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An Examination Of The Government Accounting Standards Board, Christopher D. Jones 2010 Claremont McKenna College

An Examination Of The Government Accounting Standards Board, Christopher D. Jones

CMC Senior Theses

This thesis examines the Government Accounting Standards Board by considering its history, current structure, and treatment of a current accounting standards debate. It then uses this examination to make recommendations as to reforms of the GASB and government accounting.


Moving Beyond The Clamor For "Hedge Fund Regulation": A Reconsideration Of "Client" Under The Investment Advisers Act Of 1940, Anita K. Krug 2010 University of Washington School of Law

Moving Beyond The Clamor For "Hedge Fund Regulation": A Reconsideration Of "Client" Under The Investment Advisers Act Of 1940, Anita K. Krug

Articles

This Article argues that, from both theoretical and pragmatic perspectives, a better approach would be for law to regard private fund investors as clients of the managers of those funds for all purposes under the investment advisory regulatory regime. In making these arguments, it dissects the doctrinal and historical underpinnings and sources of the current doctrine--legislative history and case law, in particular, but also SEC interpretations and rule changes. In light of the policy considerations-- including investor protection--that gave rise to the Advisers Act, the growth of the investment advisory industry and private funds' role in it, and lessons learned …


Too Big To Fail?: Recasting The Financial Safety Net, Steven L. Schwarcz 2010 Duke Law School

Too Big To Fail?: Recasting The Financial Safety Net, Steven L. Schwarcz

Faculty Scholarship

Government safety nets in the United States and abroad focus, anachronistically, on problems of banks and other financial institutions, largely ignoring financial markets which have become major credit sources for consumers and companies. Besides failing to protect these markets, this narrow focus encourages morally hazardous behavior by large institutions, like AIG and Citigroup, that are "too big to fail." This paper examines how a safety net should be recast to protect financial markets and also explains why that safety net would mitigate moral hazard and help resolve the too-big-to-fail dilemma.


Lying And Getting Caught: An Empirical Study Of The Effect Of Securities Class Action Settlements On Targeted Firms, Randall Thomas, Lynn Bai, James Cox 2010 Vanderbilt University Law School

Lying And Getting Caught: An Empirical Study Of The Effect Of Securities Class Action Settlements On Targeted Firms, Randall Thomas, Lynn Bai, James Cox

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

The ongoing Great Recession has triggered numerous proposals to improve the regulation of financial markets and, most importantly, the regulation of organizations such as credit rating agencies, underwriters, hedge funds, and banks, whose behavior is believed to have caused the credit crisis that spawned the economic collapse. Not surprisingly, some of the reform efforts seek to strengthen the use of private litigation . Private suits have long been championed as a necessary mechanism not only to ompensate investors for harms they suffer from financial frauds but also to enhance deterrence of wrongdoing. However, in recent years there has been a …


The Market Reaction To Legal Shocks And Their Antidotes: Lessons From The Sovereign Debt Market, Michael Bradley, James D. Cox, Mitu Gulati 2010 Duke Law School

The Market Reaction To Legal Shocks And Their Antidotes: Lessons From The Sovereign Debt Market, Michael Bradley, James D. Cox, Mitu Gulati

Faculty Scholarship

In October 2000 a hedge fund holding an unpaid debt claim won an enormous victory against the debtor, the Republic of Peru, through an opportunistic interpretation of the common pari passu clause by a Brussels court. This development was met by charges from policy makers and practitioners that the court's decision (its novel interpretation of the pari passu clause) would lead to a dramatic increase in the risks of holdout litigation faced by sovereign debtors. Over the ensuing years, multiple reform solutions were proposed including the revision of certain contractual terms, the filing of amicus briefs in a key case, …


Distorting Legal Principles, Steven L. Schwarcz 2010 Duke Law School

Distorting Legal Principles, Steven L. Schwarcz

Faculty Scholarship

Legal principles enable society to order itself by preserving broadly based expectations. Sometimes, however, parties transact in ways that are so inconsistent with generally accepted principles as to create uncertainty or confusion that undermines the basis for reasoning afforded by the principles. Such a distortion might occur, for example, if a normally mandatory legal rule were unexpectedly treated as a default rule. This article explores the problem of distorting legal principles, initially focusing on rehypothecation, a distortion whose uncertainty and confusion contributed to the downfall of Lehman Brothers and the resulting global financial crisis. But not all distortions are, on …


