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Orwellian Surveillance Of Vehicular Travels, Sam Hanna 2014 SelectedWorks

Orwellian Surveillance Of Vehicular Travels, Sam Hanna

Sam Hanna

What would someone learn about you if all your automobile travels were ubiquitously tracked beginning today? Creating an indefinite database of a person’s previous automobile travels to formulate deductions on intimate details of people's lives is precisely what law enforcement agencies are currently able to accomplish with automatic license plate recognition (“ALPR”). With the ubiquity of ALPR cameras, continuous government surveillance of automobile travels is no longer a figment of the imagination. Consequently, the judicial and legislative branches of government must embark on balancing the private and public interests implicated by this technology. Failure to set suitable boundaries ...


Preventing Cold War: Militarization In The Southernmost Continent And The Antarctic Treaty System's Fading Effectiveness, Dillon A. Redding 2014 SelectedWorks

Preventing Cold War: Militarization In The Southernmost Continent And The Antarctic Treaty System's Fading Effectiveness, Dillon A. Redding

Dillon A Redding

This note argues that the preservation of Antarctica for peaceful research and internationally cooperative activity as envisioned originally by the Antarctic Treaty in 1961 has gone unrealized amid growing international interest in the strategic advantages offered by Antarctica, including the possibility of large swathes of mineral deposits and optimal locations for satellite stations. Part 1 describes the motivations behind the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS) and outlines the relevant provisions of the Antarctic Treaty. Part 2 examines the military advantages to a state presence in Antarctica and the ways in which the ATS allows for such a presence to be carried ...


Choosing The Genetics Of Our Children: Options For Framing Public Policy, Girard Kelly 2014 Santa Clara Law

Choosing The Genetics Of Our Children: Options For Framing Public Policy, Girard Kelly

Santa Clara High Technology Law Journal

This paper examines the controversial topic of choosing our children’s genes through human germ-line manipulation otherwise known as Inheritable Genetic Modification (IGM) with current Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs) and future Reproductive Genetic Biotechnologies (RGBs) such as genetic engineering. The purpose of the paper is to examine these potentially revolutionary biotechnologies and the emerging social, and bioethical perspectives advanced by both proponents and opponents—in the context of the legal and regulatory policies impacting ARTs and RGBs. Lastly, the paper recommends new public policy and regulatory frameworks to support future research and development of RGBs by providing legislative guidance to ...


Bringing Standards To Life: Synthetic Biology Standards And Intellectual Property, Andrew W. Torrance, Linda J. Kahl 2014 Santa Clara Law

Bringing Standards To Life: Synthetic Biology Standards And Intellectual Property, Andrew W. Torrance, Linda J. Kahl

Santa Clara High Technology Law Journal

In aspiring to become a true engineering discipline for the biological sciences, the field of synthetic biology has a unique opportunity to create and encourage the widespread adoption of standards to enhance innovation and social impact in the field. This article presents a study of the standards setting efforts by the institutions, firms, governments, and individuals within the field of synthetic biology.

Numerous standards have been proposed in synthetic biology, including those relevant to structure, function, description, measurement, data, information exchange, software, biosafety and biosecurity, and even law. At the present time, the adoption of technical standards has been relatively ...


Information Costs And Reverse Payment Settlements: Bridging The Gap Between The Courts And The Antitrust Agencies, Brenna E. Jenny 2014 Santa Clara Law

Information Costs And Reverse Payment Settlements: Bridging The Gap Between The Courts And The Antitrust Agencies, Brenna E. Jenny

Santa Clara High Technology Law Journal

Reverse payment settlements have attracted increased scrutiny due to the controversial presence of a payment from a brand-name drug company to a generic company that is ostensibly preparing to infringe on the branded company’s patent. The antitrust agencies and the courts settled into an intergovernmental stalemate regarding the appropriate framework of analysis to apply when reviewing antitrust challenges to these settlements. The FTC and DOJ have viewed the deals skeptically as a vehicle for competitors to split monopoly profits, but the lower courts have generally been deferential to what they identified as an exercise of a patent holder’s ...


