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Full Issue Volume Vi, 2018 The University of Maine

Full Issue Volume Vi

The Catch

No abstract provided.


Fisheries Bycatch Risk To Marine Megafauna Is Intensified In Lagrangian Coherent Structures, Kylie L. Scales, Elliot L. Hazen, Michael G. Jacox, Frederic Castruccio, Sara M. Maxwell, Rebecca L. Lewison, Steven J. Bograd 2018 Old Dominion University

Fisheries Bycatch Risk To Marine Megafauna Is Intensified In Lagrangian Coherent Structures, Kylie L. Scales, Elliot L. Hazen, Michael G. Jacox, Frederic Castruccio, Sara M. Maxwell, Rebecca L. Lewison, Steven J. Bograd

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Incidental catch of nontarget species (bycatch) is a major barrier to ecological and economic sustainability in marine capture fisheries. Key to mitigating bycatch is an understanding of the habitat requirements of target and nontarget species and the influence of heterogeneity and variability in the dynamic marine environment. While patterns of overlap among marine capture fisheries and habitats of a taxonomically diverse range of marine vertebrates have been reported, a mechanistic understanding of the real-time physical drivers of bycatch events is lacking. Moving from describing patterns toward understanding processes, we apply a Lagrangian analysis to a high-resolution ocean model output to ...


Virginia Shellfish Aquaculture Situation And Outlook Report: Results Of The 2017 Virginia Shellfish Aquaculture Crop Reporting Survey, Karen Hudson, Virginia Sea Grant Marine Advisory Program 2018 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Virginia Shellfish Aquaculture Situation And Outlook Report: Results Of The 2017 Virginia Shellfish Aquaculture Crop Reporting Survey, Karen Hudson, Virginia Sea Grant Marine Advisory Program

Reports

No abstract provided.


Abundance Trends Of Highly Migratory Species In The Atlantic Ocean: Accounting For Water Temperature Profiles, Patrick D. Lynch, Kyle W. Shertzer, Enric Cortes, Robert J. Latour 2018 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Abundance Trends Of Highly Migratory Species In The Atlantic Ocean: Accounting For Water Temperature Profiles, Patrick D. Lynch, Kyle W. Shertzer, Enric Cortes, Robert J. Latour

VIMS Articles

Relative abundance trends of highly migratory species (HMS) have played a central role in debates over the health of global fisheries. However, such trends have mostly been inferred from fishery catch rates, which can provide misleading signals of relative abundance. While many biases are accounted for through traditional catch rate standardization, pelagic habitat fished is rarely directly considered. Using a method that explicitly accounts for temperature regimes, we analysed data from the US pelagic longline fishery to estimate relative abundance trends for 34 HMS in the Atlantic Ocean from 1987 through 2013. This represents one of the largest studies of ...


An Updated Model For Estimating The Tmdl-Related Benefits Of Oyster Reef Restoration Harris Creek, Maryland, Usa, M. Lisa Kellogg, Mark J. Brush, Jeff C. Cornell 2018 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

An Updated Model For Estimating The Tmdl-Related Benefits Of Oyster Reef Restoration Harris Creek, Maryland, Usa, M. Lisa Kellogg, Mark J. Brush, Jeff C. Cornell

Reports

In 2014, a user-friendly, web-accessible model was developed that allowed restoration practitioners and resource managers to easily estimate the TMDLrelated benefits of oyster reef (Crassostrea virginica) restoration per unit area, run restoration scenarios in Harris Creek, MD to optimize restoration planning and implementation, and calculate the benefits of the chosen plan. The model was rooted in scientifically defensible data and was readily transferrable to systems throughout the Chesapeake Bay and Eastern Shore. The model operated in five vertically well-mixed boxes along the main axis of the creek. Exchanges among creeks were computed using a tidal prism approach and were compared ...


