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What’S At Steak? The Political Discourse Of Emissions Intensity And Implications Of Animal Agriculture, Kalyn Simon 2018 The University of San Francisco

What’S At Steak? The Political Discourse Of Emissions Intensity And Implications Of Animal Agriculture, Kalyn Simon

Master's Theses

This thesis analyzes the international discourse of greenhouse gas emissions in relation to livestock production. Specific government ministries, research institutes, and multilateral organizations are framing a new strategy to mitigate emissions by using emissions intensity metrics. Emissions intensity is a ratio comparing emissions produced per unit of animal product as oppose to measuring absolute emissions. This research is acknowledged as a win-win scenario which allows for a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions while continuing production more efficiently. This thesis outlines the emergence of this metric in international discourse and the implications this shift has on the livestock sector globally. Ultimately ...


Bovine Mastitis Resistance: Novel Quantitative Trait Loci And The Role Of Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells, Jacqueline P. Kurz 2018 Utah State University

Bovine Mastitis Resistance: Novel Quantitative Trait Loci And The Role Of Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells, Jacqueline P. Kurz

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Bovine mastitis, or inflammation of the mammary gland, has substantial economic and animal welfare implications. A genetic basis for mastitis resistance traits is recognized and can be used to guide selective breeding programs. The discovery of regions of the genome associated with mastitis resistance, and knowledge of the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible, can facilitate development of efficient mastitis control and therapeutic strategies. The objectives of this dissertation research were to identify sites of genetic variation associated with mastitis resistance, and to define the contributions of the milk-secreting epithelial cells to mammary gland immune responses and mastitis resistance. Twenty seven regions ...


Evaluation Of Single Vs. Pair Housing Holstein Calves On Specific Antibody Concentrations To Klh, Chaney K. Morgan 2018 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Evaluation Of Single Vs. Pair Housing Holstein Calves On Specific Antibody Concentrations To Klh, Chaney K. Morgan

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Development And Validation Of A House Finch Interleukin-1Β (Hfil-1Β) Elisa System, Sungwon Kim, Myeongseon Park, Ariel E. Leon, James S. Adelman, Dana M. Hawley, Rami A. Dalloul 2018 The University of Edinburgh

Development And Validation Of A House Finch Interleukin-1Β (Hfil-1Β) Elisa System, Sungwon Kim, Myeongseon Park, Ariel E. Leon, James S. Adelman, Dana M. Hawley, Rami A. Dalloul

James S. Adelman

Background

A unique clade of the bacterium Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), which causes chronic respiratory disease in poultry, has resulted in annual epidemics of conjunctivitis in North American house finches since the 1990s. Currently, few immunological tools have been validated for this songbird species. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a prototypic multifunctional cytokine and can affect almost every cell type during Mycoplasma infection. The overall goal of this study was to develop and validate a direct ELISA assay for house finch IL-1β (HfIL-1β) using a cross-reactive chicken antibody.

Methods

A direct ELISA approach was used to develop this system using two different coating ...


Design And Evaluation Of 16s Rrna-Targeted Peptide Nucleic Acid Probes For Whole-Cell Detection Of Members Of The Genus Listeria, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher, Jens J. Hyldig-Nielsen, Eric A. Johnson 2018 Iowa State University

Design And Evaluation Of 16s Rrna-Targeted Peptide Nucleic Acid Probes For Whole-Cell Detection Of Members Of The Genus Listeria, Byron F. Brehm-Stecher, Jens J. Hyldig-Nielsen, Eric A. Johnson

Byron F. Brehm-Stecher

Six fluorescein-labeled peptide nucleic acid oligomers targeting Listeria-specific sequences on the 16S ribosomal subunit were evaluated for their abilities to hybridize to whole cells by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Four of these probes yielded weak or no fluorescent signals after hybridization and were not investigated further. The remaining two FISH-compatible probes, LisUn-3 and LisUn-11, were evaluated for their reactivities against 22 Listeria strains and 17 other bacterial strains belonging to 10 closely related genera. Hybridization with BacUni-1, a domain-specific eubacterial probe, was used as a positive control for target accessibility in both Listeria spp. and nontarget cells. RNase ...


