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Taxation-Federal Income Commons

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A Whole New World: Income Tax Considerations Of The Bitcoin Economy, Benjamin W. Akins JD, LLM, Jennifer L. Chapman JD, CPA, Jason M. Gordon JD, MBA 2015 SelectedWorks

A Whole New World: Income Tax Considerations Of The Bitcoin Economy, Benjamin W. Akins Jd, Llm, Jennifer L. Chapman Jd, Cpa, Jason M. Gordon Jd, Mba

Benjamin W. Akins

Bitcoin is a virtual, cryptocurrency growing rapidly in influence throughout the world. Numerous characteristics associated with the bitcoin system, including low transaction costs and greater user privacy, make it appealing as a medium of electronic payment. The number of users of bitcoin, including merchants accepting the currency as a form of payment, has grown considerably in recent years. Estimates indicate that there are more than 60,000 active bitcoin users as of September 2012, with nearly 11 million bitcoins in existence. According to the latest estimates, bitcoin market capitalization is roughly $9 billion. The growth of bitcoin as an accepted ...


Speak Up: Issue Advocacy In Increasingly Politicized Times, Sally Wagenmaker 2014 Pepperdine University

Speak Up: Issue Advocacy In Increasingly Politicized Times, Sally Wagenmaker

The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law

This article first provides a brief primer on current constraints affecting Section 501(c)(3) and 501(c)(4) organizations' communications within the context of what has become known as “issue advocacy.” It then sets forth the problem of increasing politicization of nonprofits' issue advocacy activities. The article next evaluates related constitutional tensions for politically tinged issue advocacy, through the lens of the Supreme Court's free speech decisions. It concludes by addressing how the IRS's different content-based standards for issue advocacy are susceptible to abuse, are otherwise constitutionally suspect, and therefore warrant reform.


Reinvigorating The Reit's Neutrality And Capital Formation Purposes Through A Modernized Tax Integration Model, Simon Johnson 2014 Pepperdine University

Reinvigorating The Reit's Neutrality And Capital Formation Purposes Through A Modernized Tax Integration Model, Simon Johnson

The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law

Efforts at reform have not spared the REIT arrangement, but have focused on objectives unrelated to its model of tax integration, despite its significant flaws. Owing to the interaction of several provisions, the model largely precludes capitalization through retained earnings. This increases the cost of REIT capital and limits its capacity to realize the neutrality and private real estate capital formation objectives Congress pursued in creating the arrangement. Accordingly, it is important to consider how to durably improve the REIT tax integration model. Ultimately, the article concludes that the shareholder allocation model, a complete integration model conceptually similar to the ...


Piketty In America: A Tale Of Two Literatures, Joseph Bankman, Daniel Shaviro 2014 NELLCO

Piketty In America: A Tale Of Two Literatures, Joseph Bankman, Daniel Shaviro

New York University Law and Economics Working Papers

Thomas Piketty’s widely-noted and bestselling book, Capital in the Twenty-First Century, does much to advance our empirical understanding of rising high-end wealth concentration, which is one of the central issues of our time. But its theoretical approach and policy recommendations differ sharply from those that have been prevalent in recent decades in the Anglo-American academic tax policy literature. We adjudicate this “confrontation” (insofar as it is one), and find that each approach in some respects both undermines and enriches the other. We find that the optimal tax response to wealth concentration is significantly more complicated than Piketty’s analysis ...


Reconsidering Corporate Tax Privacy, Joshua D. Blank 2014 NELLCO

Reconsidering Corporate Tax Privacy, Joshua D. Blank

New York University Law and Economics Working Papers

For over a century, politicians, government officials and scholars in the United States have debated whether corporate tax returns, which are currently subject to broad tax privacy protections, should be publicly accessible. The ongoing global discussion of base erosion and profit shifting by multinational corporations has generated calls for greater tax transparency. Throughout this debate, participants have focused exclusively on the potential reactions of a corporation’s managers, shareholders and consumers to a corporation’s disclosure of its own tax return information. There is, however, another perspective: how would the ability of a corporation’s stakeholders and agents to observe ...


The Intersection Of Tax And Bankruptcy: The Mccoy Rule, John Ferguson 2014 SelectedWorks

The Intersection Of Tax And Bankruptcy: The Mccoy Rule, John Ferguson

John Ferguson

No abstract provided.