Can Lactate Dehydrogenase Be Used To Index Anaerobic Activity In Fishes?, Casey W. Schoenebeck, Erik Prenosil, Brianna Pallas, Aspen Abrams, Kimberly Carlson 2018 University of Nebraska at Kearney

Can Lactate Dehydrogenase Be Used To Index Anaerobic Activity In Fishes?, Casey W. Schoenebeck, Erik Prenosil, Brianna Pallas, Aspen Abrams, Kimberly Carlson

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

Anaerobic activities such as those associated with spawning, foraging for prey, and predator avoidance are difficult to quantify in wild fish. This study experimentally evaluated if the muscle enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) can be used to index recent anaerobic activity in fish by testing the hypothesis that muscle LDH activity will be greater in exercised fish than in rested fish. We used burst swimming motions in a swim tunnel to elicit anaerobic metabolism in a 5 day anaerobic exercise treatment (n = 30) and a rested control group (n = 30). On average the exercised fish produced significantly more LDH in their ...


Spatial And Temporal Patterns Of Arctic Nearshore Fish Community And Food Web Structures, Mark B. Barton 2018 Florida International University

Spatial And Temporal Patterns Of Arctic Nearshore Fish Community And Food Web Structures, Mark B. Barton

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Climate change and increasing anthropogenic activities are causing rapid changes to environmental and ecological processes in the Arctic Ocean. To better understand these changes, scientists have increased research efforts in these regions, but to date the number of studies on Arctic nearshore habitats are lacking. My dissertation responds to the paucity of information and investigates patterns in Arctic nearshore fish communities and food webs to gain insight to how these ecosystems may shift as these changes continue. I used multivariate statistical analysis to examine patterns in community structure and composition to determine that Arctic nearshore fish communities are largely driven ...


Environmental And Ecological Benefits And Impacts Of Oyster Aquaculture Chesapeake Bay, Virginia, Usa, M. Lisa Kellogg, Jessica Turner, Jennifer Dreyer, Grace Massey 2018 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Environmental And Ecological Benefits And Impacts Of Oyster Aquaculture Chesapeake Bay, Virginia, Usa, M. Lisa Kellogg, Jessica Turner, Jennifer Dreyer, Grace Massey

Reports

To better quantify the ecological benefits and impacts of oyster aquaculture, we sampled water quality, sediment quality, benthic macrofaunal communities and oysters at four oyster aquaculture sites located on the western shore of Chesapeake Bay in Virginia, USA. At each site, we collected samples from within the footprint of the aquaculture cages and from nearby areas with similar physical and environmental conditions but far enough away to be minimally influenced by aquaculture operations. Data collected from the water column included chlorophyll concentrations, turbidity, pH, dissolved oxygen concentrations, light attenuation, particle concentration, median particle size, total suspended solids and their organic ...


Sequencing A Shrimp Diversity Panel, Emily Kawaler, Max F. Rothschild, Zhiqiang Du 2018 Iowa State University

Sequencing A Shrimp Diversity Panel, Emily Kawaler, Max F. Rothschild, Zhiqiang Du

Max Rothschild

Eighty-six shrimp (eighty Pacific White, six Tiger shrimp) from ten different geographic regions were sequenced with a twofold goal: first, to better understand and document the genetic makeup of the species, and second, to discover genetic differences between shrimp lines that may facilitate the breeding of shrimp with better performance traits


Investigating Present-Day Health Issues Of The American Lobster (Homarus Americanus), Deborah A. Bouchard 2018 University of Maine

Investigating Present-Day Health Issues Of The American Lobster (Homarus Americanus), Deborah A. Bouchard

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The American lobster, Homarus americanus, H. Milne Edwards, 1837, supports the most economically valuable fishery along the North Atlantic coast of North America. A collapse in lobster populations in Southern New England (SNE) has coincided with increasing ocean temperatures and emerging diseases. This research investigated the etiologies of limp lobster disease (LLD) and epizootic shell disease (ESD), two diseases that continue to cause significant mortality in natural lobster populations. Mortality from LLD is associated with the bacteria Photobacterium indicum and is more intense in impounded lobsters. To more clearly define the community ecology of this suspected opportunistic pathogen, the microbial ...