Cyberattacks On Medical Devices And Hospital Networks: Legal Gaps And Regulatory Solutions, Katherine Booth Wellington 2014 Santa Clara Law

Cyberattacks On Medical Devices And Hospital Networks: Legal Gaps And Regulatory Solutions, Katherine Booth Wellington

Santa Clara High Technology Law Journal

Cyberattacks on medical devices and hospital networks are a real and growing threat. Malicious actors have the capability to hack pacemakers and insulin pumps, shut down hospital networks, and steal personal health information. This Article analyzes the laws and regulations that apply to cyberattacks on medical devices and hospital networks and argues that the existing legal structure is insufficient to prevent these attacks. While the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act and the Federal Anti-Tampering Act impose stiff penalties for cyberattacks, it is often impossible to identify the actor behind a cyberattack—greatly decreasing the deterrent power of these laws. Few ...


Back To Blood: The Sociopolitics And Law Of Compulsory Dna Testing Of Refugees, Edward S. Dove 2014 University of Massachusetts School of Law

Back To Blood: The Sociopolitics And Law Of Compulsory Dna Testing Of Refugees, Edward S. Dove

University of Massachusetts Law Review

Since October 2012, certain family members of refugees seeking reunification through the United States Refugee Admissions Priority Three program must undergo DNA testing to prove they are genetically related. The putative purposes of the policy include fraud prevention, enhanced national security, and greater efficiency in refugee claims processing. Upon close inspection, however, the new policy generates significant sociopolitical and legal concerns. The notion of what constitutes a family is significantly narrowed. Required DNA testing may violate domestic laws and international human rights instruments regarding voluntary informed consent, privacy, and anti-discrimination. Traditional legal solutions insufficiently remedy these concerns and cannot prevent ...


Drones, Henry H. Perritt Jr., Eliot O. Sprague 2014 Chicago-Kent College of Law

Drones, Henry H. Perritt Jr., Eliot O. Sprague

Henry H. Perritt, Jr.

Abstract

Drone technology is evolving rapidly. Microdrones—what the FAA calls “sUAS”—already on the market at the $1,000 level, have the capability to supplement manned helicopters in support of public safety operations, news reporting, and powerline and pipeline patrol, when manned helicopter support is infeasible, untimely, or unsafe.

Larger drones–"machodrones”–are not yet available outside battlefield and counterterrorism spaces. Approximating the size of manned helicopters, but without pilots, or with human pilots being optional, their design is still in its infancy as designers await greater clarity in the regulatory requirements that will drive airworthiness certification.

This article ...


Canceling The Order: How High Frequency Traders Are Disrupting The Derivatives Market, And What The Regulators Can Do To Stop Them, Andrew C. Burr 2014 SelectedWorks

Canceling The Order: How High Frequency Traders Are Disrupting The Derivatives Market, And What The Regulators Can Do To Stop Them, Andrew C. Burr

Andrew C Burr

High Frequency Trading (“HFT”) is now a part of the modern financial lexicon, and inspires feelings of awe, fear, and ignorance. While millions of investors around the world are still trying to grapple with what exactly HFT is and does, the U.S. regulators who are tasked with investigating and charging manipulators are finding themselves in a quandary of how to prosecute the offenders. Further, while the media has focused its attention on the U.S. Securites Exchange Commission’s (“SEC”) new policies on the subject, few have noticed the progress made by the U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission ...


To Read Or Not To Read: Privacy Within Social Networks, The Entitlement Of Employees To A Virtual “Private Zone” And The Balloon Theory, Shlomit Yanisky-Ravid Professor of Law 2014 SelectedWorks

To Read Or Not To Read: Privacy Within Social Networks, The Entitlement Of Employees To A Virtual “Private Zone” And The Balloon Theory, Shlomit Yanisky-Ravid Professor Of Law

Shlomit Yanisky-Ravid Professor of Law

Social networking has increasingly become the most common venue of self-expression in the digital era. Although social networks started as a social vehicle, they have recently become a major source for employers to track personal data ("screening") of applicants, employees or former employees.

