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Western Organization Of Resource Councils V. United States Bureau Of Land Management, Seth Sivinski 2018 University of Montana School of Law

Western Organization Of Resource Councils V. United States Bureau Of Land Management, Seth Sivinski

Public Land & Resources Law Review

To what extent must the BLM analyze potential climate change impacts where millions of acres of public lands and federal mineral estates are being considered for coal development? Western Organization of Resource Councils v. BLM addresses this, setting the scope for NEPA-mandated environmental impact analysis and reasonable alternative consideration by federal agencies. Judge Brian Morris of the District of Montana eschewed BLM’s assertions that considering climate impacts would be speculative, instead requiring BLM to acknowledge scientific reality and include modern climate science in its NEPA review analysis.


Highway Culverts, Salmon Runs, And The Stevens Treaties: A Century Of Litigating Pacific Northwest Tribal Fishing Rights, Ryan Hickey 2018 Alexander Blewett III School of Law at the University of Montana

Highway Culverts, Salmon Runs, And The Stevens Treaties: A Century Of Litigating Pacific Northwest Tribal Fishing Rights, Ryan Hickey

Public Land & Resources Law Review

Isaac Stevens, then Superintendent of Indian Affairs and Governor of Washington Territory, negotiated a series of treaties with Indian tribes in the Pacific Northwest during 1854 and 1855. A century and a half later in 2001, the United States joined 21 Indian tribes in filing a Request for Determination in the United States District Court for the District of Washington. Plaintiffs alleged the State of Washington had violated those 150-year-old treaties, which remained in effect, by building and maintaining culverts under roads that prevented salmon passage. This litigation eventually reached the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals, which held in favor ...


Collaboration Through Nepa: Achieving A Social License To Operate On Federal Public Lands, Temple Stoellinger, L. Steven Smutko, Jessica M. Western 2018 Haub School of Environment and Natural Resources and the University of Wyoming College of Law

Collaboration Through Nepa: Achieving A Social License To Operate On Federal Public Lands, Temple Stoellinger, L. Steven Smutko, Jessica M. Western

Public Land & Resources Law Review

As demand and consumption of natural gas increases, so will drilling operations to extract the natural gas on federal public lands. Fueled by the shale gas revolution, natural gas drilling operations are now frequently taking place, not only in the highly documented urban settings, but also on federal public lands with high conservation value. The phenomenon of increased drilling in sensitive locations, both urban and remote, has sparked increased public opposition, requiring oil and gas producers to reconsider how they engage the public. Oil and gas producers have increasingly deployed the concept of a social license to operate to gain ...


Public-Private Conservation Agreements And The Greater Sage-Grouse, Justin R. Pidot 2018 University of Denver Sturm College of Law

Public-Private Conservation Agreements And The Greater Sage-Grouse, Justin R. Pidot

Public Land & Resources Law Review

In 2015, the Obama Administration announced its conservation plans for the greater sage-grouse, an iconic bird of the intermountain west.Political leadership at the time described those plans as the “largest landscape-level conservation effort in U.S. history,”and they served as the foundation for a decision by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (“FWS”) that a listing of the bird was not warranted under the Endangered Species Act (“ESA”). The Trump Administration appears poised to substantially amend the plans, although an array of interested parties have urged that the plans be left intact. Regardless of the outcome of ...


Streamlining The Production Of Clean Energy: Proposals To Reform The Hydroelectricity Licensing Process, Travis Kavulla, Laura Farkas 2018 Alexander Blewett III School of Law at the University of Montana

Streamlining The Production Of Clean Energy: Proposals To Reform The Hydroelectricity Licensing Process, Travis Kavulla, Laura Farkas

Public Land & Resources Law Review

Hydroelectric power is an efficient and clean source of power. In an era when air emissions dominate public concern about the environmental effects of the energy sector, it is a paradox that among the most highly regulated energy projects are hydroelectric dams, which do not combust fuel. This is partly due to a failure of successive statutory enactments,which have transformed hydroelectric licensing from a regulatory “one-stop shop” with a single regulator, to a process chained to a bewilderingnumber of often conflicting regulatory agencies, often riven with delay. Hydroelectric licensing has also failed because its capacious standard of review encourages ...


