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Bird Usage Of Black Marasmius Fibers As Nest Material, Haris Rana, Shayla Smithson, Jack Jackson, Ragupathy Kannan 2021 Southside High School

Bird Usage Of Black Marasmius Fibers As Nest Material, Haris Rana, Shayla Smithson, Jack Jackson, Ragupathy Kannan

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

Black Marasmius fungal fibers have been frequently observed in neotropical bird nests. We tested to determine if superior tensile strength and temperature moderation contributes to why these fibers are preferred by some species over other available nesting materials. Marasmius fibers from nests of Yellow-olive Flycatchers (Tolmomyias sulphurescens) were compared to grass fibers from a Yellow-tailed Oriole (Icterus mesomelas) nest from the same area in Belize, Central America. We measured tensile strengths by a universal strength tester which stretched the fibers to their breaking point. We also used HOBO data loggers to compare the temperature differential between …


Management Schemes, Not Philopatry Or Breeding Experience, Affect Nest Success Of Two Songbirds In Vermont Hayfields, Kylie Denny, Noah G. Perlut, Allan Strong 2021 University of New England

Management Schemes, Not Philopatry Or Breeding Experience, Affect Nest Success Of Two Songbirds In Vermont Hayfields, Kylie Denny, Noah G. Perlut, Allan Strong

Environmental Studies Faculty Publications

Songbirds can benefit from natal philopatry through prior knowledge about site‐specific resources and local adaptation to environmental conditions. Likewise, breeding experience may also play a role in reproductive success. However, for birds that breed in managed habitats, management activities may overwhelm any potential benefits of philopatry or breeding experience. We examined the effect of site fidelity on reproductive success in 1,823 bobolink and Savannah sparrow nests in agricultural grasslands in Vermont, USA. From 2003–2019 we monitored the nests of 51 female Savannah sparrows and 72 female bobolinks that returned to breed on or near fields in which they hatched between …


Diverse Demographic Factors Influence Apparent Juvenile Survival In A Migratory Songbird, Emma M. White, Noah G. Perlut, Steven E. Travis, Allan Strong 2021 University of New England

Diverse Demographic Factors Influence Apparent Juvenile Survival In A Migratory Songbird, Emma M. White, Noah G. Perlut, Steven E. Travis, Allan Strong

Environmental Studies Faculty Publications

To better understand the dynamics of avian populations and their role in population trends, we require an in-depth understanding of the factors influencing the survival of adults and juveniles. How-ever, assessing survival in juveniles is often challenging, especially in small, migratory species where individuals typically disperse from the study area and are not available for recapture in subsequent years. Bobolinks (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) are a long-distance migrant that exhibits natal philopatry in at least one population, allowing for more comprehensive juvenile survival analyses than in many other long-distance avian migrants. Using a 17-yr dataset from two sites representing a …


Avian Attractiveness To Vertically Polarized Light, Aurora Belle Kuczek 2021 Bard College

Avian Attractiveness To Vertically Polarized Light, Aurora Belle Kuczek

Senior Projects Spring 2021

It is well-known that many animal species can detect polarized light cues of water and water-like objects in the visible and ultraviolet range. However, studies investigating if birds can see polarized light in field-based settings are rare. Furthermore, no studies have yet been conducted to understand avian attractiveness to vertically polarized light, nor have studies considered other natural polarizers of light such as tree sap. I designed a choice-field experiment to investigate if birds can detect, and are attracted to vertically polarized light. First, I cut six pieces of clear vinyl into a foot by 54 inches. I painted each …


Investigation Of Red-Cockaded Woodpeckers Within The Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge: 2020 Report, B. D. Watts, C. Hines, L. Duval, B. J. Paxton 2021 The Center for Conservation Biology

Investigation Of Red-Cockaded Woodpeckers Within The Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge: 2020 Report, B. D. Watts, C. Hines, L. Duval, B. J. Paxton

CCB Technical Reports

No abstract provided.


Effects Of Predator Management And Parasitism On Over-Water Nesting Diving Duck Production In Southwestern Manitoba, Trenton E. Rohrer 2021 South Dakota State University

Effects Of Predator Management And Parasitism On Over-Water Nesting Diving Duck Production In Southwestern Manitoba, Trenton E. Rohrer

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Nest survival of upland nesting waterfowl (e.g., mallard [Anas platyrhynchos], blue-winged teal [Anas discors]) has been studied extensively in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America. Conversely, over-water nesting diving ducks’ nest survival is poorly understood, likely because over-water nests are more challenging to find, may be less concentrated, and searching for these nests is physically demanding. Nest depredation is considered a leading cause of duck nest failure and is considered a limiting factor on upland nesting waterfowl production in the PPR. Similar factors limiting upland nesting duck production may limit over-water nesting duck productivity, but studies of this …


