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From Baby M To Baby M(Anji): Regulating International Surrogacy Agreements, yehezkel Margalit 2016 SelectedWorks

From Baby M To Baby M(Anji): Regulating International Surrogacy Agreements, Yehezkel Margalit

Hezi Margalit

In 1985, when Kim Cotton became Britain’s first commercial surrogate mother, Europe was exposed to the issue of surrogacy for the first time on a large scale. Three years later, in 1988, the famous case of Baby M drew the attention of the American public to surrogacy as well. These two cases implicated fundamental ethical and legal issues regarding domestic surrogacy and triggered a fierce debate about motherhood, child-bearing, and the relationship between procreation, science and commerce. These two cases exemplified the debate regarding domestic surrogacy - a debate that has now been raging for decades. Contrary to the well-known ...


Bridging The Gap Between Intent And Status: A New Framework For Modern Parentage, yehezkel Margalit 2016 SelectedWorks

Bridging The Gap Between Intent And Status: A New Framework For Modern Parentage, Yehezkel Margalit

Hezi Margalit

The last few decades have witnessed dramatic changes in the conceptualization and methodologies of determining legal parentage in the U.S. and other countries in the western world. Through various sociological shifts, growing social openness and bio-medical innovations, the traditional definitions of family and parenthood have been dramatically transformed. This transformation has led to an acute and urgent need for legal and social frameworks to regulate the process of determining legal parentage. Moreover, instead of progressing in a piecemeal, ad-hoc manner, the framework for determining legal parentage should be comprehensive. Only a comprehensive solution will address the differing needs of ...


Holding Up And Holding Out, Colleen V. Chien 2015 Santa Clara University

Holding Up And Holding Out, Colleen V. Chien

Michigan Telecommunications and Technology Law Review

Patent “hold-up” and patent “hold-out” present important, alternative theories for what ails the patent system. Patent “hold-up” occurs when a patent owner sues a company when it is most vulnerable—after it has implemented a technology—and is able wrest a settlement because it is too late for the company to change course. Patent “hold-out” is the practice of companies routinely ignoring patents and resisting patent owner demands because the odds of getting caught are small. Hold-up has arguably predicted the current patent crises, and the ex ante assertion of technology patents whether in the smartphone war, standards, or patent ...


After Myriad: Reconsidering The Incentives For Innovation In The Biotech Industry, Daniel K. Yarbrough 2015 University of Michigan

After Myriad: Reconsidering The Incentives For Innovation In The Biotech Industry, Daniel K. Yarbrough

Michigan Telecommunications and Technology Law Review

35 U.S.C. § 101 allows a patent for “any new and useful process, machine, manufacture, or composition of matter, or any new and useful improvement thereof.” Recently, the Supreme Court issued several key decisions affecting the doctrine of patentable subject matter under § 101. Starting with Bilski v. Kappos (2011), and continuing with Mayo Collaborative Services, Inc. v. Prometheus Laboratories (2012), Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics (2013) and, most recently, Alice Corporation Pty. Ltd. v. CLS Bank International (2014), every year has brought another major change to the way in which the Court assesses patentability. In Myriad, the ...


District Courts Versus The Usitc: Considering Exclusionary Relief For F/Rand-Encumbered Standard-Essential Patents, Helen H. Ji 2015 University of Michigan

District Courts Versus The Usitc: Considering Exclusionary Relief For F/Rand-Encumbered Standard-Essential Patents, Helen H. Ji

Michigan Telecommunications and Technology Law Review

Technological standards allow manufacturers and consumers to rely upon these agreed-upon basic systems to facilitate sales and further invention. However, where these standards involved patented technology, the process of standard-setting raises many concerns at the intersection of antitrust and patent law. As patent holders advocate for their patents to become part of technological standards, how should courts police this activity to prevent patent holdup and other anti-competitive practices? This Note explores the differing approaches to remedies employed by the United States International Trade Commission and the United States District Courts where standard-essential patents are infringed. This Note further proposes that ...


New Hardware And Software Innovations (For Volumetric Modeling), A. Keith Turner 2015 University of Colorado Law School

New Hardware And Software Innovations (For Volumetric Modeling), A. Keith Turner

Uncovering the Hidden Resource: Groundwater Law, Hydrology, and Policy in the 1990s (Summer Conference, June 15-17)

19 pages (includes illustrations and maps).


