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Technologies Of Control And The Future Of The First Amendment, Christopher S. Yoo 2011 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Technologies Of Control And The Future Of The First Amendment, Christopher S. Yoo

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

The technological context surrounding the Supreme Court’s landmark decision in FCC v. Pacifica Foundation allowed the Court to gloss over the tension between two rather disparate rationales. Those adopting a civil libertarian view of free speech could support the decision on the grounds that viewers’ and listeners’ inability to filter out unwanted speech exposed them to content that they did not wish to see or hear. At the same time, Pacifica also found support from those who more paternalistically regard indecency as low value (if not socially harmful) speech that is unworthy of full First Amendment protection. The arrival ...


Pervasive Image Capture And The First Amendment: Memory, Discourse, And The Right To Record, Seth F. Kreimer 2011 University of Pennsylvania

Pervasive Image Capture And The First Amendment: Memory, Discourse, And The Right To Record, Seth F. Kreimer

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

As digital image technology proliferates in camera phones, iPhones, and PDAs, almost any image we observe can be costlessly recorded, freely reproduced and instantly transmitted. We live, relate, work, and decide in an environment in which pervasive image capture from life is routine. During the last half decade, captured images have come to underpin crucial elements of ongoing private and public discourse; digital image capture has become a ubiquitous adjunct to memory and a pervasively accepted mode of connection and correspondence. Digitally captured images precipitate conflicts between government authority and free expression. From efforts to suppress cell phone videos of ...


Life After Bilski, Mark A. Lemley, Michael Risch, Ted Sichelman, R. Polk Wagner 2011 Stanford University

Life After Bilski, Mark A. Lemley, Michael Risch, Ted Sichelman, R. Polk Wagner

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

No abstract provided.


Creation Without Restraint: Promoting Liberty And Rivalry In Innovation, Christina Bohannan, Herbert J. Hovenkamp 2011 University of Iowa College of Law

Creation Without Restraint: Promoting Liberty And Rivalry In Innovation, Christina Bohannan, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This document contains the table of contents, introduction, and a brief description of Christina Bohannan & Herbert Hovenkamp, Creation without Restraint: Promoting Liberty and Rivalry in Innovation (Oxford 2011).

Promoting rivalry in innovation requires a fusion of legal policies drawn from patent, copyright, and antitrust law, as well as economics and other disciplines. Creation Without Restraint looks first at the relationship between markets and innovation, noting that innovation occurs most in moderately competitive markets and that small actors are more likely to be truly creative innovators. Then we examine the problem of connected and complementary relationships, a dominant feature of high technology markets. Interconnection requirements, technological compatibility requirements, standard setting, and the relationship between durable products and aftermarkets all involve interconnection, or “tying.” Some see tying as inherently anticompetitive, while others view it as unexceptionally benign. In fact, bundling products or technologies is essential in high technology markets and most of it is socially beneficial, but possibilities of abuse nevertheless remain.

Identifying good substantive legal rules for facilitating innovation is often very difficult. Two generations ago antitrust law addressed problems of complexity by shifting the focus to harm. The courts reasoned that they could often avoid unmanageable substantive doctrine by considering whether the plaintiff had suffered the appropriate kind of injury. Plaintiffs who are injured by more rather than less competition should be denied a remedy. In the case of patent and copyright law, the appropriate question is whether an infringer’s conduct served to undermine the right holder’s incentive to innovate, with incentives measured from before the innovation occurred. Some IP infringements do no harm to the incentive to innovate; others actually make the right more rather than less valuable. In these situations relief should be denied.

Patent and copyright law are both in crisis today – major problems include overissuance, overly broad and ambiguously defined protections, and rules that permit both patentees and copyright holders to make broad claims on unforeseen innovations. The result has been that many patents are valueless, while others have very considerable value precisely because they enclose ideas or technologies that rightfully belong in the public domain. Patent law could be ...


Disentangling Administrative Searches, Eve Brensike Primus 2011 University of Michigan Law School

Disentangling Administrative Searches, Eve Brensike Primus

Articles

Everyone who has been screened at an international border, scanned by an airport metal detector, or drug tested for public employment has been subjected to an administrative search. Since September 11th, the government has increasingly invoked the administrative search exception to justify more checkpoints, unprecedented subway searches, and extensive wiretaps. As science and technology advance, the frequency and scope of administrative searches will only expand. Formulating the boundaries and requirements of administrative search doctrine is therefore a matter of great importance. Yet the rules governing administrative searches are notoriously unclear. This Article seeks to refocus attention on administrative searches and ...


Foreword: Rulemaking, Democracy, And Torrents Of E-Mail, Nina A. Mendelson 2011 University of Michigan Law School

Foreword: Rulemaking, Democracy, And Torrents Of E-Mail, Nina A. Mendelson

Articles

This Foreword is meant as an initial foray into the question of what agencies should do with mass public comments, particularly on broad questions of policy. Part I discusses the extent to which congressional control, presidential control, and agency procedures themselves can ensure that agency decisions are democratically responsive. In view of shortcomings in both congressional and presidential control, I underscore the need to focus closely on rulemaking procedures as a source of democratic responsiveness. The possibility that agencies may be systematically discounting certain public submissions raises difficulties, and I present some examples. Part II makes a preliminary case that ...