Response Of Forest Birds To Spotted Wing Drosophila (Drosophila Suzukii Matsumura), A Novel Invasive Fruit Pest, At Allegheny National Forest, Daniel P. Roche 2021 West Virginia University

Response Of Forest Birds To Spotted Wing Drosophila (Drosophila Suzukii Matsumura), A Novel Invasive Fruit Pest, At Allegheny National Forest, Daniel P. Roche

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Non-native invasive insect pests can have dramatic impacts on native ecosystems, feeding on plant foliage, wood, or sap. Little is known, however, about how fruit-targeting NNIIPs may affect native ecosystems. Spotted wing Drosophila (Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, SWD) is a recently introduced invasive vinegar fly that parasitizes the fruits of many plant species in the United States. While its activity in agricultural systems is well-documented, little is known about its activity in forest ecosystems, despite growing evidence of its presence and parasitism of fruits there. Parasitism could reduce fruit attractiveness for vertebrate fruit consumers, including migratory birds. As such, this …


Inter- And Intra-Annual Effects Of Lethal Removal On Common Raven Abundance In Nevada And California, Usa, Shawn T. O'Neil, Peter S. Coates, Julia C. Brockman, Pat J. Jackson, Jack O. Spencer Jr., Perry J. Williams 2021 U.S. Geological Survey

Inter- And Intra-Annual Effects Of Lethal Removal On Common Raven Abundance In Nevada And California, Usa, Shawn T. O'Neil, Peter S. Coates, Julia C. Brockman, Pat J. Jackson, Jack O. Spencer Jr., Perry J. Williams

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Populations of common ravens (Corvus corax; ravens) have increased rapidly within sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) ecosystems between 1960 and 2020. Although ravens are native to North America, their population densities have expanded to levels that negatively influence the population dynamics of other wildlife species of conservation concern, such as greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii). For this reason, lethal removal, such as the application of the avicide DRC-1339, has been used to manage raven numbers at local scales and under certain circumstances. Because the relative effectiveness of DRC-1339 in reducing raven …


Evaluating Common Raven Take For Greater Sage-Grouse In Oregon’S Baker County Priority Conservation Area And Great Basin Region, Frank F. Rivera-Milán, Peter S. Coates, Jacqueline B. Cupples, Michael Green, Patrick K. Devers 2021 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

Evaluating Common Raven Take For Greater Sage-Grouse In Oregon’S Baker County Priority Conservation Area And Great Basin Region, Frank F. Rivera-Milán, Peter S. Coates, Jacqueline B. Cupples, Michael Green, Patrick K. Devers

Human–Wildlife Interactions

The common raven (Corvus corax; raven) is a nest predator of species of conservation concern, such as the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). Reducing raven abundance by take requires authorization under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act. To support U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s take decisions (e.g., those that authorize killing a specified proportion or number of individuals annually in a defined area), including the most recent one for Oregon’s Baker County Priority Area for Conservation (PAC), we modeled raven population dynamics under hypothetical scenarios with take rates ranging from below to above the maximum sustained yield (MSY; …


Estimating Trends Of Common Raven Populations In North America, 1966–2018, Seth M. Harju, Peter S. Coates, Seth J. Dettenmaier, Jonathan B. Dinkins, Pat J. Jackson, Michael P. Chenaille 2021 Heron Ecological, LLC

Estimating Trends Of Common Raven Populations In North America, 1966–2018, Seth M. Harju, Peter S. Coates, Seth J. Dettenmaier, Jonathan B. Dinkins, Pat J. Jackson, Michael P. Chenaille

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Over the last half century, common raven (Corvus corax; raven) populations have increased in abundance across much of North America. Ravens are generalist predators known to depredate the eggs and young of several sensitive species. Quantifying raven population increases at multiple spatial scales across North America will help wildlife resource managers identify areas where population increases present the greatest risk to species conservation. We used a hierarchical Bayesian modeling approach to analyze trends of standardized raven counts from 1966 to 2018 using Breeding Bird Survey data within each Level I and II ecoregion of the United States and Canada. …


Demography, Morphometrics, And Stomach Contents Of Common Ravens Examined As A Result Of Controlled Take, Corinne M. Gibble, Kriss K. Neuman, Jessie Beck 2021 California Department of Fish and Wildlife

Demography, Morphometrics, And Stomach Contents Of Common Ravens Examined As A Result Of Controlled Take, Corinne M. Gibble, Kriss K. Neuman, Jessie Beck

