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From Baby M To Baby M(Anji): Regulating International Surrogacy Agreements, yehezkel Margalit 2016 SelectedWorks

From Baby M To Baby M(Anji): Regulating International Surrogacy Agreements, Yehezkel Margalit

Hezi Margalit

In 1985, when Kim Cotton became Britain’s first commercial surrogate mother, Europe was exposed to the issue of surrogacy for the first time on a large scale. Three years later, in 1988, the famous case of Baby M drew the attention of the American public to surrogacy as well. These two cases implicated fundamental ethical and legal issues regarding domestic surrogacy and triggered a fierce debate about motherhood, child-bearing, and the relationship between procreation, science and commerce. These two cases exemplified the debate regarding domestic surrogacy - a debate that has now been raging for decades. Contrary to the well-known ...


Bridging The Gap Between Intent And Status: A New Framework For Modern Parentage, yehezkel Margalit 2016 SelectedWorks

Bridging The Gap Between Intent And Status: A New Framework For Modern Parentage, Yehezkel Margalit

Hezi Margalit

The last few decades have witnessed dramatic changes in the conceptualization and methodologies of determining legal parentage in the U.S. and other countries in the western world. Through various sociological shifts, growing social openness and bio-medical innovations, the traditional definitions of family and parenthood have been dramatically transformed. This transformation has led to an acute and urgent need for legal and social frameworks to regulate the process of determining legal parentage. Moreover, instead of progressing in a piecemeal, ad-hoc manner, the framework for determining legal parentage should be comprehensive. Only a comprehensive solution will address the differing needs of ...


Holding Up And Holding Out, Colleen V. Chien 2015 Santa Clara University

Holding Up And Holding Out, Colleen V. Chien

Michigan Telecommunications and Technology Law Review

Patent “hold-up” and patent “hold-out” present important, alternative theories for what ails the patent system. Patent “hold-up” occurs when a patent owner sues a company when it is most vulnerable—after it has implemented a technology—and is able wrest a settlement because it is too late for the company to change course. Patent “hold-out” is the practice of companies routinely ignoring patents and resisting patent owner demands because the odds of getting caught are small. Hold-up has arguably predicted the current patent crises, and the ex ante assertion of technology patents whether in the smartphone war, standards, or patent ...


After Myriad: Reconsidering The Incentives For Innovation In The Biotech Industry, Daniel K. Yarbrough 2015 University of Michigan

After Myriad: Reconsidering The Incentives For Innovation In The Biotech Industry, Daniel K. Yarbrough

Michigan Telecommunications and Technology Law Review

35 U.S.C. § 101 allows a patent for “any new and useful process, machine, manufacture, or composition of matter, or any new and useful improvement thereof.” Recently, the Supreme Court issued several key decisions affecting the doctrine of patentable subject matter under § 101. Starting with Bilski v. Kappos (2011), and continuing with Mayo Collaborative Services, Inc. v. Prometheus Laboratories (2012), Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics (2013) and, most recently, Alice Corporation Pty. Ltd. v. CLS Bank International (2014), every year has brought another major change to the way in which the Court assesses patentability. In Myriad, the ...


District Courts Versus The Usitc: Considering Exclusionary Relief For F/Rand-Encumbered Standard-Essential Patents, Helen H. Ji 2015 University of Michigan

District Courts Versus The Usitc: Considering Exclusionary Relief For F/Rand-Encumbered Standard-Essential Patents, Helen H. Ji

Michigan Telecommunications and Technology Law Review

Technological standards allow manufacturers and consumers to rely upon these agreed-upon basic systems to facilitate sales and further invention. However, where these standards involved patented technology, the process of standard-setting raises many concerns at the intersection of antitrust and patent law. As patent holders advocate for their patents to become part of technological standards, how should courts police this activity to prevent patent holdup and other anti-competitive practices? This Note explores the differing approaches to remedies employed by the United States International Trade Commission and the United States District Courts where standard-essential patents are infringed. This Note further proposes that ...