Enhanced Destruction Of Salmonella Enterica In Carrot And Berry Juices By A Combination Of Cinnamaldehyde And High Pressure Processing, aura Darabe, Aubrey F. Mendonca, David Manu, James S. Dickson, Joseph G. Sebranek, Angela M. Shaw, Alan A. DiSpirito 2018 Iowa State University

Enhanced Destruction Of Salmonella Enterica In Carrot And Berry Juices By A Combination Of Cinnamaldehyde And High Pressure Processing, Aura Darabe, Aubrey F. Mendonca, David Manu, James S. Dickson, Joseph G. Sebranek, Angela M. Shaw, Alan A. Dispirito

Angela M. Shaw

Statement of the Problem: In recent years several disease outbreaks were linked to unpasteurized juices contaminated with human enteric pathogens such as Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (CDC 2011; EFSA 2015). While heat pasteurization and canning can inactivate vegetative pathogens, such processes can destroy heat labile nutrients and negatively alter sensory characteristics of juices. Also growing consumer demands for foods which are nutritious, fresh-like, and devoid of synthetic preservatives, have forced juice manufacturers to explore non-thermal processes and natural antimicrobials for pathogen control in juices. The present study investigated the effect of low concentrations of cinnamaldehyde combined with ...


The Mayfly Newsletter, Donna J. Giberson 2018 The Permanent Committee of the International Conferences on Ephemeroptera

The Mayfly Newsletter, Donna J. Giberson

The Mayfly Newsletter

No abstract provided.


Precision Livestock Farming In Egg Production, Hongwei Xin, Kai Liu 2018 Iowa State University

Precision Livestock Farming In Egg Production, Hongwei Xin, Kai Liu

Hongwei Xin

This article focuses on precision livestock farming (PLF) as it pertains to egg production. Specific contents include: (1) an overview of evolution in the egg industry that is reflective of what is now known as PLF and the new trend of egg production, (2) prominent characteristics of modern egg production systems that necessitate further development and adoption of PLF technologies, (3) some examples of PLF tools or technologies for establishment of science-based production guidelines or applications in field operations, and finally (4) outlook of PLF for egg production. For the fundamental principles and elements of PLF, readers can refer to ...


Individual Personality Differences In Goats Predict Their Performance In Visual Learning And Non-Associative Cognitive Tasks, Christian Nawroth, Pamela M. Prentice, Alan G. McElligott 2018 Queen Mary University of London

Individual Personality Differences In Goats Predict Their Performance In Visual Learning And Non-Associative Cognitive Tasks, Christian Nawroth, Pamela M. Prentice, Alan G. Mcelligott

Christian Nawroth, Ph.D.

Variation in common personality traits, such as boldness or exploration, is often associated with risk–reward trade–offs and behavioural flexibility. To date, only a few studies have examined the effects of consistent behavioural traits on both learning and cognition. We investigated whether certain personality traits (‘exploration’ and ‘sociability’) of individuals were related to cognitive performance, learning flexibility and learning style in a social ungulate species, the goat (Capra hircus). We also investigated whether a preference for feature cues rather than impaired learning abilities can explain performance variation in a visual discrimination task. We found that personality scores were consistent ...


A Note On Pigs’ Knowledge Of Hidden Objects, Christian Nawroth, Mirjam Ebersbach, Eberhard von Borell 2018 Martin Luther University

A Note On Pigs’ Knowledge Of Hidden Objects, Christian Nawroth, Mirjam Ebersbach, Eberhard Von Borell

Christian Nawroth, Ph.D.

Object permanence is the notion that objects continue to exist even when they are out of observer’s sight. This ability is adaptive for free ranging animals who have to cope with a dangerous and highly changeable environment and allows them to be aware of predators sneaking in their proximity or to keep track of conspecifics or food sources, even when out of sight. Farm animals might also benefit from object permanence because the ability to follow the trajectory of hidden food or objects may lead to a higher predictability of subjects’ environment, which in turn might affect the level ...


Individual Personality Differences In Goats Predict Their Performance In Visual Learning And Non-Associative Cognitive Tasks, Christian Nawroth, Pamela M. Prentice, Alan G. McElligott 2018 Queen Mary University of London

Individual Personality Differences In Goats Predict Their Performance In Visual Learning And Non-Associative Cognitive Tasks, Christian Nawroth, Pamela M. Prentice, Alan G. Mcelligott

Alan G. McElligott, Ph.D.