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Common ravens (Corvus corax; ravens) are known nest predators that have the ability to negatively impact nesting birds, including imperiled species of seabirds and shorebirds. We conducted systematic necropsies of ravens that were lethally controlled in Monterey Bay, California, USA during 2013–2015, in or near western snowy plover (Charadrius nivosus nivosus) nesting areas, in an effort to better understand body condition, overall health, and diet of individual ravens. Raven predation of snowy plover nests has increased over the years in the Monterey Bay study area, and lethal removal of ravens has been employed to reduce predation. …


A Decision Tool To Identify Population Management Strategies For Common Ravens And Other Avian Predators, Andrea F. Currylow, Brenda J. Hanley, Kerry L. Holcomb, Timothy Shields, Stephen Boland, William I. Boarman, Mercy Vaughn 2021 U.S. Geological Survey

A Decision Tool To Identify Population Management Strategies For Common Ravens And Other Avian Predators, Andrea F. Currylow, Brenda J. Hanley, Kerry L. Holcomb, Timothy Shields, Stephen Boland, William I. Boarman, Mercy Vaughn

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Some avian species have developed the capacity to leverage resource subsidies associated with human manipulated landscapes to increase population densities in habitats with naturally low carrying capacities. Elevated corvid densities and new territory establishment have led to an unsustainable increase in depredation pressure on sympatric native wildlife prey populations as well as in crop damage. Yet, subsidized predator removal programs aimed at reducing densities are likely most effective longer-term when conducted in tandem with subsidy control, habitat management, and robust assessment monitoring programs. We developed decision support software that leverages stage structured Lefkovitch population matrices to compare and identify treatment …


Searching For Gold: Using A Novel Land Cover Classification To Identify Multiscale Drivers Of Site Occupancy By A Flagship Species For Early-Successional Habitat Conservation, Baron Lin 2021 Virginia Commonwealth University

Searching For Gold: Using A Novel Land Cover Classification To Identify Multiscale Drivers Of Site Occupancy By A Flagship Species For Early-Successional Habitat Conservation, Baron Lin

Theses and Dissertations

Understanding habitat selection at multiple scales is an important step in guiding conservation programs and reversing species declines. This, however, is difficult for species that occupy early-successional habitats (ESH) due to a lack of accurate representation of shrub cover in publicly available land cover data. The Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera; GWWA) is a threatened species of conservation concern and a flagship for ESH conservation. We used a novel, LIDAR-derived land cover classification that accurately identifies shrubs at a fine resolution (1m) to investigate how habitat composition and configuration influence GWWA site occupancy. We aggregated this same land cover …


Common Raven Nesting And Spatial Distancing On Power Lines In Southeast Idaho, Usa, Quinn R. Shurtliff, Jericho C. Whiting 2021 Veolia Nuclear Solutions—Federal Services

Common Raven Nesting And Spatial Distancing On Power Lines In Southeast Idaho, Usa, Quinn R. Shurtliff, Jericho C. Whiting

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Common raven (Corvus corax; raven) abundance and distribution have increased in western North America in recent decades, facilitated by anthropogenic subsidies and other environmental changes. Electrical power transmission line structures provide nesting substrates for ravens. When these structures transect landscapes where natural nest substrates are limited, they may facilitate raven predation on eggs and juveniles of sensitive avian and reptile species. Little information is available regarding raven nest density trends on adjacent power lines or how raven territorial behavior influences spatial partitioning of nests, and hence, nest density. This knowledge would be valuable for managers of sensitive prey …


Bird Abundance And Diversity And The Impact Of Oyster Reef Restoration On The Bird Community In Mosquito Lagoon, Florida, Usa, Jessica Copertino 2021 University of Central Florida

Bird Abundance And Diversity And The Impact Of Oyster Reef Restoration On The Bird Community In Mosquito Lagoon, Florida, Usa, Jessica Copertino

Electronic Theses and Dissertations, 2020-

Birds are often used as indicators for biodiversity and ecosystem health. While birds have been monitored in other parts of the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), there has been little research on birds in Mosquito Lagoon (ML, the northernmost portion of the IRL). This thesis first examines the abundance and diversity of birds in ML by using two years of photographic observations to assess seasonal variations and the use of various habitat features by specific bird taxa. Abundance and species richness were highest in winter, while evenness and Simpson's diversity were highest in summer. Moreover, natural and artificial habitat features were …


Non-Lethal Predictors Of Organ Level Metal Contaminants In Central Florida Red-Shouldered Hawks, Jennifer Bouchenot 2021 University of Central Florida

Non-Lethal Predictors Of Organ Level Metal Contaminants In Central Florida Red-Shouldered Hawks, Jennifer Bouchenot