Sequential Climate Change Policy, Edward A. Parson, Darshan Karwat 2011 University of Michigan Law School

Sequential Climate Change Policy, Edward A. Parson, Darshan Karwat

Articles

Successfully managing global climate change will require a process of sequential, or iterative, decision‐making, whereby policies and other decisions are revised repeatedly over multiple decades in response to changes in scientific knowledge, technological capabilities, or other conditions. Sequential decisions are required by the combined presence of long lags and uncertainty in climate and energy systems. Climate decision studies have most often examined simple cases of sequential decisions, with two decision points at fixed times and initial uncertainties that are resolved at the second decision point. Studies using this formulation initially suggested that increasing uncertainty favors stronger immediate action, while ...


Clarifying The Doctrine Of Inequitable Conduct, Elizabeth I. Winston 2011 The Catholic University of America, Columbus School of Law

Clarifying The Doctrine Of Inequitable Conduct, Elizabeth I. Winston

Scholarly Articles and Other Contributions

Addressing squarely the issue of the multiple standards of materiality in inequitable conduct litigation, Therasense v. Becton Dickinson raises many difficult issues that could be clarified through the lens of the analogous concept of fraud on the Trademark Office. The standards for finding fraud on the Trademark Office lack the ambiguity found in the doctrine of inequitable conduct, despite the parallel penalties of unenforceability and requirements of proof of materiality and intent. Informed by the many decisions of Judge Michel, this essay concludes that the standards for finding fraud before the Trademark Office, as set forth in In re Bose ...


A Patent Misperception, Elizabeth I. Winston 2011 The Catholic University of America, Columbus School of Law

A Patent Misperception, Elizabeth I. Winston

Scholarly Articles and Other Contributions

Antitrust and intellectual property laws promote innovation and competition. As long as the costs of promotion do not exceed the benefit to society, then the laws act in harmony. Discord arises when patent holders use public and private ordering to restrain competition, restrict downstream trade, prevent the development of competing products and limit output by competitors. Using the Patent Act and the misperception of antitrust immunity to create a parallel and under-regulated legal system allows a small number of patent holders to coordinate their behavior to maximize profits and minimize competition. The Patent Act provides no shield to prosecution for ...


Technology & Torts: A Theory Of Memory Costs, Nondurable Precautions And Interference Effects, Ben Depoorter 2010 University of California, Hastings College of the Law

Technology & Torts: A Theory Of Memory Costs, Nondurable Precautions And Interference Effects, Ben Depoorter

Ben Depoorter

This Article examines the influence of nondurable precaution technologies on the expansion of tort awards. We provide four contributions to the literature. First, we present a general, formal model on durable and non-durable precaution technology that focuses on memory costs. Second, because liability exposure creates interference, we argue that tort law perpetuates the expansion of awards. Third, because plaintiffs do not consider the social costs of interference effects, private litigation induces socially excessive suits. Fourth, while new harm-reducing technologies likely increase accident rates, such technologies also raise the ratio of trial costs to harm, leaving undetermined the overall effect of ...


The Timely Demise Of The Fourth Amendment Third Party Doctrine, Stephen E. Henderson 2010 University of Oklahoma College of Law

The Timely Demise Of The Fourth Amendment Third Party Doctrine, Stephen E. Henderson

Stephen E Henderson

In what may be a slightly premature obituary, in this response to a forthcoming paper by Matthew Tokson I argue that the Fourth Amendment third party doctrine "has at least taken ill, and it can be hoped it is an illness from which it will never recover." It is increasingly unpopular as a matter of state constitutional law, has long been assailed in scholarship but now thoughtful alternatives are percolating, and it cannot – or at least should not – withstand the pressures which technology and social norms are placing upon it. Even the Supreme Court seems loath to defend or invoke ...


Cyberclinics: Law Schools, Technology And Justice, Ronald W. Staudt 2010 Chicago-Kent College of Law

Cyberclinics: Law Schools, Technology And Justice, Ronald W. Staudt

Ronald W Staudt

No abstract provided.


Requirements Of A Valid Islamic Marriage Vis-À-Vis Requirements Of A Valid Customary Marriage In Nigeria, olanike sekinat odewale mrs 2010 Lead City University, Ibadan

Requirements Of A Valid Islamic Marriage Vis-À-Vis Requirements Of A Valid Customary Marriage In Nigeria, Olanike Sekinat Odewale Mrs

Olanike Sekinat Adelakun

Marriage is a universal institution which is recognized and respected all over the world. As a social institution, marriage is founded on and governed by the social and religious norms of the society. Consequently, the sanctity of marriage is a well accepted principle in the world community .
Marriage could either be monogamous or polygamous in nature. A monogamous marriage has bee described as ‘…the voluntary union for life of one man and one woman to the exclusion of all others’ . A polygamous marriage on the other hand can be defined as a voluntary union for life of one man with ...


