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Effects Of Release Techniques On Parent-Reared Whooping Cranes In The Eastern Migratory Population, HILLARY L. THOMPSON, M. SUSANNA GLASS, MARIANNE M. WELLINGTON, KIM H. BOARDMAN, GLENN H. OLSEN 2022 International Crane Foundation

Effects Of Release Techniques On Parent-Reared Whooping Cranes In The Eastern Migratory Population, Hillary L. Thompson, M. Susanna Glass, Marianne M. Wellington, Kim H. Boardman, Glenn H. Olsen

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

Reintroduction of an Eastern Migratory Population (EMP) of whooping cranes (Grus americana) in the United States by release of captive-reared individuals began in 2001. As of 2020, the EMP has approximately 21 breeding pairs and has had limited recruitment of wild-hatched individuals, thus captive-reared juveniles continue to be released into breeding areas in Wisconsin to maintain the population. We investigated the effects of release techniques on survival, behavior, site fidelity, and conspecific associations of 42 captive-parent-reared whooping cranes released during 2013-2019 into the EMP. Individuals were monitored intensively post-release, then as a part of a long-term monitoring program, …


Observations Of Whooping Crane Parental Provisioning Of Chicks, GLENN H. OLSEN 2022 U.S. Geological Survey

Observations Of Whooping Crane Parental Provisioning Of Chicks, Glenn H. Olsen

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

Crane chicks are dependent on parent birds for provisioning during the first few months of life, but no study has examined this provisioning in detail. In 2014 research staff at the U.S. Geological Survey, Eastern Ecological Science Center (formerly Patuxent Wildlife Research Center), in Laurel, Maryland, made multiple observations of parent whooping cranes (Grus americana) feeding or interacting with their chick during the 3 months from hatching to fledging. Both parents participated in the feeding of the chick and only 1 chick was raised by each pair of parent whooping cranes. Initially feeding frequency was low (0-20 times …


The Impact Of Marking On Cranes: An Issue Paper, ANNE E. LACY, BARRY K. HARTUP, DAVID A. BRANDT 2022 International Crane Foundation

The Impact Of Marking On Cranes: An Issue Paper, Anne E. Lacy, Barry K. Hartup, David A. Brandt

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

As crane researchers and conservationists, our overarching objective is to learn and gather information about our study subjects while doing as little harm as possible. New technologies may be emerging too rapidly for researchers to assess the effectiveness or potential adverse effects of the devices, despite the ease and increasing accuracy of the information they provide. Researchers need to be able to gather information to answer various questions in a way that balances ethics and expense. With marking of cranes as a focal point, we discuss issues surrounding crane research based on various techniques, some health issues that are a …


Surveys And Population Estimates Of A Distinctive Subpopulation Of Sandhill Cranes In The Fraser River Lowlands Of British Columbia, MYLES M. LAMONT 2022 TerraFauna Wildlife Consulting, Inc.

Surveys And Population Estimates Of A Distinctive Subpopulation Of Sandhill Cranes In The Fraser River Lowlands Of British Columbia, Myles M. Lamont

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

A poorly understood subpopulation of sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) breeds at scattered locations in the lower Fraser River Valley on the south coast of British Columbia. The area also harbors the northernmost population of overwintering sandhill cranes anywhere in its range. While sporadic monitoring has been carried out since the mid-1960s, no formal survey efforts have been attempted for the entire Fraser River lowland subpopulation. During 2014-2019 we collected groundbased survey data on presence and occupation of territories within the study area; this effort was supported by citizen science contributions. On 20 June 2019, we flew a fixed-width, …


Whooping Crane Nest Building In Southwest Indiana, AMY J. KEARNS, HILLARY L. THOMPSON, ALLISYN-MARIE T. Y. GILLET 2022 Indiana Division of Fish and Wildlife Mitchell Field Office

Whooping Crane Nest Building In Southwest Indiana, Amy J. Kearns, Hillary L. Thompson, Allisyn-Marie T. Y. Gillet

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

The first documented case of whooping crane (Grus americana) nest building in Indiana is described. During spring 2015, a pair of whooping cranes did not leave their wintering grounds in Gibson County, Indiana, to return to their summering area in Wisconsin. Three nest platforms were discovered after the death of the female crane. To date, this is the only documented example of a whooping crane pair in the reintroduced Eastern Migratory Population (EMP) building nest platforms outside of Wisconsin. Although fidelity to the core nesting areas in Wisconsin is strong, and natal dispersal is usually <30 km, this example from Indiana shows that whooping cranes in the EMP may have the potential to pioneer nesting areas far outside of core reintroduction areas.