Variation in common personality traits, such as boldness or exploration, is often associated with risk–reward trade–offs and behavioural flexibility. To date, only a few studies have examined the effects of consistent behavioural traits on both learning and cognition. We investigated whether certain personality traits (‘exploration’ and ‘sociability’) of individuals were related to cognitive performance, learning flexibility and learning style in a social ungulate species, the goat (Capra hircus). We also investigated whether a preference for feature cues rather than impaired learning abilities can explain performance variation in a visual discrimination task. We found that personality scores were consistent ...


Muskrats, James E. Miller 2018 Mississippi State University

Muskrats, James E. Miller

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

The muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) is a common, semi-aquatic rodent native to the United States (Figure 1). It spends its life in aquatic habitats and is well adapted for swimming.

Although muskrats are an important part of native ecosystems, their burrowing and foraging activities can damage agricultural crops, native marshes and water control systems, such as aquaculture and farm ponds and levees. Such damage can significantly impact agricultural crops like rice that rely on consistent water levels for growth.

Muskrats also cause damage by eating agricultural crops, other vegetation, and crayfish, mussels and other aquaculture products. Loss of vegetation from muskrat ...


Influence Of Dietary Ractopamine And Supranutritional Supplementation Of Vitamin E On Proteome Profile Of Postmortem Beef Longissimus Lumborum Muscle, Hyun Mok Kim 2018 University of Kentucky

Influence Of Dietary Ractopamine And Supranutritional Supplementation Of Vitamin E On Proteome Profile Of Postmortem Beef Longissimus Lumborum Muscle, Hyun Mok Kim

Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences

The effects of dietary ingredients on the proteome profile of postmortem beef longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle were evaluated. In the first experiment, the influence of dietary ractopamine on the whole-muscle proteome of beef LL was examined. Five proteins were differentially abundant between ractopamine-fed (RAC) and non-ractopamine fed (CON) groups. The differentially abundant proteins were over-abundant in RAC and were related to muscle structure development (F-actin-capping protein subunit beta-2 and PDZ and LIM domain protein-3), chaperone (heat shock protein beta-1), oxygen transportation (myoglobin), and glycolysis (L-lactate dehydrogenase A chain). These findings indicated that ractopamine influences the abundance of proteins associated with ...


Maine Agricultural & Forest Experiment Station (University Of Maine) Records, 1888-1987, Special Collections, Raymond H. Fogler Library, University of Maine 2018 The University of Maine

Maine Agricultural & Forest Experiment Station (University Of Maine) Records, 1888-1987, Special Collections, Raymond H. Fogler Library, University Of Maine

Finding Aids

In 1883, the Maine Board of Agriculture called for the establishment of a formal experiment station in Orono. With the support of state funds the Maine Fertilizer Control and Agricultural Experiment Station (later becoming the Maine Agricultural & Forest Experiment Station). Eventually the Station would expand its research into genetics and breeding, entomology, forestry, food, potatoes, blueberries, and dairy. Such studies have been funded by both state and federal agriculture grants.

The records mainly contain textual information created and curated by the University of Maine's Maine Agricultural & Forest Experiment Station. The record series Administrative Records includes: budget reports including spending ...


Animal Suicide: Evolutionary Continuity Or Anthropomorphism?, Antonio Preti 2018 Centro Medico Genneruxi

Animal Suicide: Evolutionary Continuity Or Anthropomorphism?, Antonio Preti

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Evolutionary processes are characterized by both continuity and discontinuity. Evidence on suicide in nonhuman animals is faint and often rests on the metaphorical or anthropomorphic use of the term. Suicidal behavior might be an evolutionary jump relatively recent in our species: a byproduct of living in groups of people who are not as closely related genetically as in social groups of nonhuman mammals.


Summer 2017 Survey Of Diamondback Terrapins In Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge, New York, Josephine Maresca 2017 Selected Works

Summer 2017 Survey Of Diamondback Terrapins In Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge, New York, Josephine Maresca

Josephine Maresca

No abstract provided.