A Cooperative High Precision Dredge Survey To Assess The Mid-Atlantic Sea Scallop Resource : Final Report, David B. Rudders, Sally Roman 2018 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

A Cooperative High Precision Dredge Survey To Assess The Mid-Atlantic Sea Scallop Resource : Final Report, David B. Rudders, Sally Roman

Reports

For the sea scallop, Placopecten magellanicus, the concepts of space and time have emerged as the basis of an effective management tool. The strategy of closing or limiting activities in certain areas for specific lengths of time has gained support as a method to conserve and enhance the scallop resource. In the last decade, rotational area management has provided a mechanism to protect juvenile scallops from fishing mortality by closing areas based upon scallop abundance and age distribution. Approximately half of the sea scallop industry’s current annual landings come from areas under this rotational harvest strategy. While this represents ...


An Assessment Of Sea Scallop Abundance And Distribution In Georges Bank Closed Area Ii And The Southern Extension Closure: Final Report, David B. Rudders, Sally Roman 2018 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

An Assessment Of Sea Scallop Abundance And Distribution In Georges Bank Closed Area Ii And The Southern Extension Closure: Final Report, David B. Rudders, Sally Roman

Reports

For the sea scallop, Placopecten magellanicus, the concepts of space and time have emerged as the basis of an effective management tool. The strategy of closing or limiting activities in certain areas for specific lengths of time has gained support as a method to conserve and enhance the scallop resource. In the last decade, rotational area management has provided a mechanism to protect juvenile scallops from fishing mortality by closing areas based upon scallop abundance and age distribution. Approximately half of the sea scallop industry’s current annual landings come from areas under this rotational harvest strategy. While this represents ...


An Assessment Of Sea Scallop Abundance And Distribution In The Nantucket Lightship Closed Area And Surrounds: Final Report, David B. Rudders, Sally Roman 2018 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

An Assessment Of Sea Scallop Abundance And Distribution In The Nantucket Lightship Closed Area And Surrounds: Final Report, David B. Rudders, Sally Roman

Reports

For the sea scallop, Placopecten magellanicus, the concepts of space and time have emerged as the basis of an effective management tool. The strategy of closing or limiting activities in certain areas for specific lengths of time has gained support as a method to conserve and enhance the scallop resource. In the last decade, rotational area management has provided a mechanism to protect juvenile scallops from fishing mortality by closing areas based upon scallop abundance and age distribution. Approximately half of the sea scallop industry’s current annual landings come from areas under this rotational harvest strategy. While this represents ...


Movements And Capture Efficiency Of The Blue Catfish Ictalurus Furcatus,In Lake Dardanelle, Zachary S. Moran 2018 Arkansas Tech University

Movements And Capture Efficiency Of The Blue Catfish Ictalurus Furcatus,In Lake Dardanelle, Zachary S. Moran

Theses and Dissertations from 2018

Standardizing low-frequency electrofishing procedures for sampling Blue Catfish Ictalurus furcatus has become a recent focus of fisheries biologists. Information on habitat use, value of chase boats, and duration and timing of samples could increase sampling efficiency. To asses these variables in Lake Dardanelle, Arkansas, I divided this reservoir into lacustrine, transition, and riverine zones. I used a systematic random sample design, and electrofisher, to collect 8,067 Blue Catfish from 458 samples between May and September 2016. I found: (1) The most efficient season to sample was the summer season when water temperatures were >25°C; (2) CPUE was highest ...


Spatio-Temporal Dynamics Of Atlantic Cod Bycatch In The Maine Lobster Fishery And Its Impacts On Stock Assessment, Robert E. Boenish 2018 University of Maine

Spatio-Temporal Dynamics Of Atlantic Cod Bycatch In The Maine Lobster Fishery And Its Impacts On Stock Assessment, Robert E. Boenish

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Of the most iconic fish species in the world, the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua, hereafter, cod) has been a mainstay in the North Atlantic for centuries. While many global fish stocks have received increased pressure with the advent of new, more efficient fishing technology in the mid-20th century, exceptional pressure has been placed on this prized gadoid. Bycatch, or the unintended catch of organisms, is one of the biggest global fisheries issues. Directly resulting from the failed recovery of cod in the GoM, attention has been placed as to possible sources of unaccounted catch. Among the most prominent is ...