Keeping Power In Charge: Federal Hydropower And The Downstream Environment, Reed D. Benson 2018 University of New Mexico School of Law

Keeping Power In Charge: Federal Hydropower And The Downstream Environment, Reed D. Benson

Public Land & Resources Law Review

No abstract provided.


Language Matters: Environmental Controversy And The Quest For Common Ground, Scott Slovic 2018 Alexander Blewett III School of Law at the University of Montana

Language Matters: Environmental Controversy And The Quest For Common Ground, Scott Slovic

Public Land & Resources Law Review

No abstract provided.


Center For Biological Diversity V. Zinke, Ryan Hickey 2018 Alexander Blewett III School of Law at the University of Montana

Center For Biological Diversity V. Zinke, Ryan Hickey

Public Land & Resources Law Review

The oft-cited “arbitrary and capricious” standard revived the Center for Biological Diversity’s most recent legal challenge in its decades-long quest to see arctic grayling listed under the Endangered Species Act. While this Ninth Circuit decision did not grant grayling ESA protections, it did require the United States Fish and Wildlife Service to reconsider its 2014 finding that listing grayling as threatened or endangered was unwarranted. In doing so, the court found “range,” as used in the ESA, vague while endorsing the FWS’s 2014 clarification of that term. Finally, this holding identified specific shortcomings of the challenged FWS finding ...


Friends Of Animals V. United States Fish & Wildlife Service, Bradley E. Tinker 2018 Alexander Blewett III School of Law at the University of Montana

Friends Of Animals V. United States Fish & Wildlife Service, Bradley E. Tinker

Public Land & Resources Law Review

In Friends of Animals v. United States Fish & Wildlife Service, the Ninth Circuit held that the plain language of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act allows for the removal of one species of bird to benefit another species. Friends of Animals argued that the Service’s experiment permitting the taking of one species––the barred owl––to advance the conservation of a different species––the northern spotted owl––violated the Migratory Bird Treaty Act. The court, however, found that the Act delegates broad implementing discretion to the Secretary of the Interior, and neither the Act nor the underlying international conventions limit ...


Public Employees For Environmental Responsibility V. United States Epa, F. Aaron Rains 2018 Alexander Blewett III School of Law at the University of Montana

Public Employees For Environmental Responsibility V. United States Epa, F. Aaron Rains

Public Land & Resources Law Review

Prior to 2016, the EPA acknowledged that human activities significantly contribute to climate change. However, on March 9, 2017, EPA Administrator Scott Pruitt announced that significant debate regarding the issue remained in the scientific community. In response to these statements, a nonprofit organization filed a FOIA request with the EPA seeking any documents or records Pruitt may have used when formulating his statements or substantiating his position. The EPA refused to comply with the request, citing undue burden and improper interrogation and this action followed. Upon review, the District Court for the District of Columbia found the plaintiff’s FOIA ...


Transboundary Legal Perspective: International Water Law, Gabriel Eckstein 2018 Texas A&M University School of Law

Transboundary Legal Perspective: International Water Law, Gabriel Eckstein

Gabriel Eckstein

This chapter provides readers with an introduction to international law in general and international water law in particular. The chapter discusses the scope, principle tenets, procedural obligations, and sources of international water law, and delves into discussions about transboundary aquifers and joint institutional mechanisms. An appendix that provides exercises and discussion topics to help readers retain and apply important information.