This article addresses the questions of whether this casual business routine harms employees' rights to privacy with regard to data users post in social networks, what the drawbacks of this routine may be, and why and how privacy rights should be protected to secure private zones within the virtual sphere. The article suggests that a privacy right ...


Anaerobic Digestion As A Renewable Energy Source And Waste Management Technology: What Must Be Done For This Technology To Realize Success In The United States?, Blake Anthony Klinkner 2014 University of Massachusetts School of Law

Anaerobic Digestion As A Renewable Energy Source And Waste Management Technology: What Must Be Done For This Technology To Realize Success In The United States?, Blake Anthony Klinkner

University of Massachusetts Law Review

Anaerobic digestion technology uses microorganisms to consume waste and produce methane gas, which serves as a source of clean renewable energy. Although anaerobic digestion is widely used for both purposes throughout the rest of the world, it is rarely applied in the United States. This Article explains the scientific processes of anaerobic digestion. It then discusses how anaerobic digestion has been used throughout history and among societies as a waste management technology and source of renewable energy. The Article continues by addressing the legal aspects of anaerobic digestion, examining the reasons why it is not widely used in the United ...


Will There Be A Neurolaw Revolution?, Adam Kolber 2014 Maurer School of Law: Indiana University

Will There Be A Neurolaw Revolution?, Adam Kolber

Indiana Law Journal

The central debate in the field of neurolaw has focused on two claims. Joshua Greene and Jonathan Cohen argue that we do not have free will and that advances in neuroscience will eventually lead us to stop blaming people for their actions. Stephen Morse, by contrast, argues that we have free will and that the kind of advances Greene and Cohen envision will not and should not affect the law. I argue that neither side has persuasively made the case for or against a revolution in the way the law treats responsibility.

There will, however, be a neurolaw revolution of ...


Delay And Its Benefits For Judicial Rulemaking Under Scientific Uncertainty, Rebecca Haw 2014 Boston College Law School

Delay And Its Benefits For Judicial Rulemaking Under Scientific Uncertainty, Rebecca Haw

Boston College Law Review

The Supreme Court’s increasing use of science and social science in its decision making has a rationalizing effect on law that helps ensure that a rule will have its desired effect. But resting doctrine on the shifting sands of scientific and social scientific opinion endangers legal stability. The Court must be responsive, but not reactive, to new scientific findings and theories, a difficult balance for lay justices to strike. This Article argues that the Court uses delay—defined as refusing to make or change a rule in light of new scientific arguments at time one, and then making or ...


Book Review: Fresh Water In International Law. By Laurence Boisson De Chazournes, ‎Oxford, Oxford University Press (Dec. 2013). ‎, Itzchak Kornfeld 2014 SelectedWorks

Book Review: Fresh Water In International Law. By Laurence Boisson De Chazournes, ‎Oxford, Oxford University Press (Dec. 2013). ‎, Itzchak Kornfeld

Itzchak E. Kornfeld

This book review of an extremely timely, far-reaching and comprehensive book by Professor Laurence Boisson de Chazournes, titled Fresh Water in International Law, by an expert in the field. Today, in an era of climate change, wide spread droughts across the globe, the fate of fresh water, which is a fixed resource and is the source of life, is an ominous problem in and for international law. Boisson de Chazournes addresses issues related to treaty design and interpretation, case law, UN initiatives, human rights issues and the development of the human right to water. The author also stresses that today ...


Search Method In E-Discovery: How Rule 26'S Silence Poses A Risk Of Sanctions To Attorneys And Increases The Cost Of Litigation, Khanh T. Huynh 2014 University of Massachusetts School of Law

Search Method In E-Discovery: How Rule 26'S Silence Poses A Risk Of Sanctions To Attorneys And Increases The Cost Of Litigation, Khanh T. Huynh

University of Massachusetts Law Review

The 2006 Amendments to the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure are the first codified references in the FRCP to electronic discovery. However, the lack of comprehensive rules in this area provides opportunities for attorneys to leverage search terms as a weapon, primarily to wear out opponents financially. Disagreement on search terms used to produce documents can prolong litigation. Complicated Boolearn search tems can be difficult to run. Other search methods, such as natural language search, cannot provide efficient and accurate results. The cost to run complicated searches is high, and the lack of rules addressing search terms in the FRCP ...