Potential Minimum Threshold For Pallid Sturgeon Relative Condition In The Lower Missouri River, Kirk D. Steffensen 2018 Nebraska Game and Parks Commission

Potential Minimum Threshold For Pallid Sturgeon Relative Condition In The Lower Missouri River, Kirk D. Steffensen

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

Pallid Sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) condition has declined in the lower Missouri River but the cause and the effects of this decline remain uncertain. Adult Pallid Sturgeon are becoming reproductively ready less frequently and sub-adult Pallid Sturgeon are likely delaying sexual maturation. Even more concerning, Pallid Sturgeon capture rates have declined the past two years (i.e., 2016 and 2017), despite the ongoing Pallid Sturgeon stocking program. Several Pallid Sturgeon that have been captured are visually emaciated but a minimum condition threshold has not been described. Therefore, the aim of this study is to present a potential lethal condition level for ...


Incorporating Environmental Variability Into Assessment And Management Of American Lobster (Homarus Americanus), Kisei Tanaka 2018 The University of Maine

Incorporating Environmental Variability Into Assessment And Management Of American Lobster (Homarus Americanus), Kisei Tanaka

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The American lobster (Homarus americanus) support one of the most valuable fisheries in the United States. A growing body of literature recognizes the importance of environmental variables in regulating this species’ biogeography and population dynamics. However, the current lobster stock assessment and management do not explicitly consider the impact of environmental variables such as water temperature and assumes spatiotemporal variabilities in the lobster environment as random background noises. Furthermore, while climate-induced changes in marine ecosystems continue to impact the productivity of lobster fisheries, studies that model lobster response to altered environmental conditions associated with climate change are lacking. As such ...


Developmental And Cross-Generational Distribution And Toxicity Of Polystyrene Nanoparticles In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Jordan Pitt 2018 SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry

Developmental And Cross-Generational Distribution And Toxicity Of Polystyrene Nanoparticles In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Jordan Pitt

Honors Theses

Plastics are ubiquitous in aquatic environments, accounting for 50-80% of marine debris (Barnes et al., 2009). The hazard of macroplastics (particles with a diameter > 5 mm) is well established, with records of countless different species ingesting or becoming entangled in plastic debris (Laist, 1997). Recently, the degradation of macroplastics debris in the ocean and the beach litter into microplastics and nanoplastics has become a significant concern and an increasingly important area of research (Andrady, 2011). Despite this increase in concern relatively little is known about the presence of micro and nanoplastics in freshwater systems or about their potential toxicity to ...


The Landscape Of Fishing : A Study Of Iceland’S Fishing Industry, Ryan F. Mackerer 2018 SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry

The Landscape Of Fishing : A Study Of Iceland’S Fishing Industry, Ryan F. Mackerer

Honors Theses

The Landscape of Fishing is a comprehensive look into the history and modern day fishing industry of Iceland. In this study, each active fi shing harbor has been documented, mapped and analyzed to understand how the deeply rooted cultural practice of fishing has infl uenced development across the country as well as its role in shaping the landscape of the country into what it is today. Fishing has been synonymous with the country of Iceland since its settlement. There has arguably been no greater driving force of development that has influenced the country in the same way that the fishing ...


Twenty-Five Years Of Change In Spruce Grouse Occupancy At Their Southern Range Margin In Maine, Usa, Christopher J. Gilbert 2018 University of Maine

Twenty-Five Years Of Change In Spruce Grouse Occupancy At Their Southern Range Margin In Maine, Usa, Christopher J. Gilbert

Honors College

Species at their southern range margin are often dispersed throughout fragmented populations where they experience less optimum conditions compared to their central range. Spruce Grouse (Falcipennis canadensis) are boreal forest obligates distributed throughout the Northern United States and Canada and reach their southeastern range extent in Maine. I resurveyed 18 Black Spruce (Picea mariana) – Tamarack (Larix laricina) stands on Mount Desert Island, Maine, to observe changes in Spruce Grouse occupancy and abundance between the early 1990s (Whitcomb et al. 1996) and present day. I conducted two rounds of call back surveys within each stand from April to May, 2017. I ...


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