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From Baby M To Baby M(Anji): Regulating International Surrogacy Agreements, yehezkel Margalit 2016 SelectedWorks

From Baby M To Baby M(Anji): Regulating International Surrogacy Agreements, Yehezkel Margalit

Hezi Margalit

In 1985, when Kim Cotton became Britain’s first commercial surrogate mother, Europe was exposed to the issue of surrogacy for the first time on a large scale. Three years later, in 1988, the famous case of Baby M drew the attention of the American public to surrogacy as well. These two cases implicated fundamental ethical and legal issues regarding domestic surrogacy and triggered a fierce debate about motherhood, child-bearing, and the relationship between procreation, science and commerce. These two cases exemplified the debate regarding domestic surrogacy - a debate that has now been raging for decades. Contrary to the well-known ...


Bridging The Gap Between Intent And Status: A New Framework For Modern Parentage, yehezkel Margalit 2016 SelectedWorks

Bridging The Gap Between Intent And Status: A New Framework For Modern Parentage, Yehezkel Margalit

Hezi Margalit

The last few decades have witnessed dramatic changes in the conceptualization and methodologies of determining legal parentage in the U.S. and other countries in the western world. Through various sociological shifts, growing social openness and bio-medical innovations, the traditional definitions of family and parenthood have been dramatically transformed. This transformation has led to an acute and urgent need for legal and social frameworks to regulate the process of determining legal parentage. Moreover, instead of progressing in a piecemeal, ad-hoc manner, the framework for determining legal parentage should be comprehensive. Only a comprehensive solution will address the differing needs of ...


Holding Up And Holding Out, Colleen V. Chien 2015 Santa Clara University

Holding Up And Holding Out, Colleen V. Chien

Michigan Telecommunications and Technology Law Review

Patent “hold-up” and patent “hold-out” present important, alternative theories for what ails the patent system. Patent “hold-up” occurs when a patent owner sues a company when it is most vulnerable—after it has implemented a technology—and is able wrest a settlement because it is too late for the company to change course. Patent “hold-out” is the practice of companies routinely ignoring patents and resisting patent owner demands because the odds of getting caught are small. Hold-up has arguably predicted the current patent crises, and the ex ante assertion of technology patents whether in the smartphone war, standards, or patent ...


After Myriad: Reconsidering The Incentives For Innovation In The Biotech Industry, Daniel K. Yarbrough 2015 University of Michigan

After Myriad: Reconsidering The Incentives For Innovation In The Biotech Industry, Daniel K. Yarbrough

Michigan Telecommunications and Technology Law Review

35 U.S.C. § 101 allows a patent for “any new and useful process, machine, manufacture, or composition of matter, or any new and useful improvement thereof.” Recently, the Supreme Court issued several key decisions affecting the doctrine of patentable subject matter under § 101. Starting with Bilski v. Kappos (2011), and continuing with Mayo Collaborative Services, Inc. v. Prometheus Laboratories (2012), Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics (2013) and, most recently, Alice Corporation Pty. Ltd. v. CLS Bank International (2014), every year has brought another major change to the way in which the Court assesses patentability. In Myriad, the ...


District Courts Versus The Usitc: Considering Exclusionary Relief For F/Rand-Encumbered Standard-Essential Patents, Helen H. Ji 2015 University of Michigan

District Courts Versus The Usitc: Considering Exclusionary Relief For F/Rand-Encumbered Standard-Essential Patents, Helen H. Ji

Michigan Telecommunications and Technology Law Review

Technological standards allow manufacturers and consumers to rely upon these agreed-upon basic systems to facilitate sales and further invention. However, where these standards involved patented technology, the process of standard-setting raises many concerns at the intersection of antitrust and patent law. As patent holders advocate for their patents to become part of technological standards, how should courts police this activity to prevent patent holdup and other anti-competitive practices? This Note explores the differing approaches to remedies employed by the United States International Trade Commission and the United States District Courts where standard-essential patents are infringed. This Note further proposes that ...


Toward A New Language Of Legal Drafting, Matthew Roach 2015 Stanford University

Toward A New Language Of Legal Drafting, Matthew Roach

Matthew Roach

Lawyers should write in document markup language just like web developers, digital publishers, scientists, and almost everyone else.


One Centimeter Over My Back Yard: Where Does Federal Preemption Of State Drone Regulation Start?, Henry H. Perritt Jr. 2015 Chicago-Kent College of Law

One Centimeter Over My Back Yard: Where Does Federal Preemption Of State Drone Regulation Start?, Henry H. Perritt Jr.