Compassionate Use Of Experimental Therapies: Who Should Decide?, Patricia J. Zettler 2015 Georgia State University College of Law

Compassionate Use Of Experimental Therapies: Who Should Decide?, Patricia J. Zettler

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In addition to being an example of unsubstantiated hype about regenerative medicine, the controversy around the Italy-based Stamina Foundation's unproven stem cell therapy represents another chapter in a continuing debate about how to balance patients' requests for early access to experimental medicines with requirements for demonstrating safety and effectiveness. Compassionate use of the Stamina therapy arguably should not have been permitted under Italy's laws, but public pressure was intense and judges ultimately granted access. One lesson from these events is that expert regulatory agencies may be the institutions most competent to make compassionate use decisions and that policies ...


The Evolution Of Internet Service Providers From Partners To Adversaries: Tracking Shifts In Interconnection Goals And Strategies In The Internet’S Fifth Generation, Rob Frieden 2015 Penn State University

The Evolution Of Internet Service Providers From Partners To Adversaries: Tracking Shifts In Interconnection Goals And Strategies In The Internet’S Fifth Generation, Rob Frieden

Rob Frieden

At the Internet’s inception, carriers providing the bit switching and transmission function largely embraced expanding connections and users as a primary service goal. These ventures refrained from metering traffic and charging for carriage based on the assumption that traffic volumes roughly matched, or that traffic measurement was not worth the bother in light of external funding from government grants. Most Internet Service Providers (“ISPs”) bartered network access through a process known as peering in lieu of metering traffic and billing for network use.

As governments removed subsidies and commercial carriers invested substantial funds to build larger and faster networks ...


Limited Consumer Privacy Protections Against The Layers Of Big Data, Andrew W. Bagley, Justin S. Brown 2015 Santa Clara Law

Limited Consumer Privacy Protections Against The Layers Of Big Data, Andrew W. Bagley, Justin S. Brown

Santa Clara High Technology Law Journal

Consumers give away their data voluntarily and involuntary through their everyday online interactions. Many of these interactions are governed by “click-wrap” agreements in which consumers agree to data use terms with their Internet service provider (ISP), content provider, or an entire computing ecosystem through various layers of the Internet. This phenomenon effectively means that consumers lose control of their data to an endless web of third party big-data brokers unaccountable to the user. All the while, the increasingly dynamic and valuable nature of datasets makes it difficult to predict how data collected today will be used in the future. To ...


Reconsidering The Standard For Enhanced Damages In Patent Cases In View Of Recent Guidance From The Supreme Court, Howard Wisnia, Thomas Jackman 2015 Santa Clara Law

Reconsidering The Standard For Enhanced Damages In Patent Cases In View Of Recent Guidance From The Supreme Court, Howard Wisnia, Thomas Jackman

Santa Clara High Technology Law Journal

This article examines whether the jurisprudence of the enhanced damages provision found in 35 U.S.C. § 284 should be modified in light of recent Supreme Court decisions that have altered the jurisprudence of the attorney’s fees provision found in 35 U.S.C. § 285. The authors conclude that a revision is needed to the standard for determining whether to award enhanced damages under § 284 and that juries as opposed to judges should determine whether to grant such an award as well as the amount of the award.


Keeping Up With The Game: The Use Of The Nash Bargaining Solution In Patent Infringement Cases, Lance Wyatt 2015 Santa Clara Law

Keeping Up With The Game: The Use Of The Nash Bargaining Solution In Patent Infringement Cases, Lance Wyatt

Santa Clara High Technology Law Journal

Determining damages is an integral stage in the patent litigation process. Since 1970, reasonable royalty damages have been calculated using the factors set forth in the seminal decision Georgia-Pacific Corp. v. United States Plywood Corp. However, these factors are prone to manipulation and abuse by damages experts. To address this abuse, damages experts have utilized a solution to a two-person bargaining situation, the Nash Bargaining Solution (NBS), as a method to calculate reasonable royalty damages in patent infringement cases. Since the introduction of NBS in patent infringement cases, courts have been reluctant to admit the use of the NBS to ...