Electronic Theses and Dissertations, 2020-

Elemental contaminants aggregate in the environment due to human activity and can induce detrimental physiological effects within organisms. Birds exhibit exceptional susceptibility to many pollutants and are popular biomonitoring agents throughout the world. Birds of prey are of special interest due to their substantial biomagnification potential. Lethal sampling of internal organs yields accurate contaminant measurements, but recent sampling trends are endeavoring towards non-destructive sampling such as feathers. This methodological shift stems from researchers' preference for less-regulated samples, enhanced animal welfare, and broadening the possible collaborative audience with simpler protocols. Unfortunately, investigations of feathers have shown that their accuracy is capricious …


Synthesis Of Nest Predation Impacts Of Common Ravens On Sensitive Avian Species, Peter S. Coates, William C. Webb, Seth J. Dettenmaier, Seth M. Harju, David J. Delehanty 2021 U.S. Geological Survey

Synthesis Of Nest Predation Impacts Of Common Ravens On Sensitive Avian Species, Peter S. Coates, William C. Webb, Seth J. Dettenmaier, Seth M. Harju, David J. Delehanty

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Decades of mounting scientific evidence have revealed that common raven (Corvus corax; raven) population numbers have been increasing across nearly all regions of their geographic range in North America. Concomitantly, numerous native wildlife species have experienced elevated predation rates from ravens as populations have increased and expanded their range. Managers are concerned that increased raven predation of many threatened and endangered avian species in the U.S. and Canada during nesting periods may be hampering species recovery. We explored the literature to aggregate existing knowledge and evaluate the impacts of raven predation on nests and young of sensitive avian …


Common Raven Impacts On The Productivity Of A Small Breeding Population Of Snowy Plovers, Matthew J. Lau, Benjamin H. Becker, David T. Press 2021 Point Reyes National Seashore, National Park Service

Common Raven Impacts On The Productivity Of A Small Breeding Population Of Snowy Plovers, Matthew J. Lau, Benjamin H. Becker, David T. Press

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Common ravens (ravens; Corvus corax), an adaptable, synanthropic generalist, have thrived coincident with increasing human landscape modifications and fragmentation, consequently affecting their prey, which are often sensitive native and protected species. Ravens are a conservation concern for the protected western snowy plover (plover; Charadrius nivosus nivosus), causing low nest and chick survival in some breeding areas along the Pacific coast of North America. We used a long-term dataset from a breeding snowy plover monitoring program in Point Reyes National Seashore (PRNS) to investigate potential impacts of ravens on snowy plover nest and fledging success. Between 2002 and 2020, …


A Rapid Assessment Function To Estimate Common Raven Population Densities: Implications For Targeted Management, Brianne E. Brussee, Peter S. Coates, Shawn T. O'Neil, Seth J. Dettenmaier, Pat J. Jackson, Kristy B. Howe, David Delehanty 2021 U.S. Geological Survey

A Rapid Assessment Function To Estimate Common Raven Population Densities: Implications For Targeted Management, Brianne E. Brussee, Peter S. Coates, Shawn T. O'Neil, Seth J. Dettenmaier, Pat J. Jackson, Kristy B. Howe, David Delehanty

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Common raven (Corvus corax; raven) populations have increased over the past 5 decades within the western United States. Raven population increases have been largely attributed to growing resource subsidies from expansion of human enterprise. Concomitantly, managers are becoming increasingly concerned about elevated adverse effects on multiple sensitive prey species, damage to livestock and agriculture, and human safety. Managers could benefit from a rapid but reliable method to estimate raven densities across spatiotemporal scales to monitor raven populations more efficiently and inform targeted and adaptive management frameworks. However, obtaining estimates of raven density is data- and resource-intensive, which renders …


Thinking Like A Raven: Restoring Integrity, Stability, And Beauty To Western Ecosystems, John M. Marzluff, Matthias-Claudio Loretto, Cameron K. Ho, Georgia W. Coleman, Marco Restani 2021 University of Washington, Seattle

Thinking Like A Raven: Restoring Integrity, Stability, And Beauty To Western Ecosystems, John M. Marzluff, Matthias-Claudio Loretto, Cameron K. Ho, Georgia W. Coleman, Marco Restani

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Common ravens (Corvus corax; ravens) are generalist predators that pose a threat to several rare wildlife species in the western United States. Recent increases in raven populations, which are fueled by increased human subsidies—notably food, water, and nest sites—are concerning to those seeking to conserve rare species. Due to the challenges and inefficiencies of reducing or eliminating subsidies, managers increasingly rely on lethal removal of ravens. Over 125,000 ravens were killed by the U.S. Government from 1996 to 2019, and annual removals have increased 4-fold from the 1990s to mid-2010s. We contend that lethal removal of ravens, while capable …


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