Cybercrime: A Saudi And American Perspective, hussam m. alkanbashi 2015 University of Dayton

Cybercrime: A Saudi And American Perspective, Hussam M. Alkanbashi

hussam m alkanbashi

Cybercrime is one of the greatest threats facing the International community. Defined as criminal activity perpetrated using computers and the internet, cybercrime has developed into a trillion dollar a year industry, affecting millions of people around the world, as well as countless businesses and the governments of every nation. With nearly 431 million victims projected in 2015, cyber related crime is one of if not the most frequent, costly and pervasive crimes worldwide.

This article examines and assesses the effectiveness of Saudi and American Cyber Laws in deterring the growing global threats posed by cybercrime. The article studies cyber identity ...


Inter Partes Review As A Shield For Technology Purchasers: A Response To Gaia Bernstein’S The Rise Of The End-User In Patent Litigation, Brian J. Love 2015 Santa Clara University School of Law

Inter Partes Review As A Shield For Technology Purchasers: A Response To Gaia Bernstein’S The Rise Of The End-User In Patent Litigation, Brian J. Love

Boston College Law Review

In her Article, The Rise of the End User in Patent Litigation, Professor Bernstein makes the case for legislative and judicial action designed to protect technology users from abusive patent enforcement that exploits their relative lack of resources and technical knowledge. This Essay presents the findings of an empirical study designed to determine the extent to which this problem has been mitigated in recent months by inter partes review (“IPR”)—a reform signed into law more than three years ago but only now emerging as a powerful shield for those accused of patent infringement. My findings suggest that IPR has ...


When Nominal Is Reasonable: Damages For The Unpracticed Patent, Oskar Liivak 2015 Cornell Law School

When Nominal Is Reasonable: Damages For The Unpracticed Patent, Oskar Liivak

Boston College Law Review

To obtain a substantial patent damage award a patentee need not commercialize the patented invention; the patentee need only show that its patent was infringed. This surely incentivizes patenting but it dis-incentivizes innovation. Why commercialize yourself? The law allows you to wait for others to take the risks, and then you emerge later to lay claim to “in no event less than a reasonable” fraction of other people’s successes. It is rational to be a patent troll rather than an innovator. This troll-enabling interpretation of patent law’s reasonable royalty provision, however, is wrong as a matter of patent ...


Dubious Patent Reform, Gregory Dolin M.D. 2015 University of Baltimore School of Law

Dubious Patent Reform, Gregory Dolin M.D.

Boston College Law Review

The 2011 America Invents Act sought to drastically improve the American patent system by creating new review processes for already issued patents. These processes were meant to reduce patent litigation costs and clear the field of “dubious patents,” all the while increasing certainty in the existence and scope of patent rights. Though this was not the first attempt to achieve these goals, Congress failed to heed the lessons of past reforms or fully take into account the costs associated with these new post-issuance review mechanisms. The result was a set of dubious reforms. This Article marshals empirical data and case-study ...


The Completeness Requirement In Patent Law, Dmitry Karshtedt 2015 Stanford Law School

The Completeness Requirement In Patent Law, Dmitry Karshtedt

Boston College Law Review

This Article argues that courts have created a de facto extra-statutory condition of patentability, herein termed the “completeness” requirement. This requirement bars patents on certain inventions whose chief value lies in their function as inputs into downstream research. The Article contends that the notion of completeness explains doctrinal innovations that are difficult to rationalize any other way. Although it reflects an important policy of limiting unduly preemptive patent claims on foundational, building-block inventions, the completeness requirement in its current form fails to implement this policy in a way that is coherent and consistent with patent law’s utilitarian goals. In ...


Network Neutrality And Consumer Demand For “Better Than Best Efforts” Traffic Management, Rob Frieden 2015 Penn State University

Network Neutrality And Consumer Demand For “Better Than Best Efforts” Traffic Management, Rob Frieden

Rob Frieden

This paper assesses whether and how ISPs can offer quality of service enhancements, at premium prices for full motion video, while still complying with the new rules and regulations established by the Federal Communications Commission (“FCC”) in March, 2015. The paper explains that having made the controversial decision to reclassify all forms of Internet access as a telecommunications service, the FCC increases regulatory uncertainty. In particular, the FCC has failed to identify instances where “retail ISPs,” serving residential broadband subscribers, can offer quality of service enhancements that serve real consumer wants without harming competition and the ability of most content ...


