Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Science and Technology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

2,984 Full-Text Articles 2,881 Authors 1,113,936 Downloads 86 Institutions

All Articles in Science and Technology

Faceted Search

2,984 full-text articles. Page 1 of 53.

From Baby M To Baby M(Anji): Regulating International Surrogacy Agreements, yehezkel Margalit 2016 SelectedWorks

From Baby M To Baby M(Anji): Regulating International Surrogacy Agreements, Yehezkel Margalit

Hezi Margalit

In 1985, when Kim Cotton became Britain’s first commercial surrogate mother, Europe was exposed to the issue of surrogacy for the first time on a large scale. Three years later, in 1988, the famous case of Baby M drew the attention of the American public to surrogacy as well. These two cases implicated fundamental ethical and legal issues regarding domestic surrogacy and triggered a fierce debate about motherhood, child-bearing, and the relationship between procreation, science and commerce. These two cases exemplified the debate regarding domestic surrogacy - a debate that has now been raging for decades. Contrary to the well-known ...


Bridging The Gap Between Intent And Status: A New Framework For Modern Parentage, yehezkel Margalit 2016 SelectedWorks

Bridging The Gap Between Intent And Status: A New Framework For Modern Parentage, Yehezkel Margalit

Hezi Margalit

The last few decades have witnessed dramatic changes in the conceptualization and methodologies of determining legal parentage in the U.S. and other countries in the western world. Through various sociological shifts, growing social openness and bio-medical innovations, the traditional definitions of family and parenthood have been dramatically transformed. This transformation has led to an acute and urgent need for legal and social frameworks to regulate the process of determining legal parentage. Moreover, instead of progressing in a piecemeal, ad-hoc manner, the framework for determining legal parentage should be comprehensive. Only a comprehensive solution will address the differing needs of ...


Holding Up And Holding Out, Colleen V. Chien 2015 Santa Clara University

Holding Up And Holding Out, Colleen V. Chien

Michigan Telecommunications and Technology Law Review

Patent “hold-up” and patent “hold-out” present important, alternative theories for what ails the patent system. Patent “hold-up” occurs when a patent owner sues a company when it is most vulnerable—after it has implemented a technology—and is able wrest a settlement because it is too late for the company to change course. Patent “hold-out” is the practice of companies routinely ignoring patents and resisting patent owner demands because the odds of getting caught are small. Hold-up has arguably predicted the current patent crises, and the ex ante assertion of technology patents whether in the smartphone war, standards, or patent ...


After Myriad: Reconsidering The Incentives For Innovation In The Biotech Industry, Daniel K. Yarbrough 2015 University of Michigan

After Myriad: Reconsidering The Incentives For Innovation In The Biotech Industry, Daniel K. Yarbrough

Michigan Telecommunications and Technology Law Review

35 U.S.C. § 101 allows a patent for “any new and useful process, machine, manufacture, or composition of matter, or any new and useful improvement thereof.” Recently, the Supreme Court issued several key decisions affecting the doctrine of patentable subject matter under § 101. Starting with Bilski v. Kappos (2011), and continuing with Mayo Collaborative Services, Inc. v. Prometheus Laboratories (2012), Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics (2013) and, most recently, Alice Corporation Pty. Ltd. v. CLS Bank International (2014), every year has brought another major change to the way in which the Court assesses patentability. In Myriad, the ...


District Courts Versus The Usitc: Considering Exclusionary Relief For F/Rand-Encumbered Standard-Essential Patents, Helen H. Ji 2015 University of Michigan

District Courts Versus The Usitc: Considering Exclusionary Relief For F/Rand-Encumbered Standard-Essential Patents, Helen H. Ji

Michigan Telecommunications and Technology Law Review

Technological standards allow manufacturers and consumers to rely upon these agreed-upon basic systems to facilitate sales and further invention. However, where these standards involved patented technology, the process of standard-setting raises many concerns at the intersection of antitrust and patent law. As patent holders advocate for their patents to become part of technological standards, how should courts police this activity to prevent patent holdup and other anti-competitive practices? This Note explores the differing approaches to remedies employed by the United States International Trade Commission and the United States District Courts where standard-essential patents are infringed. This Note further proposes that ...


