Transparency Deserts, 2020 Northwestern Pritzker School of Law
Transparency Deserts, Christina Koningisor
Northwestern University Law Review
Few contest the importance of a robust transparency regime in a democratic system of government. In the United States, the “crown jewel” of this regime is the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA). Yet despite widespread agreement about the importance of transparency in government, few are satisfied with FOIA. Since its enactment, the statute has engendered criticism from transparency advocates and critics alike for insufficiently serving the needs of both the public and the government. Legal scholars have widely documented these flaws in the federal public records law.
In contrast, scholars have paid comparatively little attention to transparency laws at the ...
Rethinking Foster Care: Why Our Current Approach To Child Welfare Has Failed, 2020 University of Michigan Law School
Rethinking Foster Care: Why Our Current Approach To Child Welfare Has Failed, Vivek Sankaran, Christopher Church
Over the past decade, the child welfare system has expanded, with vast public and private resources being spent on the system. Despite this investment, there is scant evidence suggesting a meaningful return on investment. This Article argues that without a change in the values held by the system, increased funding will not address the public health problems of child abuse and neglect.
Out Of Sight, But Not Out Of Mind: Reevaluating The Role Of Federalism In Adequately Regulating Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations, Madhavi Kulkarni
William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review
No abstract provided.
Supervisors Without Supervision: Colon, Mckenna, And The Confusing State Of Supervisory Liability In The Second Circuit, 2020 Washington and Lee University School of Law
Supervisors Without Supervision: Colon, Mckenna, And The Confusing State Of Supervisory Liability In The Second Circuit, Ryan E. Johnson
Washington and Lee Law Review
This Note received the 2019 Washington and Lee Law Council Law Review Award.
This Note analyzes two intra-Second Circuit splits that make it nearly impossible for prisoners to recover against supervisors under § 1983. First, district courts in the Second Circuit are divided as to whether the five categories of personal involvement defined in Colon v. Coughlin survive the Supreme Court’s decision in Ashcroft v. Iqbal. Personal involvement by the supervisory defendant is a necessary element to impose supervisory liability. Some district courts hold that only the first and third Colon factors survive Iqbal, while others hold that all five ...
States’ Evolving Role In The Supplemental Nutritional Assistance Program, 2020 Georgetown University Law Center
States’ Evolving Role In The Supplemental Nutritional Assistance Program, David A. Super
Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works
States have always been crucial to the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly food stamps). Even though the federal government has paid virtually all the program’s beneﬁt costs, state administration has always been indispensable for several reasons. State and local governments pay their staff considerably less than the federal government, making state administration less expensive. States already administer other important antipoverty programs, notably family cash assistance and Medicaid, allowing them to coordinate the programs and minimize repetitive activities. And states have somewhat lower, and less polarizing, political footprints than does the federal government, moderating criticism of the program. In ...
Sherman's Missing "Supplement": Prosecutorial Capacity, Agency Incentives, And The False Dawn Of Antitrust Federalism, 2020 Cleveland State University
Sherman's Missing "Supplement": Prosecutorial Capacity, Agency Incentives, And The False Dawn Of Antitrust Federalism, Daniel E. Rauch
Cleveland State Law Review
When the Sherman Act passed in 1890, it was widely expected that it would operate primarily as a "supplement" to vigorous state-level antitrust enforcement of state antitrust statutes. This did not happen. Instead, confounding the predictions of Congress, the academy, and the trusts themselves, state antitrust enforcement overwhelmingly failed to take root in the years between 1890 and the First World War. To date, many scholars have noted this legal-historical anomaly. None, however, have rigorously or correctly explained what caused it. This Article does.
Using historical and empirical research, this Article establishes that the best explanation for the early failure ...
The Federal Sentencing Guidelines: A Guideline To Remedy Ohio's Sentencing Disparities For White-Collar Criminal Defendants, 2020 Cleveland-Marshall College of Law
The Federal Sentencing Guidelines: A Guideline To Remedy Ohio's Sentencing Disparities For White-Collar Criminal Defendants, Joelle Livorse
Cleveland State Law Review
Over the past few decades, white-collar crimes have significantly increased across the country, especially in Ohio. However, Ohio’s judges are ill-equipped to handle the influx of cases. Unlike federal judges who are guided by the U.S. Sentencing Commission’s Federal Sentencing Guidelines, Ohio’s judges have significantly more sentencing discretion because the Ohio legislature provides minimal guidance for these crimes. As a result, Ohio’s white-collar criminal defendants are experiencing dramatic sentencing variations. To solve this problem, Ohio should look to the Federal Sentencing Guidelines and neighboring states to adopt and create an innovative sentencing model tailored to ...