Henry H. Perritt, Jr.

The proliferation of cheap civilian drones and their obvious utility for precision agriculture, motion picture and television production, aerial surveying, newsgathering, utility infrastructure inspection, and disaster relief has accelerated the FAA’s sluggish effort to develop a proposal for generally applicable rules and caused it to grant more than 600 “section 333 exemptions” permitting commercial drone flight before its rules are finalized.

Federal preemption in the field of aviation safety regulation is generally assumed, but political pressure on states and municipalities to regulate drones and the ability of this revolutionary aviation technology to open up space close to the ground ...


All That Is Solid Melts Into Air: The Subject-Matter Eligibility Inquiry In The Age Of Cloud Computing, Scott T. Luan 2015 Santa Clara Law

All That Is Solid Melts Into Air: The Subject-Matter Eligibility Inquiry In The Age Of Cloud Computing, Scott T. Luan

Santa Clara High Technology Law Journal

This article critiques and refines the subject-matter eligibility inquiry in patent law by examining the process of creativity in the context of software-implemented inventions. As a substantive critique of § 101 jurisprudence, this article, informed by copyright law, proposes a working hypothesis for a general structure of the subject-matter eligibility inquiry in which a critical determination is the appropriate level of abstraction for claim construction. As a discursive critique of the limits and limitations of judicial language, this article argues that courts have incorrectly presumed that contemporary legal thought is equipped, conceptually and linguistically, to understand the full significance of modern ...


Two Models Of Unpatentable Subject Matter, Alan L. Durham 2015 Santa Clara Law

Two Models Of Unpatentable Subject Matter, Alan L. Durham

Santa Clara High Technology Law Journal

Patentable subject matter has become one of the most controversial areas of patent law. Efforts to articulate a lucid and productive theory of patentable subject matter must acknowledge that there are two competing models of unpatentable subject matter. One posits that natural laws, natural phenomena, and abstract ideas are themselves ineligible for patenting, and that each example of a natural law, natural phenomenon, or abstract idea further defines a class of inventions that cannot be patented because they lack an additional element of ingenuity—or “inventive concept”—that sufficiently distinguishes those inventions from their natural counterparts. This “penumbral” model of ...


Accountability In The Patent Market: A Duty To Monitor Patent Risk From The Boardroom, Ian David McClure 2015 Santa Clara Law

Accountability In The Patent Market: A Duty To Monitor Patent Risk From The Boardroom, Ian David Mcclure

Santa Clara High Technology Law Journal

Patent risk is on the rise; and not just because there is more patent litigation now than ever before. The value of strategic patent management is no longer an unknown or ignored ingredient to corporate success. Nor is proactive and pragmatic patent risk assessment. Shareholders and investors have now caught on that patent management and patent risk affect the value of their equity. This realization has initiated a circuitous life cycle in which more patents are being transacted, divested and strategically managed, resulting in more patent risk for operating companies to monitor. Yet, this last piece—the proactive monitoring of ...


Civil Cyberconflict: Microsoft, Cybercrime, And Botnets, Janine S. Hiller 2015 Santa Clara Law

Civil Cyberconflict: Microsoft, Cybercrime, And Botnets, Janine S. Hiller

Santa Clara High Technology Law Journal

Cyber “warfare” and hackback by private companies is a hot discussion topic for its potential to fight cybercrime and promote cybersecurity. In the shadow of this provocative discussion, Microsoft has led a concerted, sustained fight against cybercriminals by using traditional legal theories and court actions to dismantle criminal networks known as botnets. This article brings focus to the role of the private sector in cybersecurity in light of the aggressive civil actions by Microsoft to address a thorny and seemingly intractable global problem. A botnet is a network of computers infected with unauthorized code that is controlled from a distance ...


Closing The Door To Lost Earnings Under The National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act Of 1986, Aaron M. Levin 2015 The George Washington University Law School

Closing The Door To Lost Earnings Under The National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act Of 1986, Aaron M. Levin

Aaron M Levin

After a wave of lawsuits against vaccine manufacturers hindered the profitability and production of life-saving vaccines, Congress enacted The National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act of 1986. The Act offers an incentive for individuals to get vaccinated in order to mitigate the population’s exposure to disease, while encouraging the continued production of these serums by pharmaceutical companies. Although imperfect, the Vaccine Act fosters promise in filtering out frivolous claims and provides a central route for due process to the individuals who suffer from a vaccine-related injury. By removing a potential state tort issue to the Federal Circuit, Congress created a ...