Mississippi Sandhill Crane Conservation Update 2017-2019, SCOTT G. HEREFORD, ANGELA J. DEDRICKSON 2022 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

Mississippi Sandhill Crane Conservation Update 2017-2019, Scott G. Hereford, Angela J. Dedrickson

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

To manage crane habitat on the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge during 2017-2019, 5,822 ha were treated with prescribed burns, 648 ha of woody vegetation were removed, 97 ha of invasive plants were chemically treated, and 1.2 ha of crops were planted. Mississippi sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pulla) use responded to habitat treatment; 348 of 349 VHF radio locations were in treated areas. There were 316 target predators removed. Eighteen captive-reared juveniles were acclimated and released. We detected an average of 38 nests per year, including a record 40 nests in 2019. Fifteen chicks fledged in 2019, …


Summary Of Mortality Among Captive Cranes At The International Crane Foundation: 2000-2020, BARRY K. HARTUP, ROBERT PHILLIPS 2022 International Crane Foundation

Summary Of Mortality Among Captive Cranes At The International Crane Foundation: 2000-2020, Barry K. Hartup, Robert Phillips

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

We reviewed mortalities of captive cranes at the International Crane Foundation (ICF) between 2000 and 2020 to provide broad insights into contemporary factors affecting the collection’s health and survival. Sixty-three deaths were documented in 13 of 15 crane species held in the ICF collection. The mean annual mortality during the study was 2.6% and the mean age (±SD) at death was 28.4 (±12.7) years. The overall total number of deaths of males and females was similar, but there was an association between sex and death of adult versus geriatric (>25 years) cranes (P < 0.01); males were more likely to die at geriatric age than females. Deaths were commonly associated with chronic health and management problems (n = 44, 79%) versus …


Vigilance Of Nesting Whooping Cranes In Juneau County, Wisconsin, NICOLE M. GORDON, DARBY P. BOLT, HILLARY L. THOMPSON 2022 International Crane Foundation

Vigilance Of Nesting Whooping Cranes In Juneau County, Wisconsin, Nicole M. Gordon, Darby P. Bolt, Hillary L. Thompson

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

Vigilance plays an important role in the detection of possible threats and reducing the risk of predation, including during the incubation period. We examined the visual vigilance of incubating whooping cranes (Grus americana) in Juneau County, Wisconsin, during the 2019 nesting season. We deployed 9 trail cameras and tagged crane presence and behavior in 32,801 photos which were used in our analysis. We assessed individual nest and environmental variables and their effects on vigilant behavior of incubating cranes using linear mixed-models. Vigilant behavior was defined by a posture in which the crane’s head was up, neck was erect, …


Florida Sandhill Crane Relocates Egg During Incubation, TIMOTHY A. DELLINGER, MIRANDA L. WATFORD, RONALD R. BIELEFELD 2022 Fish and Wildlife Research Institute

Florida Sandhill Crane Relocates Egg During Incubation, Timothy A. Dellinger, Miranda L. Watford, Ronald R. Bielefeld

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

Anecdotal accounts of birds moving their eggs to a new location have been reported in shorebirds, waterfowl, and woodpeckers. We report relocation of an egg, 2 days prior to hatching, by an adult Florida sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pratensis). We do not know why the egg was moved, but egg movement among other species appears to be associated with nest disturbance by humans, animals, or environmental conditions.


Initial Evaluation Of Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Enzyme Immunoassay For Use With Crane Semen Samples, MEGAN E. BROWN, KIM BOARDMAN, KATIE L. EDWARDS 2022 National Zoological Park

Initial Evaluation Of Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Enzyme Immunoassay For Use With Crane Semen Samples, Megan E. Brown, Kim Boardman, Katie L. Edwards

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

The management of ex situ and in situ populations of many wildlife species requires detailed knowledge of a species’ reproductive biology. For species such as cranes, where artificial insemination is a critical component of ex situ management strategies, understanding normal sperm function is especially important. Previous research has shown that captive cranes exhibit highly variable production and quality of semen samples produced by individual males and high levels of variation of cell concentration and motility across different species. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP) has been implicated in regulating sperm function, such as cell motility, and may affect an individual’s ability …


Whooping Crane Stay Length In Relation To Stopover Site Characteristics, ANDREW J. CAVEN, AARON T. PEARSE, DAVID A. BRANDT, Mary J. Harner, GREG D. WRIGHT, DAVID M. BAASCH, EMMA M. BRINLEY BUCKLEY, KRISTINE L. METZGER, MATTHEW R. RABBE,, ANNE E. LACY 2022 Platte River Whooping Crane Maintenance Trust