Steiner V. Utah: Designing A Constitutional Remedy, 2020 University of Pennsylvania Law School
Steiner V. Utah: Designing A Constitutional Remedy, Michael S. Knoll, Ruth Mason
Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law
In an earlier article, we argued that the Utah Supreme Court failed to follow and correctly apply clear U.S. Supreme Court precedent in Steiner v. Utah when the Utah high court held that an internally inconsistent and discriminatory state tax regime did not violate the dormant commerce clause. Unfortunately, the Supreme Court recently declined certiorari in Steiner, but the issue is unlikely to go away. Not every state high court will defy the U.S. Supreme Court by refusing to apply the dormant commerce clause, and so the Court will sooner or later likely find itself facing conflicting interpretations ...
Conclusion: A Way Forward, 2020 Georgetown University Law Center
Conclusion: A Way Forward, Peter B. Edelman
Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works
Where do we go next? I have three suggestions. One is to enlarge the frame of our work on poverty and race, including a focus on the ever-widening chasm of inequality, and all of it pressing toward the center stage of national attention. A second is to consolidate our work about income, jobs, and cash assistance into a uniﬁed frame, which I call a three-legged stool. And the third is to think from a perspective of place, and what that tells us about our antipoverty work.
We need a banner, a message, a theme, a politics for ending poverty. The ...
Brief Of Amici Curiae Michael L. Rosin, David G. Post, David F. Forte, Michael Stokes Paulsen, And Sotirios Barber In Support Of Presidential Electors, 2020 Cleveland-Marshall College of Law, Cleveland State University
Brief Of Amici Curiae Michael L. Rosin, David G. Post, David F. Forte, Michael Stokes Paulsen, And Sotirios Barber In Support Of Presidential Electors, David F. Forte, Michael L. Rosin, David G. Post, Michael Stokes Paulsen, Sotirios Barber
Law Faculty Briefs
The Framers of the Constitution crafted the Electoral College to be an independent institution with the responsibility of selecting the President and Vice-President. Therefore, they intended each elector to exercise independent judgment in deciding whom to vote for. A state cannot revise the Constitution unilaterally by reducing the elector to a ministerial agent who must vote in a particular way or face a sanction. The question of each elector’s moral or political obligation is not before the Court. Nor is the desirability of the current electoral system. Rather, this case turns on what the Constitution allows, and what it ...
The Dormant Commerce Clause And State Clean Energy Legislation, 2020 University of Michigan Law School
The Dormant Commerce Clause And State Clean Energy Legislation, Kevin Todd
Michigan Journal of Environmental & Administrative Law
This Note analyzes recent litigation concerning the constitutionality of state renewable portfolio standards (RPSs) and similar environmental legislation designed to promote clean energy. It begins with a discussion of the current state of both federal and state responses to climate change. From there, it analyzes several legal challenges to state RPSs and other climate-related laws that focus on potential violations of the dormant Commerce Clause. It concludes with a brief exploration of how these cases fit the history and purpose of the dormant Commerce Clause. The Note argues that a narrow view of the doctrine is consistent with the purpose ...
Packing And Unpacking State Courts, 2020 William & Mary Law School
Packing And Unpacking State Courts, Marin K. Levy
William & Mary Law Review
When it comes to court packing, questions of “should” and “can” are inextricably intertwined. The conventional wisdom has long been that federal court packing is something the President and Congress simply cannot do. Even though the Constitution’s text does not directly prohibit expanding or contracting the size of courts for political gain, many have argued that there is a longstanding norm against doing so, stemming from a commitment to judicial independence and separation of powers. And so (the argument goes), even though the political branches might otherwise be tempted to add or subtract seats to change the Court’s ...
The Race To The Middle, 2020 Texas A&M University School of Law
The Race To The Middle, William Magnuson
Notre Dame Law Review
How does federalism affect the quality of law? It is one of the fundamental questions of our constitutional system. Scholars of federalism generally fall into one of two camps on the question. One camp argues that regulatory competition between states leads to a “race to the bottom,” in which states adopt progressively worse laws in order to pander to powerful constituencies. The other camp, conversely, argues that regulatory competition leads to a “race to the top,” incentivizing states to adopt progressively better laws in the search for more desirable outcomes for their constituencies. Despite their apparent differences, however, both the ...
Rethinking Municipal Corporate Rights, 2020 Florida State University College of Law
Rethinking Municipal Corporate Rights, Hannah J. Wiseman
Boston College Law Review
In two seemingly antithetical trends, U.S. law increasingly recognizes corporate rights while denying similar rights in the municipal context. Although other corporate forms have celebrated major victories in the First Amendment context, courts have suggested that municipalities lack any constitutional rights, and states increasingly preempt local governments’ abilities to address pressing societal concerns. Yet U.S. municipalities are, and have long been, corporations. The erosion of municipal power is problematic because cities’ importance is growing.