Cancun Climate Negotiations, Prof. Elizabeth Burleson 2010 Selected Works

Cancun Climate Negotiations, Prof. Elizabeth Burleson

Prof. Elizabeth Burleson

The United Nations Climate Change Conference, held from November 29 to December 11, 2010, in Cancún, Mexico, relaunched the United Nation's multilateral facilitation role.


Somebody's Watching Me: Protecting Patient Privacy In De-Identified Prescription Health Information, Christopher R. Smith 2010 American University Washington College of Law

Somebody's Watching Me: Protecting Patient Privacy In De-Identified Prescription Health Information, Christopher R. Smith

Christopher R Smith

Increasingly, legal scholars, state legislatures and the federal courts are examining patient privacy concerns that arise in the context of the dissemination, distribution and use of patient prescription information. However, less attention has been paid to the sharing of de-identified or encrypted patient prescription information versus identifiable patient prescription information. Though many patients may not realize it, identifiable, de-identified and encrypted patient prescription information is being used for a host of purposes other than insurance reimbursement and treatment, most notably for pharmaceutical marketing purposes. Existing state and federal laws and ethical guidelines provide some protection for the privacy of patient ...


The Eavesdropping Employer: A Twenty-First Century Framework For Employee Monitoring, Corey A. Ciocchetti 2010 University of Denver

The Eavesdropping Employer: A Twenty-First Century Framework For Employee Monitoring, Corey A. Ciocchetti

Corey A Ciocchetti

The twenty-first century continues to usher in new and increasingly-powerful technology. This technology is both a blessing and a curse in the employment arena. Sophisticated monitoring software and hardware allow businesses to conduct basic business transactions, avoid liability, conduct investigations and, ultimately, achieve success in a competitive global environment. Employees can also benefit when monitoring provides immediate feedback, keeps the workforce efficient and focused and discourages unethical/illegal behavior. The same technology, however, allows employers to monitor every detail of their employees’ actions, communications and whereabouts both inside and outside the workplace. As more and more employers conduct some form ...


Water, Climate, And Energy Security, Prof. Elizabeth Burleson 2010 Selected Works

Water, Climate, And Energy Security, Prof. Elizabeth Burleson

Prof. Elizabeth Burleson

Civil society participation can facilitate sound energy, climate, and water governance. This article analyzes the dynamics of transnational decision-making. Part II discusses sound energy strategy in light of a shrinking water-resources base due to climate change. Part III considers how public participation in international decision-making can sustain trust in governments and strengthen the legitimacy of legal decisions. Part IV concludes that process and outcome are both integral to addressing water, climate, and energy challenges.


Through The Legal Looking Glass: Exploring The Concept Of Corporate Legal Strategy, Antoine Masson, Mary J. Shariff 2010 University of Manitoba School of Law

Through The Legal Looking Glass: Exploring The Concept Of Corporate Legal Strategy, Antoine Masson, Mary J. Shariff

Mary J. Shariff

This paper sets out to examine various forms of legal strategies that have thus far been identified in the areas of litigation, corporate management and competition. The goal here is to identify and classify emerging approaches to legal strategy discussion in order to assist in the overall study of legal strategy theory as well as to assist in the development of an integrated and accurate definition of legal strategy from a law perspective.


The Problem With Intellectual Property Rights: Subject Matter Expansion, Andrew Beckerman Rodau 2010 Suffolk University Law School

The Problem With Intellectual Property Rights: Subject Matter Expansion, Andrew Beckerman Rodau

Andrew Beckerman Rodau

This article examines the expansion of the subject matter that can be protected under intellectual property law. Intellectual property law has developed legal rules that carefully balance competing interests. The goal has long been to provide enough legal protection to maximize incentives to engage in creative and innovative activities while also providing rules and doctrines that minimize the effect on the commercial marketplace and minimize interference with the free flow of ideas generally. The expansive view of subject matter protectable via intellectual property law has erased the clear delineation between patent, copyright, and trademark law. This has led to overprotection ...


Bridging The Gulf: Using Mediated, Consensus-Based Regulation To Reconcile Competing Public Policy Agendas In Disaster Mitigation, Michael N. Widener 2010 Bonnett, Fairbourn, Friedman & Balint PC

Bridging The Gulf: Using Mediated, Consensus-Based Regulation To Reconcile Competing Public Policy Agendas In Disaster Mitigation, Michael N. Widener

Michael N. Widener

In the Deepwater Horizon – Macondo well debacle, experts from the petroleum industry, along with government and non-governmental organizations promoting stewardship of the environment, were among those who planned, executed and advised poorly during the petroleum products spill period. Yet some will be highly vocal persons seeking to influence policies and future regulations. In circumstances involving environmental disasters, ostensibly there are no experts. Conundrums of science and ethics in disaster mitigation fracture debate over the proper courses of action and future government authorizations of industry action. No one person, or modestly – sized group of persons, has sufficient experience or ability to ...


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