Fiduciaries With Conflicting Obligations, Steven L. Schwarcz 2010 Duke Law School

Fiduciaries With Conflicting Obligations, Steven L. Schwarcz

Faculty Scholarship

This Article examines the dilemma of a fiduciary acting for parties who, as among themselves, have conflicting commercial interests - an inquiry fundamentally different from that of the traditional study of conflicts between fiduciaries and their beneficiaries. Existing legal principles do not fully capture this dilemma because agency law focuses primarily on an agent’s duty to a given principal, not on conflicts among principals; trust law focuses primarily on gratuitous transfers; and commercial law generally addresses arm’s length, not fiduciary, relationships. The dilemma has become critically important, however, as defaults increase in the multitude of conflicting securities (e.g., classes of …


Lying And Getting Caught: An Empirical Study Of The Effect Of Securities Class Action Settlements On Targeted Firms, James D. Cox, Lynn Bai, Randall S. Thomas 2010 Duke Law School

Lying And Getting Caught: An Empirical Study Of The Effect Of Securities Class Action Settlements On Targeted Firms, James D. Cox, Lynn Bai, Randall S. Thomas

Faculty Scholarship

The ongoing Great Recession has triggered numerous proposals to improve the regulation of financial markets and, most importantly, the regulation of organizations such as credit rating agencies, underwriters, hedge funds, and banks, whose behavior is believed to have caused the credit crisis that spawned the economic collapse. Not surprisingly, some of the reform efforts seek to strengthen the use of private litigation. Private suits have long been championed as a necessary mechanism not only to compensate investors for harms they suffer from financial frauds but also to enhance deterrence of wrongdoing. However, in recent years there has been a chorus …


Fiduciary Duty - Now And In The Future, Christine Lazaro 2010 St. John's University School of Law

Fiduciary Duty - Now And In The Future, Christine Lazaro

Faculty Publications

(Excerpt)

The celebrated jurist Benjamin Cardozo opined that the fiduciary duty is “the duty of finest loyalty”, and that a fiduciary “is held to something stricter than the morals of the market place. Not honesty alone, but the punctilio of an honor the most sensitive, is then the standard of behavior.” The question most customers have is whether their broker is subject to this duty of finest loyalty, or if they are bound merely by the morals of the marketplace. Currently this is a very difficult question to answer, and will depend on whether the customer is dealing with a …


Is The Pcaob A "Heavily Controlled Component" Of The Sec?: An Essential Question In The Constitutional Controversy, Donna M. Nagy 2010 Indiana University Maurer School of Law

Is The Pcaob A "Heavily Controlled Component" Of The Sec?: An Essential Question In The Constitutional Controversy, Donna M. Nagy

Articles by Maurer Faculty

The U.S. Supreme Court recently heard oral arguments in Free Enterprise Fund v. Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, described by D.C. Circuit Judge Brett Kavanaugh as “the most important separation-of-powers case regarding the President’s appointment and removal powers to reach the courts in the last 20 years.” Established by Congress as the cornerstone of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, the PCAOB was structured as a strong, independent board in the private sector, to oversee the conduct of auditors of public companies.

This Article challenges the D.C. Circuit’s depiction of the PCAOB as “a heavily controlled component” of the SEC, and …


Personal Jurisdiction Over Foreign Directors In Cross-Border Securities Litigation, Hannah L. Buxbaum 2010 Indiana University Maurer School of Law

Personal Jurisdiction Over Foreign Directors In Cross-Border Securities Litigation, Hannah L. Buxbaum

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


Attorneys As Arbitrators, Adam C. Pritchard, Stephen J. Choi, Jill E. Fisch 2010 University of Michigan Law School