Long On Rhetoric, Short On Results: Agile Methods And Cyber Acquisitions In The Department Of Defense, Daniel E. Schoeni USAF 2015 Santa Clara Law

Long On Rhetoric, Short On Results: Agile Methods And Cyber Acquisitions In The Department Of Defense, Daniel E. Schoeni Usaf

Santa Clara High Technology Law Journal

Cyber warfare has arrived. The Department of Defense (DoD) is under attack, and our security is at stake. Yet in a field defined by its rapid growth, the DoD arms itself at the same pace that that it buys major weapons systems, an acquisition cycle of 7–10 years. It thus buys obsolete cyber-defense tools. The “arsenal of democracy” has already provided us the tools for overcoming this impediment in the form of agile software-development methods. Yet the DoD has been reluctant to set aside decades of experience and utilize different methods for software than it does for other acquisitions ...


Small Data Surveillance V. Big Data Cybersurveillance, Margaret Hu 2015 Pepperdine University

Small Data Surveillance V. Big Data Cybersurveillance, Margaret Hu

Pepperdine Law Review

This Article highlights some of the critical distinctions between small data surveillance and big data cybersurveillance as methods of intelligence gathering. Specifically, in the intelligence context, it appears that “collect-it-all” tools in a big data world can now potentially facilitate the construction, by the intelligence community, of other individuals' digital avatars. The digital avatar can be understood as a virtual representation of our digital selves and may serve as a potential proxy for an actual person. This construction may be enabled through processes such as the data fusion of biometric and biographic data, or the digital data fusion of the ...


Authorized Investigation: A Temperate Alternative To Cyber Insecurity, Casey M. Bruner 2015 Seattle University School of Law

Authorized Investigation: A Temperate Alternative To Cyber Insecurity, Casey M. Bruner

Seattle University Law Review

This Note aims to show that legal structures created to protect the Internet in its original form are completely insufficient to protect what the Internet has become. This antiquated legal framework is exacerbating the problem. The breadth of activity that the current law restricts severely limits the remedies that cyberattack victims can pursue, and it must be updated. While full hack-back may prove necessary in the long run, I argue for a more temperate initial response to the problem—I call this response “authorized investigation.” Specifically, the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act should be amended to allow victims access to ...


Trading Privacy For Angry Birds: A Call For Courts To Reevaluate Privacy Expectations In Modern Smartphones, Jeremy Andrew Ciarabellini 2015 Seattle University School of Law

Trading Privacy For Angry Birds: A Call For Courts To Reevaluate Privacy Expectations In Modern Smartphones, Jeremy Andrew Ciarabellini

Seattle University Law Review

Of all the smartphone uses, the calling function is probably used the least. Rather, individuals more commonly use their smartphone for surfing the web, checking Facebook, and playing games. Highlighting the “smart” in smartphone, these phones often know more about their users’ daily activities than the users. Without requiring any sort of input, smartphones can tell the user how many steps they walk each day, when it is time to leave for work (also, of course, determining the traveling time with the most up-to-date traffic reports), and when an item recently ordered on Amazon will be delivered. Smartphone users may ...


Toward A New Language Of Legal Drafting, Matthew Roach 2015 Stanford University

Toward A New Language Of Legal Drafting, Matthew Roach

Matthew Roach

Lawyers should write in document markup language just like web developers, digital publishers, scientists, and almost everyone else.