Social Networking And Student Safety: Balancing Student First Amendment Rights And Disciplining Threatening Speech, John L. Hughes III 2014 University of Massachusetts School of Law

Social Networking And Student Safety: Balancing Student First Amendment Rights And Disciplining Threatening Speech, John L. Hughes Iii

University of Massachusetts Law Review

As the use of social media increases and becomes an integral part of nearly every student's life, problems arise when student expression on these sites turns into threats against the school or other students, implicating both student safety and the speaker's right to free speech. Facing a lack of Supreme Court precedent, school officials need guidance on whether and how to take action when a student makes threats on social network - how to prevent any danger at school while respecting the student's right to free speech. This note develops an approach that combines the Supreme Court's ...


The Discoverability Of E-Mails: The Smoking Gun Of The Modern Era, Michael J. Martin 2014 University of Massachusetts School of Law

The Discoverability Of E-Mails: The Smoking Gun Of The Modern Era, Michael J. Martin

University of Massachusetts Law Review

The discoverability of e-mails is an area of law that every modern day lawyer must be familiar with in order to avoid the risk of being sanctioned. Over the past years, courts have awarded sanctions to moving parties at a steadily increasing pace. These sanctions have included adverse jury instructions, default judgements, attorney's fees, large monetary fines, and in one instance, a jail sentence. Courts have sent the message that improper conduct will not be tolerated in this developing area of law by not hesitating to order sanctions. Thus, it is essential that modern day lawyers become acquainted with ...


The Science Behind Breath Testing For Ethanol, Thomas E. Workman Jr. 2014 University of Massachusetts School of Law

The Science Behind Breath Testing For Ethanol, Thomas E. Workman Jr.

University of Massachusetts Law Review

Nationwide, law enforcement officers utilize breath-test machines to identify suspected drunk drivers. When defense attorneys represent a client who has been charged with alcohol related driving crimes, it is important to understand the science and methodology behind alcohol breath-testing, and specifically the functionality of the device used to test their client. This article explains the various methods of testing and types of devices used, as well as their effectiveness, by examining the scientific principles associated with common testin measures. This article serves as an aid to the practicing attorney who, by understanding the science and methodology of breath-testing, will be ...


Enhancing The Teaching Of Lawyering Skills And Perspectives Through Virtual World Engagement, Andrea M. Seielstad 2014 University of Massachusetts School of Law

Enhancing The Teaching Of Lawyering Skills And Perspectives Through Virtual World Engagement, Andrea M. Seielstad

University of Massachusetts Law Review

Educators from around the globe are rapidly utilizing and transforming virtual worlds, such as Second Life, with innovative teaching strategies. Mediation and dispute resolution, and associated communication and problem-solving skills, are particularly well suited for developing in virtual worlds, as are other lawyering skills such as, interviewing, counseling, and trial advocacy. The opportunities for students and faculty to engage in cross-cultural exchange and networking are another selling feature of virtual world engagement. Virtual worlds offer particular promise for those seeking innovative and cost-effective ways to integrate more professional training and skills development into the law school curriculum. Moreover, as more ...


Intimate Terrorism And Technology: There's An App For That, Justine A. Dunlap 2014 University of Massachusetts School of Law

Intimate Terrorism And Technology: There's An App For That, Justine A. Dunlap

University of Massachusetts Law Review

Technology enhances the ability of the domestic violence prepetrator. It also holds the promise of assisting domestic violence survivors in their quest for safety. This is true in practical, daily ways and is becoming increasingly true in the legal treatment of these cases. Perpetrators can use technology to stalk and find their victims; survivors can use it to access necessary information to get away from their batterers. Laws are being amended to take into account cyber-enhanced domestic violence techniques. Domestic or intimate terrorists are among the class of criminals targeted for use of GPS monitoring. This article discusses the way ...


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