial Heifer Body Composition Has Little Impact On Response To Zilmax, L.K. Thompson, C. Schneider, G. Parsons, K. Miller, Christopher D. Reinhardt, James S. Drouillard 2010 Kansas State University Libraries

Initial Heifer Body Composition Has Little Impact On Response To Zilmax, L.K. Thompson, C. Schneider, G. Parsons, K. Miller, Christopher D. Reinhardt, James S. Drouillard

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Using a growth promotant at the correct time of finishing is critical for maximizing profit potential. Previous studies have shown that zilpaterol-HCl (Zilmax; Intervet/ Schering-Plough Animal Health, Millsboro, DE) improves carcass characteristics. The objective of this study was to determine effects of prior body composition on subsequent changes in carcass weight, fatness, and muscle in heifers fed Zilmax so producers can introduce Zilmax at the level of finish that will result in the most desirable response. We hypothesized that fatter heifers use fat as the fuel for muscle growth.


Bees In America: How The Honey Bee Shaped A Nation, Tammy Horn 2009 Eastern Kentucky University

Bees In America: How The Honey Bee Shaped A Nation, Tammy Horn

Tammy Horn

" Honey bees--and the qualities associated with them--have quietly influenced American values for four centuries. During every major period in the country's history, bees and beekeepers have represented order and stability in a country without a national religion, political party, or language. Bees in America is an enlightening cultural history of bees and beekeeping in the United States. Tammy Horn, herself a beekeeper, offers a varied social and technological history from the colonial period, when the British first introduced bees to the New World, to the present, when bees are being used by the American military to detect bombs. Early ...


Toward Genuine Rodent Welfare: Response To Reviewer Comments, Jonathan P. Balcombe 2009 Humane Society Institute for Science and Policy

Toward Genuine Rodent Welfare: Response To Reviewer Comments, Jonathan P. Balcombe

Jonathan Balcombe, Ph.D.

No abstract provided.


Laboratory Rodent Welfare: Thinking Outside The Cage, Jonathan P. Balcombe 2009 Humane Society Institute for Science and Policy

Laboratory Rodent Welfare: Thinking Outside The Cage, Jonathan P. Balcombe

Jonathan Balcombe, Ph.D.

No abstract provided.


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