The Intersection Of Tax And Bankruptcy: The Mccoy Rule, John Ferguson 2014 SelectedWorks

The Intersection Of Tax And Bankruptcy: The Mccoy Rule, John Ferguson

John Ferguson

No abstract provided.


The Origins Of Affirmative Fiscal Action, Mirit Eyal-Cohen 2014 SelectedWorks

The Origins Of Affirmative Fiscal Action, Mirit Eyal-Cohen

Mirit Eyal-Cohen

This article highlights an anomaly. It shows that two tax rules aimed to achieve a similar goal were introduced at the same time. Both meant to be temporary and bring economic stimuli, but received a dramatically different treatment. The less efficient or economically inferior survived. Its superior counterpart did not. The article reviews the reasons for this paradox. It shows that the reason is both political and an agency problem. The article not only enriches an important and ongoing debate that has received much attention in recent years, but also provides important lessons to policymakers.


Multiple Myopias, Multiple Selves, And The Under-Saving Problem, Daniel Shaviro 2014 NELLCO

Multiple Myopias, Multiple Selves, And The Under-Saving Problem, Daniel Shaviro

New York University Law and Economics Working Papers

In both public policy debate and the academic literature, there is widespread, though not universal, agreement that millions of Americans are saving too little for their own retirements. If this is true, we could potentially increase such individuals’ welfare through the adoption of policies that resulted in their saving more. A key dilemma, however, is that, unless one understands why people are under-saving, it is hard to evaluate the likely responses to or merits of a given policy.

Possible explanations for systematic under-saving include at least the following: (1) naïve myopia, (2) sophisticated or self-aware myopia, (3) procrastination, or putting ...


United States National Report On Exchange Of Information, Joshua D. Blank, Ruth Mason 2014 NELLCO

United States National Report On Exchange Of Information, Joshua D. Blank, Ruth Mason

New York University Law and Economics Working Papers

This National Report was prepared for the 2014 Annual Congress of the European Association of Tax Law Professors, which took place in May 2014 at Koç University, Istanbul, Turkey. This National Report discusses administrative and legal mechanisms, especially the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA), that the United States has deployed to obtain offshore tax information. Portions of this National Report were originally published in Joshua D. Blank and Ruth Mason, “Exporting FATCA,” 142 Tax Notes 1245 (2014).


Revenue, U.S. Government, Bert Chapman 2014 Purdue University

Revenue, U.S. Government, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Scholarship and Research

Provides a historical overview of U.S. Government revenue receipts and spending during the early years of national history. Presents revenue generation statistics, information on revenue sources, and information on domestic and international political and economic factors affecting government revenue receipts.


Moving Beyond Marriage: A Proposed Unit Of Presumed Economic Interdependence For Joint Filing Purposes In Bankruptcy And In Tax, Heather V. Graham 2014 Pace University

Moving Beyond Marriage: A Proposed Unit Of Presumed Economic Interdependence For Joint Filing Purposes In Bankruptcy And In Tax, Heather V. Graham

Pace Law Review

In order to promote both equality and efficiency, this Comment proposes that individuals should have the opportunity to file jointly for tax and bankruptcy purposes when they have a relationship predicated upon economic interdependence, as opposed to basing the opportunity to file jointly upon marital status. Part I of this Comment will briefly discuss the history of marriage in the United States. In particular, Part I will discuss the role that the government has had in promoting and regulating marriage and how the treatment of married persons operates to the exclusion of the unmarried. Parts II and III of this ...


List Of The Most Popular Irs Tax Forms & Pubs, Lissa Coffey 2014 SelectedWorks

List Of The Most Popular Irs Tax Forms & Pubs, Lissa Coffey

LissaCoffey

Here are links to the most common tax forms needed to prepare your income tax returns. All tax forms are in the portable document format (PDF) and require Adobe Acrobat Reader. You can use Acrobat Reader to view the documents and print documents. Most of the IRS forms also allow you to type in your information and save a copy with your data to your computer


Heal The Suffering Children: Fifty Years After The Declaration Of War On Poverty, Francine J. Lipman, Dawn Davis 2014 Boston College Law School

Heal The Suffering Children: Fifty Years After The Declaration Of War On Poverty, Francine J. Lipman, Dawn Davis

Boston College Journal of Law & Social Justice

Fifty years ago, President Lyndon B. Johnson declared the War on Poverty. Since then, the federal tax code has been a fundamental tool in providing financial assistance to poor working families. Even today, however, thirty-two million children live in families that cannot support basic living expenses, and sixteen million of those live in extreme poverty. This Article navigates the confusing requirements of an array of child-related tax benefits including the dependency exemption deduction, head of household filing status, the Earned Income Tax Credit, and the Child Tax Credit. Specifically, this Article explores how altering the definition of a qualifying child ...