Book Review: Internationalization To Prevent The Spread Of Nuclear Weapons. Eds. Frank Barnaby, Jozef Goldblat, & Bhupendra Jasani. London: Taylor And Francis, 1980; The Npt: The Main Political Barrier To Nuclear Weapon Proliferation. Eds. Frank Barnaby, Jozef Goldblat, & Nacha Levinson. London: Taylor And Francis, 1980., W. Paul Gormley 2015 District of Columbia Bar

Book Review: Internationalization To Prevent The Spread Of Nuclear Weapons. Eds. Frank Barnaby, Jozef Goldblat, & Bhupendra Jasani. London: Taylor And Francis, 1980; The Npt: The Main Political Barrier To Nuclear Weapon Proliferation. Eds. Frank Barnaby, Jozef Goldblat, & Nacha Levinson. London: Taylor And Francis, 1980., W. Paul Gormley

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Organization For Economic Co-Operation And Development - Regulation Of Chemicals - In A Council Decision, The Oecd Has Adopted Provisions Designed To Protect Human Health And The Environment Without Creating Barriers To International Chemicals Trade, Walter Ballew III 2015 University of Georgia School of Law

Organization For Economic Co-Operation And Development - Regulation Of Chemicals - In A Council Decision, The Oecd Has Adopted Provisions Designed To Protect Human Health And The Environment Without Creating Barriers To International Chemicals Trade, Walter Ballew Iii

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Ninth Circuit Nine-Plus -- Settling The Law In Internet Keyword Advertising And Trademark Use, Andrew Leahey 2015 Rutgers University - Camden

Ninth Circuit Nine-Plus -- Settling The Law In Internet Keyword Advertising And Trademark Use, Andrew Leahey

Andrew Leahey

No abstract provided.


The Irrelevance Of Nanotechnology Patents, Emily Michiko Morris 2015 Indiana University School of Law - Indianapolis

The Irrelevance Of Nanotechnology Patents, Emily Michiko Morris

Emily Michiko Morris

Once the stuff of science fiction, nanotechnology is now expected to be the next technological revolution, but despite millions of dollars of investment, we still have yet to see the brave new world of cheap energy, cell-specific drug delivery systems, and self-replicating nanobots that nanotechnology promises. Instead, nanotechnology seems to be in a holding pattern, perpetually stuck in the status of “emerging science,” “immature field,” and “new technology” for over three decades now. Why? Professor Mark Lemley and a number of others have suggested that the answer to this puzzling question is simple: nanotechnology differs from the all of the ...


Invisible Labor, Invisible Play: Online Gold Farming And The Boundary Between Jobs And Games, Julian Dibbell 2015 SelectedWorks

Invisible Labor, Invisible Play: Online Gold Farming And The Boundary Between Jobs And Games, Julian Dibbell

Julian Dibbell

When does work become play, and play work? Courts have considered the question in a variety of economic contexts, from student athletes seeking recognition as employees to professional blackjack players seeking to be treated by casinos just like casual players. Here I apply the question to a relatively novel context: that of online gold farming, a gray-market industry in which wage-earning workers, largely based in China, are paid to play online fantasy games (MMOs) that reward them with virtual items their employers sell for profit to the same games’ casual players. Gold farming is clearly a job (and under the ...


No Comment: Will Cariou V. Prince Alter Copyright Judges’ Taste In Art?, Christine Haight Farley 2015 American University Washington College of Law

No Comment: Will Cariou V. Prince Alter Copyright Judges’ Taste In Art?, Christine Haight Farley

IP Theory

Even before Campbell v. Acuff-Rose Music, Inc. made transformativeness the name of the game in fair use law, judges have been in search of artistic speech in their copyright fair use determinations, especially in appropriation art cases. Judges often find themselves ascribing meaning both to the defendant’s work and the plaintiff’s work when comparing the two in order to determine whether defendant’s art is new. So while many commentators attribute appropriation artist Jeff Koons’s victory in Blanch v. Koons after a string of losses to the development in fair use law contributed by Campbell, I instead ...


Living Gardens, Living Art, Living Tradition, Roberta R. Kwall 2015 DePaul University College of Law

Living Gardens, Living Art, Living Tradition, Roberta R. Kwall

IP Theory

Copyright protection in the United States begins from the moment of a work’s “creation.”1 Although this rule is codified in the statute, the underlying issues of how and when “creation” occurs are rarely, if ever, explored. Under the current law, as soon as an author creates a copyrightable work of authorship and fixes that work in a tangible medium of expression, the work is entitled to protection. This formulation ignores the critical issues of whether fluid works of authorship that are constantly evolving can be subject to copyright protection and, if so, what is the scope of such ...


Commentary: Revisiting The Derivative Works Exception Of The Copyright Act Thirty Years After Mills Music, Robert S. Meitus 2015 IU Maurer School of Law

Commentary: Revisiting The Derivative Works Exception Of The Copyright Act Thirty Years After Mills Music, Robert S. Meitus

IP Theory

No abstract provided.


Copyright And Cross-Cultural Borrowing: Indo-Western Musical Encounters, Arpan Banerjee 2015 Jindal Global Law School, India

Copyright And Cross-Cultural Borrowing: Indo-Western Musical Encounters, Arpan Banerjee

IP Theory

This article traces the history of how Western rock musicians and hip-hop musicians, separated by many decades, have borrowed elements from Indian music. Conversely, the article also discusses how Indian film music composers have frequently, and rather blatantly, copied Western melodies. While cross-cultural borrowing raises complex socio-political questions, this article focuses on some practical legal questions that arise from such borrowing. The article discusses lawsuits filed by artists in India and the United States — from a much-publicized lawsuit against Dr. Dre by the Indian film music composer Bappi Lahiri, to a more recent lawsuit against another Indian film composer by ...