Whooping Crane Stay Length In Relation To Stopover Site Characteristics, Andrew J. Caven, Aaron T. Pearse, David A. Brandt, Mary J. Harner, Greg D. Wright, David M. Baasch, Emma M. Brinley Buckley, Kristine L. Metzger, Matthew R. Rabbe,, Anne E. Lacy

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

Whooping crane (Grus americana) migratory stopovers can vary in length from hours to more than a month. Stopover sites provide food resources and safety essential for the completion of migration. Factors such as weather, climate, demographics of migrating groups, and physiological condition of migrants influence migratory movements of cranes (Gruidae) to varying degrees. However, little research has examined the relationship between habitat characteristics and stopover stay length in cranes. Site quality may relate to stay length with longer stays that allow individuals to improve body condition, or with shorter stays because of increased foraging efficiency. We examined this …


How Stressful Is It To Move? Whooping Crane Glucocorticoid Response During Facility Transfer, MEGAN E. BROWN, CHRISTOPHER MARTIN, CHRISTOPHER CROWE, SPRINA LUI, NUCHARIN SONGSASEN, 2022 National Zoological Park

How Stressful Is It To Move? Whooping Crane Glucocorticoid Response During Facility Transfer, Megan E. Brown, Christopher Martin, Christopher Crowe, Sprina Lui, Nucharin Songsasen,

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

The ability to transfer animals between different facilities for genetic management is a critical component to the success of any cooperatively managed captive animal population despite the high cost and the need for a high level of coordination in logistical planning. Two issues of concern are the magnitude of potential stress responses incurred during shipment of adult cranes to a new facility and the duration of elevated glucocorticoid production during the acclimation periods. The objectives of this project were to assess adrenal responses of whooping cranes (Grus americana) during transfer from the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (PWRC) to …


Drivers Of Annual Fledging In The Mississippi Sandhill Crane Population 1991-2018, HENRY W. WOOLLEY, SCOTT G. HEREFORD, JEROME J. HOWARD, 2022 University of New Orleans

Drivers Of Annual Fledging In The Mississippi Sandhill Crane Population 1991-2018, Henry W. Woolley, Scott G. Hereford, Jerome J. Howard,

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

We studied trends in nesting, number of chicks fledged annually, and their environmental and biotic drivers in the wild population of Mississippi sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pulla) on Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge during 1991-2018. Population size, number of nests, and number of chicks fledged annually increased slowly but significantly over the course of the study. Increases in population size were related to both number of wild-reared chicks fledged annually and number of captive-reared chicks released each year, but wild-reared chicks had significantly higher survivorship than captive-reared chicks. Hurricanes transiently raised mortality rates but only Hurricane Katrina …


Black Fly Survey Of A Whooping Crane Reintroduction Area In Eastern Wisconsin, RICHARD P. URBANEK, PETER H. ADLER 2022 Whooping Crane Technical Assistance Group

Black Fly Survey Of A Whooping Crane Reintroduction Area In Eastern Wisconsin, Richard P. Urbanek, Peter H. Adler

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

Nest desertion due to harassment by black flies (Simulium annulus and S. johannseni) during incubation has been a major factor inhibiting success of the reintroduced Eastern Migratory Population of whooping cranes (Grus americana). To avoid this problem, which was prevalent in the core reintroduction area in central Wisconsin, the Whooping Crane Eastern Partnership changed the primary reintroduction area to eastern Wisconsin in 2011. However, a 2010 assessment of black flies in that area had concentrated predominantly on the southern portion of the new area. In 2017-2018, we collected the first samples of black flies in Green …


Twenty-Year Status Of The Eastern Migratory Whooping Crane Reintroduction, HILLARY L. THOMPSON, NICOLE M. GORDON, DARBY P. BOLT, JADINE R. LEE, EVA K. SZYSZKOSKI 2022 International Crane Foundation

Twenty-Year Status Of The Eastern Migratory Whooping Crane Reintroduction, Hillary L. Thompson, Nicole M. Gordon, Darby P. Bolt, Jadine R. Lee, Eva K. Szyszkoski