The Role Of Creative Language In Addressing Political Asymmetries: The Israeli-Arab Water Agreements, Itay Fischhendler, Aaron T. Wolf, Gabriel E. Eckstein 2018 Texas A&M University School of Law

The Role Of Creative Language In Addressing Political Asymmetries: The Israeli-Arab Water Agreements, Itay Fischhendler, Aaron T. Wolf, Gabriel E. Eckstein

Gabriel Eckstein

International water agreements are often used as mechanisms for fostering and institutionalizing political cooperation. Yet, since water resources in many places are being driven to the edge of their natural limits, a number of international organizations have formulated legal principles and norms aimed at helping states resolve water disputes. While states have been urged to adopt these principles, it seems that they often embrace other less-traditional alternatives that may better address their own political needs. The aim of this study is to examine why states fail or decline to adopt several of the general principles of customary law formulated by ...


Specially Invited Opinions And Research Report Of The International Water Law Project: Global Perspectives On The Entry Into Force Of The Un Watercourses Convention 2014: Part One, Gabriel Eckstein, Salman M.A. Salman, Dinara Ziganshina, Kishor Uprety, Götz Reichert 2018 Texas A&M University School of Law

Specially Invited Opinions And Research Report Of The International Water Law Project: Global Perspectives On The Entry Into Force Of The Un Watercourses Convention 2014: Part One, Gabriel Eckstein, Salman M.A. Salman, Dinara Ziganshina, Kishor Uprety, Götz Reichert

Gabriel Eckstein

This is the first part of a two-part research report on opinions of prominent international water lawyers from each continent on the potential impacts of the 1997 UN Convention on Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses. The second part of the report was published in Water Policy 17(1).

The following compilation is reproduced and adapted from a series of essays that appeared in the blog of the International Water Law Project (www.internationalwaterlaw.org). The series was solicited in preparation for the coming into force of the 1997 UN Convention on the Non-navigational Uses of International Watercourses. The Convention had ...


Scientific, Legal, And Ethical Foundations For Texas Water Law., Gabriel Eckstein, Amy Hardberger 2018 Selected Works

Scientific, Legal, And Ethical Foundations For Texas Water Law., Gabriel Eckstein, Amy Hardberger

Gabriel Eckstein

Water law is the field of law concerned with the ownership, control, and use of water resources, both surface and subsurface. Although most closely related to property law, recent developments in other legal fields, especially in environmental law, have heavily influenced the interpretation, application, and development of water law. As a result, water law today encompasses a broad perspective and often takes into account individual and community rights, environmental issues, commerce and economics, and other societal and legal concerns. Significantly, modern water law is also an interdisciplinary practice. In light of the continuously expanding body of knowledge of the hydrologic ...


State Practice In The Management And Allocation Of Transboundary Ground Water Resources In North America, Gabriel Eckstein, Amy Hardberger 2018 Texas A&M University School of Law

State Practice In The Management And Allocation Of Transboundary Ground Water Resources In North America, Gabriel Eckstein, Amy Hardberger

Gabriel Eckstein

Throughout the world, international and state political boundaries divide ground water resources into politically convenient jurisdictions. Subsurface water, however, does not recognize such borders and flows freely without regard to overlying politics. This disregard for the political dimension, coupled with the growing global importance of fresh water, has the potential for aggravating disputes and conflicts over the use, allocation, and preservation of such resources. To date, widely accepted norms of international law applicable to transboundary aquifers have yet to emerge. However, local and regional agreements, including both formal and unofficial arrangements, suggest the emergence of state practice that should be ...


State Practice In The Management And Allocation Of Transboundary Groundwater Resources In North America, Gabriel Eckstein, Amy Hardberger 2018 Selected Works

State Practice In The Management And Allocation Of Transboundary Groundwater Resources In North America, Gabriel Eckstein, Amy Hardberger

Gabriel Eckstein

Throughout the world, international and state political boundaries divide groundwater resources into politically convenient jurisdictions. Subsurface water, however, does not recognize such borders and flows freely without regard to overlying politics. This disregard for the political dimension, coupled with the growing global importance of fresh water, has the potential for aggravating disputes and conflicts over the use, allocation, and preservation of such resources. To date, widely accepted norms of international law applicable to transboundary aquifers have yet to emerge. However, local and regional agreements, including both formal and unofficial arrangements, suggest the emergence of state practice that should be considered ...