Can You Diagnose Me Now? A Proposal To Modify The Fda’S Regulation Of Smartphone Mobile Health Applications With A Pre-Market Notifi Cation And Application Database Program, Stephen McInerney 2015 Sidley Austin, LLP

Can You Diagnose Me Now? A Proposal To Modify The Fda’S Regulation Of Smartphone Mobile Health Applications With A Pre-Market Notifi Cation And Application Database Program, Stephen Mcinerney

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Advances in mobile technology continually create new possibilities for the future of medical care. Yet these changes have also created concerns about patient safety. Under the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has the authority to regulate a broad spectrum of products beyond traditional medical devices like stethoscopes or pacemakers. The regulatory question is not if the FDA has the statutory authority to regulate health-related software, but rather how it will exercise its regulatory authority. In September 2013, the FDA published Final Guidance on Mobile Medical Applications; in it, the Agency limited its oversight to ...


One Centimeter Over My Back Yard: Where Does Federal Preemption Of State Drone Regulation Start?, Henry H. Perritt Jr. 2015 Chicago-Kent College of Law

One Centimeter Over My Back Yard: Where Does Federal Preemption Of State Drone Regulation Start?, Henry H. Perritt Jr.

Henry H. Perritt, Jr.

The proliferation of cheap civilian drones and their obvious utility for precision agriculture, motion picture and television production, aerial surveying, newsgathering, utility infrastructure inspection, and disaster relief has accelerated the FAA’s sluggish effort to develop a proposal for generally applicable rules and caused it to grant more than 600 “section 333 exemptions” permitting commercial drone flight before its rules are finalized.

Federal preemption in the field of aviation safety regulation is generally assumed, but political pressure on states and municipalities to regulate drones and the ability of this revolutionary aviation technology to open up space close to the ground ...


All That Is Solid Melts Into Air: The Subject-Matter Eligibility Inquiry In The Age Of Cloud Computing, Scott T. Luan 2015 Santa Clara Law

All That Is Solid Melts Into Air: The Subject-Matter Eligibility Inquiry In The Age Of Cloud Computing, Scott T. Luan

Santa Clara High Technology Law Journal

This article critiques and refines the subject-matter eligibility inquiry in patent law by examining the process of creativity in the context of software-implemented inventions. As a substantive critique of § 101 jurisprudence, this article, informed by copyright law, proposes a working hypothesis for a general structure of the subject-matter eligibility inquiry in which a critical determination is the appropriate level of abstraction for claim construction. As a discursive critique of the limits and limitations of judicial language, this article argues that courts have incorrectly presumed that contemporary legal thought is equipped, conceptually and linguistically, to understand the full significance of modern ...


Two Models Of Unpatentable Subject Matter, Alan L. Durham 2015 Santa Clara Law

Two Models Of Unpatentable Subject Matter, Alan L. Durham

Santa Clara High Technology Law Journal

Patentable subject matter has become one of the most controversial areas of patent law. Efforts to articulate a lucid and productive theory of patentable subject matter must acknowledge that there are two competing models of unpatentable subject matter. One posits that natural laws, natural phenomena, and abstract ideas are themselves ineligible for patenting, and that each example of a natural law, natural phenomenon, or abstract idea further defines a class of inventions that cannot be patented because they lack an additional element of ingenuity—or “inventive concept”—that sufficiently distinguishes those inventions from their natural counterparts. This “penumbral” model of ...


Accountability In The Patent Market: A Duty To Monitor Patent Risk From The Boardroom, Ian David McClure 2015 Santa Clara Law

Accountability In The Patent Market: A Duty To Monitor Patent Risk From The Boardroom, Ian David Mcclure

Santa Clara High Technology Law Journal

Patent risk is on the rise; and not just because there is more patent litigation now than ever before. The value of strategic patent management is no longer an unknown or ignored ingredient to corporate success. Nor is proactive and pragmatic patent risk assessment. Shareholders and investors have now caught on that patent management and patent risk affect the value of their equity. This realization has initiated a circuitous life cycle in which more patents are being transacted, divested and strategically managed, resulting in more patent risk for operating companies to monitor. Yet, this last piece—the proactive monitoring of ...


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