Are We Serious About Performers’ Rights?, Mary LaFrance 2015 William S. Boyd School of Law, University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Are We Serious About Performers’ Rights?, Mary Lafrance

IP Theory

Do performers have rights in the expressive works they help to create? Historically, the rights of performers have received far less attention that the rights of traditional authors. The law has been reluctant to recognize performers as authors and, to the extent that performers’ rights are recognized, they are secondary to, and more limited than, the rights of traditional authors. Recent developments, however, have brought performers’ intellectual property rights to the forefront. For a number of reasons, performers in the United States have increasingly begun to assert authorship rights in the works they help to create. In addition, recent international ...


Are The Courts Singing A Different Tune When It Comes To Music?: What Ever Happened To Fair Use In Music Sampling Cases?, Michael B. Landau 2015 Georgia State University College of Law

Are The Courts Singing A Different Tune When It Comes To Music?: What Ever Happened To Fair Use In Music Sampling Cases?, Michael B. Landau

IP Theory

As "fair use" has become more common as a defense to copyright infringement, often successfully, it has not gained any ground in cases involving music sampling. In the years since Campbell v. Acuff-Rose Music, Inc., we have seen the introduction of "transformative use" to fair use analysis. "Transformative use" has led to the holdings that thumbnail reproductions of photographs, parodies of novels, parodies of advertisements, changed artworks, the inclusion of legal briefs in searchable databases, the inclusion of music in film, and the mass digitization of millions of books are all "fair use." Almost every day we read of another ...


Unlocked And Loaded: Government Censorship Of 3d-Printed Firearms And A Proposal For More Reasonable Regulation Of 3d-Printed Goods, Danton L. Bryans 2015 Indiana University - Bloomington

Unlocked And Loaded: Government Censorship Of 3d-Printed Firearms And A Proposal For More Reasonable Regulation Of 3d-Printed Goods, Danton L. Bryans

Indiana Law Journal

This Comment analyzes the regulations in place on 3D-printed firearms and proposes a new standard for regulating 3D-printed goods. Part I provides a brief primer on 3D printing and 3D-printed firearms. Part II turns to the events surrounding Defense Distributed’s creation of the world’s first 3D-printed firearm and the subsequent government censorship of the corresponding CAD files. Part III discusses the regulations affecting 3D-printed firearms and why these regulations are ill-suited for CAD files and 3D-printed goods. Part IV analyzes the implications of treating CAD files and 3D-printed goods as equivalents of traditional goods. Finally, Part V offers ...


The Myth Of The Double-Edged Sword: An Empirical Study Of Neuroscience Evidence In Criminal Cases, Deborah W. Denno 2015 Fordham University School of Law

The Myth Of The Double-Edged Sword: An Empirical Study Of Neuroscience Evidence In Criminal Cases, Deborah W. Denno

Boston College Law Review

This Article presents the results of my unique study of 800 criminal cases addressing neuroscience evidence over the past two decades (1992–2012). Many legal scholars have theorized about the impact of neuroscience evidence on the criminal law, but this is the first empirical study of its kind to systematically investigate how courts assess the mitigating and aggravating strength of such evidence. My analysis reveals that neuroscience evidence is usually offered to mitigate punishments in the way that traditional criminal law has always allowed, especially in the penalty phase of death penalty trials. This finding controverts the popular image of ...


Law Enforcement And Technology: Requiring Technological Shields To Serve And Protect Citizen Rights, Ryan C. Pulley 2015 Emory University

Law Enforcement And Technology: Requiring Technological Shields To Serve And Protect Citizen Rights, Ryan C. Pulley

Ryan C Pulley

An often revisited topic is the tension between law enforcement and the citizens they aim to protect. One side of this discussion seeks to mitigate the tension by explaining the hard decisions that law enforcement officers must make to protect citizens and themselves, while the other emphasizes the corruption that exists within police departments. Recently, this discussion has begun a critical examination of the role of technology within police department to determine whether police officers are properly monitored and trained.

Both citizens and police forces alike should require that law enforcement officers utilize publicly available technologies that protect citizens’ rights ...


The Elephant In The Room, Troy B. Albert 2015 Lewis & Clark Law School

The Elephant In The Room, Troy B. Albert

Troy B Albert

Every 15 minutes, a poacher kills an elephant for its ivory. If this rate continues, the African elephant could become extinct in 20 years. Although federal law has strictly regulated the ivory market for several decades, the United States remains one of the largest markets for illegal wildlife products in the world. Because there are little to no enforcement mechanisms or verification processes by which to definitively distinguish legal from illegal ivory after reaching domestic markets, illegal ivory is easily mixed in with legal stocks. New regulations have been promulgated but are they enough?


Digital Commons powered by bepress