Legal Mirrors Of Entrepreneurship, Mirit Eyal-Cohen 2014 Boston College Law School

Legal Mirrors Of Entrepreneurship, Mirit Eyal-Cohen

Boston College Law Review

Small businesses are regarded as the engine of the economy. But just what is a “small business”? Depending on where one looks in the law, the definitions vary. Routinely, though, these various classifications fail to assess the policy considerations and legislative intent for granting regulatory preferences to small concerns to begin with. In the last century, the U.S. government has been cultivating one such policy of fiscal and economic growth. Consequently, Congress and private institutions have been acting to incentivize, support, and reward entrepreneurship through the law to stimulate the economy. Nevertheless, rather than targeting entrepreneurial businesses directly, the ...


Tax Vs. Penalty, Round Two: Interpreting The Aca’S Assessable Payment As A Tax For Federal Award Cost Allowances, Riley Lovendale 2014 Boston College Law School

Tax Vs. Penalty, Round Two: Interpreting The Aca’S Assessable Payment As A Tax For Federal Award Cost Allowances, Riley Lovendale

Boston College Law Review

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA)—a significant health care reform enacted in 2010—imposes an “assessable payment” on certain employers that fail to offer affordable health insurance to their employees. Unfortunately, this assessable payment label presents a problem for nonprofits and other nonfederal entities receiving federal awards. Per uniform guidance from the Office of Management and Budget, federal awards may be used to pay taxes, but not fines or penalties. This Note argues that the ACA’s assessable payment should be interpreted as a tax. This conclusion is based on both: (1) the U.S. Supreme Court ...


The Affordable Care Act And Its Impact On The Professional Tax Preparation Market In Kingsport, Tennessee, Robert S. Forney Jr. 2014 East Tennessee State University

The Affordable Care Act And Its Impact On The Professional Tax Preparation Market In Kingsport, Tennessee, Robert S. Forney Jr.

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The objective of this study is to test whether the Affordable Care Act will have an effect on the professional tax preparation industry of Kingsport, Tennessee. To accomplish this objective, the researcher collected surveys concerning taxpayers’ initial reaction to the realization that the law affects their 1040. A two proportion test for equality was performed and failed to reject the idea that the ACA will have an effect on the tax preparation industry of Kingsport. Because this study failed to prove that the change in legislation causes a jump in clientele for the professional tax preparation market, the fight for ...


The Vanishing Of The African-American Family: “Reasonable Efforts” And Its Connection To The Disproportionality Of The Child Welfare System., Stephanie M. Ledesma 2014 SelectedWorks

The Vanishing Of The African-American Family: “Reasonable Efforts” And Its Connection To The Disproportionality Of The Child Welfare System., Stephanie M. Ledesma

Stephanie M Ledesma

ABSTRACT

In the United States, approximately three million cases of child abuse and neglect involving more than six million children are reported annually to child protective service agencies.[1] Our children are in need of protection. But what or who are they in need of protection from? This article suggest until there is a bright line definition for “reasonable efforts” and until there is consistent application of “reasonable efforts”, our children stand desperately in need of protection from the very child protective service agencies that are charged with protecting them.

While there are many articles debating the existence of racial ...


Tax Issues Facing Clients Of Legal Services, T. Keith Fogg 2014 Villanova University School of Law

Tax Issues Facing Clients Of Legal Services, T. Keith Fogg

T. Keith Fogg

This article seeks to highlight tax issues facing clients of legal services. It discusses several specific issues that routinely arise. The article also discusses some of the challenges facing attorneys within legal services that take on a tax clinic and offers some advice on how to address those challenges.


Income Or Liability: How Casinos' Classification Of Outstanding Chips Determine Taxability, John Bulloch 2014 University of Nevada, Las Vegas -- William S. Boyd School of Law

Income Or Liability: How Casinos' Classification Of Outstanding Chips Determine Taxability, John Bulloch

UNLV Gaming Law Journal

No abstract provided.


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