Specially Invited Opinions And Research Report Of The International Water Law Project: Global Perspectives On The Entry Into Force Of The Un Watercourses Convention 2014: Part Two, Gabriel Eckstein, Patricia Wouters, Robyn Stein, Georgina Mackenzie, Maria Querol, Richard Paisley, Salman M.A. Salman 2018 Texas A&M University School of Law

Specially Invited Opinions And Research Report Of The International Water Law Project: Global Perspectives On The Entry Into Force Of The Un Watercourses Convention 2014: Part Two, Gabriel Eckstein, Patricia Wouters, Robyn Stein, Georgina Mackenzie, Maria Querol, Richard Paisley, Salman M.A. Salman

Gabriel Eckstein

This is the second part of a research report on opinions of prominent international water lawyers from each continent on the potential impacts of the 1997 UN Convention on the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses. The first part of the report was published in Water Policy 16(6).

The following compilation is reproduced and adapted from a series of essays that appeared in the blog of the International Water Law Project (www.internationalwaterlaw.org). The series was solicited in preparation for the coming into force of the 1997 UN Convention on the Non-navigational Uses of International Watercourses. The Convention had ...


Scientific, Legal, And Ethical Foundations For Texas Water Law, Gabriel Eckstein, Amy Hardberger 2018 Texas A&M University School of Law

Scientific, Legal, And Ethical Foundations For Texas Water Law, Gabriel Eckstein, Amy Hardberger

Gabriel Eckstein

Water law is the field of law concerned with the ownership, control, and use of water resources, both surface and subsurface. Although most closely related to property law, recent developments in other legal fields, especially in environmental law, have heavily influenced the interpretation, application, and development of water law. As a result, water law today encompasses a broad perspective and often takes into account individual and community rights, environmental issues, commerce and economics, and other societal and legal concerns.

Significantly, modern water law is also an interdisciplinary practice. In light of the continuously expanding body of knowledge of the hydrologic ...


Framework Of Surface And Ground Water In Oklahoma And Texas: Perspectives For Oil And Gas Development, Jessica Foster, Gabriel Eckstein 2018 Texas A&M University School of Law

Framework Of Surface And Ground Water In Oklahoma And Texas: Perspectives For Oil And Gas Development, Jessica Foster, Gabriel Eckstein

Gabriel Eckstein

Chapter Extract:

Advancements in drilling techniques have broadened possibilities for producing hydrocarbons; but the innovations of unconventional drilling have exacerbated existing threats that the oil and gas industry have posed to water resources while creating new challenges. In today's industry, conventional methods of drilling for free-flowing crude oil are playing a secondary role to unconventional oil and gas production capable of bringing hydrocarbons trapped in tight or previously inaccessible geologic formations. Compared to conventional production, unconventional methods use much greater amounts of water in chemical-laden processes that can impact the availability and purity of freshwater resources in concentrated localities ...


Ground Water Resources And International Law In The Middle East Process, Yoram Eckstein, Gabriel Eckstein 2018 Texas A&M University School of Law

Ground Water Resources And International Law In The Middle East Process, Yoram Eckstein, Gabriel Eckstein

Gabriel Eckstein

Next to issues of land, water resources are the major bone of contention in the peace negotiations between Israel and the Palestinian Arabs. The objective of negotiations is de facto setting the clock back to the eve of the Israel War of Independence, when the Jews accepted the 1947 UN resolution of partition, while the Arabs rejected it. The Arabs now accept the principle of territorial partition, but at the same time, they demand re-apportioning of resources, mainly of water. The Palestinians contend that the facts created on the ground unilaterally by Israel during the last 50 years, namely the ...


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