Large Birds Of Prey, Policies That Alter Food Availability And Air Traffic: A Risky Mix For Human Safety, Rubén Moreno-Opo, Antoni Margalida 2017 Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment. Spain

Large Birds Of Prey, Policies That Alter Food Availability And Air Traffic: A Risky Mix For Human Safety, Rubén Moreno-Opo, Antoni Margalida

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Raptors are considered to pose one of the greatest aviation bird strike risk. We investigated raptor bird strikes reported at the largest Spanish airport (Adolfo Suárez Madrid Barajas; AS-MB) from 2009 to 2016 to determine the factors contributing to the increased incidences and develop recommendations to mitigate the risks. We hypothesized that increased raptor bird strikes resulted from changes in foraging and dispersal patterns of Iberian Peninsula vultures (Aegypius spp. and Gyps spp.) after 2004-2005. We used information on raptor bird strikes obtained from official databases and published studies, reported incidences of raptor bird strikes and their characteristics (i.e ...


Learning To Live With Wolves: Community-Based Conservation In The Blackfoot Valley Of Montana, Seth M. Wilson, Elizabeth H. Bradley, Gregory A. Neudecker 2017 University of Montana

Learning To Live With Wolves: Community-Based Conservation In The Blackfoot Valley Of Montana, Seth M. Wilson, Elizabeth H. Bradley, Gregory A. Neudecker

Human–Wildlife Interactions

We built on the existing capacity of a nongovernmental organization called the Blackfoot Challenge to proactively address wolf (Canis lupus)-livestock conflicts in the Blackfoot Valley of Montana. Beginning in 2007, wolves started rapidly recolonizing the valley, raising concerns among livestock producers. We built on an existing program to mitigate conflicts associated with an expanding grizzly bear population and worked within the community to build a similar program to reduce wolf conflicts using an integrative, multi-method approach. Efforts to engage the community included one-on-one meetings, workshops, field tours, and regular group meetings as well as opportunities to participate in data ...


Resource Selection, Survival, And Departure Of Adult Female Mallards From The Lake St. Clair Region During Autumn And Winter, Matthew Palumbo 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Resource Selection, Survival, And Departure Of Adult Female Mallards From The Lake St. Clair Region During Autumn And Winter, Matthew Palumbo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

During autumn and winter, mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) maximize fitness through their spatiotemporal distribution to avoid mortality risks while balancing trade-offs to access foods to undergo migration and maintain homeostasis. Thousands of mallards use Lake St. Clair as it is an important, but threatened, migratory staging area in the Great Lakes. My goal was to understand how mallards were selecting resources in the region and potential relationships of selection strategies. My objectives were to estimate resource selection of adult female mallards, in relation to perceived risk of hunting mortality, and determine if selection strategies were related to survival and timing of ...


Review: Assessment Of Completeness Of Reporting In Intervention Studies Using Livestock: An Example From Pain Mitigation Interventions In Neonatal Piglets, Annette M. O'Connor, R. Anthony, L. Bergamasco, Johann F. Coetzee, R. S. Dzikamunhenga, Anna K. Butters-Johnson, L. A. Karriker, J. N. Marchant-Forde, G. P. Martineau, Suzanne T. Millman, E. A. Pajor, K. Rutherford, M. Sprague, M. A. Sutherland, E. von Borell, S. R. Webb 2017 Iowa State University

Review: Assessment Of Completeness Of Reporting In Intervention Studies Using Livestock: An Example From Pain Mitigation Interventions In Neonatal Piglets, Annette M. O'Connor, R. Anthony, L. Bergamasco, Johann F. Coetzee, R. S. Dzikamunhenga, Anna K. Butters-Johnson, L. A. Karriker, J. N. Marchant-Forde, G. P. Martineau, Suzanne T. Millman, E. A. Pajor, K. Rutherford, M. Sprague, M. A. Sutherland, E. Von Borell, S. R. Webb

Annette O'Connor

Accurate and complete reporting of study methods, results and interpretation are essential components for any scientific process, allowing end-users to evaluate the internal and external validity of a study. When animals are used in research, excellence in reporting is expected as a matter of continued ethical acceptability of animal use in the sciences. Our primary objective was to assess completeness of reporting for a series of studies relevant to mitigation of pain in neonatal piglets undergoing routine management procedures. Our second objective was to illustrate how authors can report the items in the Reporting guidElines For randomized controLled trials for ...


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