Proceedings of the North American Crane Workshop

Since the 10-year status update in 2011, the first parent-reared whooping cranes (Grus americana) were released in the Eastern Migratory Population, the ultralight program (UL) ended, and cranes were released at new sites in eastern Wisconsin. During 2011-2020, 117 captive-reared whooping cranes were released; 75 costume-reared (35 in UL and 40 in the Direct Autumn Release program) and 42 parent-reared. There were no significant differences in 1- or 3-year survival rates based on rearing technique or release site. The population size remained at about 100 cranes during 2010-2018 but then decreased during 2018-2020 due to a reduced number …


Influences Of Grazing On Habitat Characteristics, Avian Community Composition And Nesting Bird Abundance Within Cheyenne Bottoms, Ks, Kirsten Granstrom-Arndt 2022 Fort Hays State University

Influences Of Grazing On Habitat Characteristics, Avian Community Composition And Nesting Bird Abundance Within Cheyenne Bottoms, Ks, Kirsten Granstrom-Arndt

Master's Theses

Cheyenne Bottoms is a 41,000-acre prairie-marsh ecosystem in central Kansas. Approximately 8,000 acres of mixed grassland are dedicated for the conservation of bird populations, but little is known about the status of bird communities within these areas. This study took place within grassland areas of Cheyenne Bottoms from May – July 2021. I investigated bird community composition, relative abundance of frequently observed bird species, vegetative characteristics, and similarity of sites across different grazing intensities (continuous, rotational, and non-grazed). The four most common bird species observed were dickcissel (Spiza americana), grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum), meadowlark species ( …


Post-Fledging Habitat Selection And Movements Of Juvenile Mallards In The Prairie Pothole Region, Cynthia E. Anchor 2022 South Dakota State University

Post-Fledging Habitat Selection And Movements Of Juvenile Mallards In The Prairie Pothole Region, Cynthia E. Anchor

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America provides critical habitat for waterfowl across life stages, but anthropogenic changes to the landscape have negatively impacted habitat quality for waterfowl. The mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) is abundant and socioeconomically valuable in the PPR, as it is a preferred target species of waterfowl hunters. Extensive research has evaluated breeding ecology of mallards in the PPR, but the period between juvenile mallards fledging and migrating has rarely been studied. The post-fledging ecology of juvenile mallards is a vital consideration for comprehensive waterfowl management. Further, juvenile mallards are a significant portion of hunter harvest at …


Evaluating Avian Use Of Cover Crops In The Corn Belt, Megan Figura 2022 South Dakota State University

Evaluating Avian Use Of Cover Crops In The Corn Belt, Megan Figura

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The tallgrass prairie of North America has changed drastically since colonial settlement, with up to 99% of this region converted for agriculture and other land-uses. Concurrent with grassland conversion, grassland birds have experienced the most extreme, consistent, and widespread population declines of any avian guild. Agricultural lands in the U.S. Midwest were able to provide adequate habitat for several bird species until the 1950’s; however, altered and intensified management practices have degraded much of remaining suitable habitat and undermined ecosystem functions. Consequently, many grassland birds have been identified as Species of Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN) in many State Wildlife Action …


Conservation Value Of Working Landscapes In Mesoamerica For Nearctic-Neotropical Migratory Birds, Samuel L. Oliveira 2022 Michigan Technological University

Conservation Value Of Working Landscapes In Mesoamerica For Nearctic-Neotropical Migratory Birds, Samuel L. Oliveira

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Populations of many of Nearctic-neotropical migratory birds have declined in the past several decades, recent estimates suggested a dramatic loss of 2.5 billion birds over the past 50 years in North America. Habitat loss and degradation represent a major threat in the tropics. Managed agroecosystems have the potential to mitigate some impacts of land conversion, however, little is known regarding the habitat quality provided by working landscapes in the overwintering range. In this research, we surveyed the migratory bird community in the rapidly expanding oil palm plantations in southern Mexico; and also the declining population of the Wood Thrush ( …


Display Site Selection By Male Ruffed Grouse In The Upper Great Lakes Region, Seth Finkel 2022 Michigan Technological University

Display Site Selection By Male Ruffed Grouse In The Upper Great Lakes Region, Seth Finkel

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

The Ruffed Grouse (Bonasa umbellus) is widely known for its characteristic territorial drumming display. In this study, I used ruffed grouse drumming survey data from Minnesota and Michigan, in a series of mixed logistic models, to identify drivers of drumming log selection by reproductive male ruffed grouse. I collected drumming stage data utilizing a paired-random sampling structure. I used information theoretic model selection to examine three sets of a priori mixed logistic models: one for the entirety of my Minnesota dataset, one consisting of stages identified in aspen stands in Minnesota, and one for my Michigan dataset. In …


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