Many accounts have bemoaned the lack of municipal rights in the context of weak local home rule authority, but this Article takes a different ...
Someone To Lien On: Privatization Of Delinquent Property Tax Liens And Tax Sale Surplus In Massachusetts, 2020 Boston College Law School
Someone To Lien On: Privatization Of Delinquent Property Tax Liens And Tax Sale Surplus In Massachusetts, Caroline Enright
Boston College Law Review
In Massachusetts, as well as in twenty-eight other states in the nation, municipalities can sell delinquent property tax liens to private investors. In exchange for paying for the debt, the private entity can collect interest rates of up to sixteen percent and levy additional fees on the homeowner. If the homeowner is unable to pay the rapidly growing amount they owe, absolute title of the property, which includes any profits from the subsequent sale, passes to the private entity—providing them with the property for pennies on the dollar. This practice was introduced as a tool to enable municipalities to ...
The Secret Sauce Of Ballot Initiative Approval: Eliminating Issues Within Arkansas's Pre-Circulation Review, 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
The Secret Sauce Of Ballot Initiative Approval: Eliminating Issues Within Arkansas's Pre-Circulation Review, Nancy Smith
Arkansas Law Review
As Justice Thurgood Marshall once said, “Where you see wrong or inequality or injustice, speak out, because this is your country. This is your democracy. Make it. Protect it. Pass it on.” Democracy is essential to the American political system. Direct democracy, however, exists in only twenty-four states. Known as citizen lawmaking, direct democracy allows citizens to place constitutional amendments and statutes on statewide ballots without legislative support or intervention. It places power directly into the hands of citizens through a petition process that cumulates in voters making the ultimate decision.
Dankruptcy: When The Green Runs Out, Marijuana Debtors Have Few Options, 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Dankruptcy: When The Green Runs Out, Marijuana Debtors Have Few Options, Jorge J. Rodriguez
Arkansas Law Review
The legalized marijuana industry is lucrative but surrounded with uncertainties. The divergence between state and federal law has pushed this industry into a state of limbo. Furthermore, at the federal level, the lack of enforcing the prohibition has only exacerbated the uncertainty. Historically, the federal government has taken a very relaxed approach and allowed marijuana businesses to operate with minimal interference. As a result, there is a thriving legalized marijuana industry operating throughout the majority of the United States. However, there are many obstacles which plague and threaten the future of this relatively young industry. Of particular importance, and the ...
Ai In Adjudication And Administration, 2020 University of Pennsylvania Law School
Ai In Adjudication And Administration, Cary Coglianese, Lavi M. Ben Dor
Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law
The use of artificial intelligence has expanded rapidly in recent years across many aspects of the economy. For federal, state, and local governments in the United States, interest in artificial intelligence has manifested in the use of a series of digital tools, including the occasional deployment of machine learning, to aid in the performance of a variety of governmental functions. In this paper, we canvas the current uses of such digital tools and machine-learning technologies by the judiciary and administrative agencies in the United States. Although we have yet to see fully automated decision-making find its way into either adjudication ...
The 2020-21 Budget: Climate Change Proposals, 2020 Golden Gate University School of Law
The 2020-21 Budget: Climate Change Proposals, Legislative Analyst's Office
In this report, we assess the Governor’s major 2020-21 budget proposals related to climate change. The four proposals we evaluate are:
• Cap-and-Trade Expenditure Plan ($965 Million). The budget includes a $965 million (Greenhouse Gas Reduction Fund [GGRF]) discretionary cap-and-trade expenditure plan. Funding would mostly go to a variety of existing environmental programs, including programs related to low carbon transportation, local air quality improvements, and forestry.
• Expanded Climate Adaptation Research and Technical Assistance ($25 Million). As part of the cap-and-trade expenditure plan, the Governor proposes $25 million (GGRF) ongoing for several new and expanded climate adaptation research and technical assistance ...
The 2020-21 Budget: The Governor’S Homelessness Plan, 2020 Golden Gate University School of Law
The 2020-21 Budget: The Governor’S Homelessness Plan, Legislative Analyst's Office
In this report we provide the Legislature context for the state’s homelessness crisis, provide an update on major recent state efforts to address homelessness, assess the Governor’s 2020-21 homelessness plan, propose a framework to help the Legislature develop its own plan and funding allocations, and offer an alternative to the Governor’s 2020-21 budget proposal.