Attorneys As Arbitrators, Adam C. Pritchard, Stephen J. Choi, Jill E. Fisch

Articles

We study the role of attorneys as arbitrators in securities arbitration. We find that arbitrators who also represent brokerage firms or brokers in other arbitrations award significantly less compensation to investor-claimants than do other arbitrators. We find no significant effect for attorney-arbitrators who represent investors or both investors and brokerage firms. The relation between representing brokerage firms and arbitration awards remains significant even when we control for political outlook. Arbitrators who donate money to Democratic political candidates award greater compensation than do arbitrators who donate to Republican can-didates. We also study the dynamics of panel interaction. We find that the …


Keynote Address: The Conflicted Trustee Dilemma, Steven L. Schwarcz 2010 Duke University School of Law

Keynote Address: The Conflicted Trustee Dilemma, Steven L. Schwarcz

NYLS Law Review

No abstract provided.


On The Continued Vitality Of Securities Arbitration: Why Reform Efforts Must Not Preclude Predispute Arbitration Clauses, Alicia J. Surdyk 2010 New York Law School Class of 2009

On The Continued Vitality Of Securities Arbitration: Why Reform Efforts Must Not Preclude Predispute Arbitration Clauses, Alicia J. Surdyk

NYLS Law Review

No abstract provided.


Fending For Themselves: Why Securities Regulations Should Encourage Angel Groups, Abraham J. B. Cable 2010 UC Hastings College of the Law

Fending For Themselves: Why Securities Regulations Should Encourage Angel Groups, Abraham J. B. Cable

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Symposium: The Regulation Of Investment Funds, Andrew J. Donohue, Paul N. Roth, Mattew B. Siano, J.W. Verret 2010 U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission

Symposium: The Regulation Of Investment Funds, Andrew J. Donohue, Paul N. Roth, Mattew B. Siano, J.W. Verret

Fordham Journal of Corporate & Financial Law

Symposium: The Regulation Of Investment Funds


Promoting Innovation: The Law Of Publicly Traded Corporations, Merritt B. Fox 2010 Columbia Law School

Promoting Innovation: The Law Of Publicly Traded Corporations, Merritt B. Fox

Faculty Scholarship

Improving economic welfare requires that society’s scarce savings be allocated among proposed real investment projects in a way that appreciates the prospects of promising new innovations. Corporate and securities law help structure important elements of this process of allocation. This article sketches out an approach based upon a seemingly paradoxical analogy of a market economy’s overall finance process to the way a hierarchical organization gathers and processes relevant bits of information dispersed among many individuals in order to make decisions. It thereby takes advantage of important thinking in communications and organizational theory about how to make organizations sensitive to the …


Lyondell: A Note Of Approbation, William W. Bratton 2010 University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School

Lyondell: A Note Of Approbation, William W. Bratton

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Carey Law

No abstract provided.


Private Ordering And The Proxy Access Debate, Scott Hirst, Lucian A. Bebchuk 2010 Boston University School of Law

Private Ordering And The Proxy Access Debate, Scott Hirst, Lucian A. Bebchuk

Faculty Scholarship

This Article examines two “meta” issues raised by opponents of the SEC’s proposal to provide shareholders with rights to place director candidates on the company’s proxy materials. First, opponents argue that, even assuming proxy access is desirable in many circumstances, the existing no-access default should be retained and the adoption of proxy access arrangements should be left to opting out of this default on a company-by-company basis. This Article, however, identifies strong reasons against retaining no-access as the default. There is substantial empirical evidence indicating that director insulation from removal is associated with lower firm value and worse performance. Furthermore, …


The Performance Disclosures Of Credit Rating Agencies: Are They Effective Reputational Sanctions?, Lin (Lynn) Bai 2010 University of Cincinnati College of Law

The Performance Disclosures Of Credit Rating Agencies: Are They Effective Reputational Sanctions?, Lin (Lynn) Bai

Faculty Articles and Other Publications

The SEC has recently added new provisions to the credit rating agency regulation. These provisions require credit rating agencies to disclose publicly their rating actions and performance measurements. The new requirements seek to achieve two goals: (1) deter conflicts of interest in the credit rating industry by invoking the reputational sanction power of performance statistics, and (2) help new entrants to the industry build a track record so they can compete with established agencies. This paper reveals empirical evidence that the current disclosure requirements cannot achieve these goals and makes recommendations on how the regulation should be improved in light …


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