Sacrificing Privacy For Convenience: The Need For Stricter Ftc Regulations In An Age Of Smartphone Surveillance, Ashton McKinnon 2015 Pepperdine University

Sacrificing Privacy For Convenience: The Need For Stricter Ftc Regulations In An Age Of Smartphone Surveillance, Ashton Mckinnon

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

This comment aims to focus on the most frequently used connector that consumers treasure not only for convenience but also as a lifelong necessity - the smartphone. The FTC needs to enforce federally mandated guidelines that will allow the consumer to use technology without the technology using the consumer. Part II of this comment focuses on the type of information that can be collected by various companies, service providers, and agencies from an individual's smartphone, and the intentions of these collectors behind use of this information. Part III evaluates how applications (apps) contribute to this scheme, and, specifically, apps' recordkeeping ...


Clapper V. Amnesty International Usa: Balancing National Security And Individuals' Privacy, Kristen Choi 2015 Pepperdine University

Clapper V. Amnesty International Usa: Balancing National Security And Individuals' Privacy, Kristen Choi

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

No abstract provided.


The Export Administration Act's Technical Data Regulations: Do They Violate The First Amendment?, Kenneth Kalivoda 2015 University of Georgia School of Law

The Export Administration Act's Technical Data Regulations: Do They Violate The First Amendment?, Kenneth Kalivoda

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Host Country Taxation Of Transfer Of Technology Transactions, Guillermo Cabanellas, Luis Bertone 2015 University of Buenos Aries

Host Country Taxation Of Transfer Of Technology Transactions, Guillermo Cabanellas, Luis Bertone

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Legal Nature And Contractual Conditions In Know-How Transactions, Carlos M. Correa 2015 Universidad Nacional de Buenos Aries

Legal Nature And Contractual Conditions In Know-How Transactions, Carlos M. Correa

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


"Sophisticated Robots": Balancing Liability, Regulation, And Innovation, F. Patrick Hubbard 2015 University of Florida Levin College of Law

"Sophisticated Robots": Balancing Liability, Regulation, And Innovation, F. Patrick Hubbard

Florida Law Review

Our lives are being transformed by large, mobile, "sophisticated robots" with increasingly higher levels of autonomy, intelligence, and interconnectivity among themselves. For example, driverless automobiles are likely to become commercially available within a decade. Many people who suffer physical injuries from these robots will seek legal redress for their injury, and regulatory schemes are likely to impose requirements on the field to reduce the number and severity of injuries.

This Article addresses the issue of whether the current liability and regulatory systems provide a fair, efficient method for balancing the concern for physical safety against the need to incentivize the ...


Race In The Life Sciences: An Empirical Assessment, 1950-2000, Osagie K. Obasogie, Julie N. Harris-Wai, Katherine Darling, Carolyn Keagy 2015 University of California, Hastings College of the Law

Race In The Life Sciences: An Empirical Assessment, 1950-2000, Osagie K. Obasogie, Julie N. Harris-Wai, Katherine Darling, Carolyn Keagy

Fordham Law Review

The mainstream narrative regarding the evolution of race as an idea in the scientific community is that biological understandings of race dominated throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries up until World War II, after which a social constructionist approach is thought to have taken hold. Many believe that the horrific outcomes of the most notorious applications of biological race—eugenics and the Holocaust—moved scientists away from thinking that race reflects inherent differences and toward an understanding that race is a largely social, cultural, and political phenomenon. This understanding of the evolution of race as a scientific idea informed the ...


Snap Judgment: Recognizing The Propriety And Pitfalls Of Direct Judicial Review Of Audiovisual Evidence At Summary Judgment, Denise K. Barry 2015 Fordham University School of Law

Snap Judgment: Recognizing The Propriety And Pitfalls Of Direct Judicial Review Of Audiovisual Evidence At Summary Judgment, Denise K. Barry

Fordham Law Review

Conflicting results in two recent police excessive force decisions by the U.S. Supreme Court—Tolan v. Cotton and Plumhoff v. Rickard—have sown confusion about the standards for summary judgment. This Note shows how the two decisions are consistent with each other and with longstanding summary judgment precedents. The key insight is that since the Second Circuit’s iconic 1946 decision in Arnstein v. Porter, appellate judges, including Supreme Court Justices, have listened to audio recordings, scrutinized artwork, and—as in the case of Plumhoff—watched video footage in order to decide for themselves whether there is a genuine ...


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