New Hardware And Software Innovations (For Volumetric Modeling), A. Keith Turner 2015 University of Colorado Law School

New Hardware And Software Innovations (For Volumetric Modeling), A. Keith Turner

Uncovering the Hidden Resource: Groundwater Law, Hydrology, and Policy in the 1990s (Summer Conference, June 15-17)

19 pages (includes illustrations and maps).


Freedom In My Heart, Karen Sandler 2015 Software Freedom Conservancy

Freedom In My Heart, Karen Sandler

Events

No abstract provided.


Casos De Hermenéútica A La La Luz Del Estatuto De La Corte Penal Internacional®, Daniel Fernando Gomez Tamayo 2015 SelectedWorks

Casos De Hermenéútica A La La Luz Del Estatuto De La Corte Penal Internacional®, Daniel Fernando Gomez Tamayo

Daniel Fernando Gómez Tamayo

¿Abuso del poder? ¿prevaricato por acción? robo digital de dinero a las empresas del sector privado; Karl Franco, fuero militar; federales con antecedentes disciplinarios y penales. Respeto de la libertad religiosa y excomunión ipso facto por atentar contra un inocente. Política fascista de la extrema derecha; ¿"que piensan los demócratas que el DAS coloque micrófonos a los congresistas del M-19?" El TLC con Estados Unidos está vigente?, ¿qué sucede si existe espionaje de la oficial americana en los intereses colombianos?¿puede ser demandado el tratado internacional? Respetando los intereses del equipo negociador del gobierno; para algunos académicos resulta sospechoso un ...


Law, Science, And The Economy: One Domain?, David S. Caudill 2015 Villanova University

Law, Science, And The Economy: One Domain?, David S. Caudill

UC Irvine Law Review

No abstract provided.


Instrument Choice, Carbon Emissions, And Information, Michael Wara 2015 Stanford Law School

Instrument Choice, Carbon Emissions, And Information, Michael Wara

Michigan Journal of Environmental & Administrative Law

This Article examines the consequences of a previously unrecognized difference between pollutant cap-and-trade schemes and pollution taxes. Implementation of cap-and-trade relies on a forecast of future emissions, while implementation of a pollution tax does not. Realistic policy designs using either regulatory instrument almost always involve a phase-in over time to avoid economic disruption. Cap-and-trade accomplishes this phase-in via a limit on emissions that falls gradually below the forecast of future pollutant emissions. Emissions taxation accomplishes the same via a gradually increasing levy on pollution. Because of the administrative complexity of establishing an emissions trading market, cap-and-trade programs typically require between ...


Obscured By Clouds: The Fourth Amendment And Searching Cloud Storage Accounts Through Locally Installed Software, Aaron J. Gold 2015 College of William & Mary Law School

Obscured By Clouds: The Fourth Amendment And Searching Cloud Storage Accounts Through Locally Installed Software, Aaron J. Gold

William & Mary Law Review

No abstract provided.


Cybercrime: A Saudi And American Perspective, hussam m. alkanbashi 2015 University of Dayton

Cybercrime: A Saudi And American Perspective, Hussam M. Alkanbashi

hussam m alkanbashi

Cybercrime is one of the greatest threats facing the International community. Defined as criminal activity perpetrated using computers and the internet, cybercrime has developed into a trillion dollar a year industry, affecting millions of people around the world, as well as countless businesses and the governments of every nation. With nearly 431 million victims projected in 2015, cyber related crime is one of if not the most frequent, costly and pervasive crimes worldwide.

This article examines and assesses the effectiveness of Saudi and American Cyber Laws in deterring the growing global threats posed by cybercrime. The article studies cyber identity ...


Inter Partes Review As A Shield For Technology Purchasers: A Response To Gaia Bernstein’S The Rise Of The End-User In Patent Litigation, Brian J. Love 2015 Santa Clara University School of Law

Inter Partes Review As A Shield For Technology Purchasers: A Response To Gaia Bernstein’S The Rise Of The End-User In Patent Litigation, Brian J. Love

Boston College Law Review

In her Article, The Rise of the End User in Patent Litigation, Professor Bernstein makes the case for legislative and judicial action designed to protect technology users from abusive patent enforcement that exploits their relative lack of resources and technical knowledge. This Essay presents the findings of an empirical study designed to determine the extent to which this problem has been mitigated in recent months by inter partes review (“IPR”)—a reform signed into law more than three years ago but only now emerging as a powerful shield for those accused of patent infringement. My findings suggest that IPR has ...


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