Pension De-Risking, 2015 Marquette University Law School
Pension De-Risking, Paul M. Secunda, Brendan S. Maher
Paul M. Secunda
The United States is facing a retirement crisis, in significant part because defined benefit pension plans have been replaced by defined contribution retirement plans that, whatever their theoretical merit, have left significant numbers of workers unprepared for retirement. A troubling example of the continuing movement away from defined benefit plans is a new phenomenon euphemistically called “pension de-risking.”
Recent years have been marked by high-profile companies engaging in various actions designed to reduce the company’s exposure to pension funding risk (hence the term “pension de-risking”). Some de-risking strategies convert a federally-guaranteed pension into a more risky private annuity. Other ...
Who’S Afraid Of Good Governance? State Fiscal Crises, Public Pension Underfunding, And The Resistance To Governance Reform, 2015 University of Florida Levin College of Law
Who’S Afraid Of Good Governance? State Fiscal Crises, Public Pension Underfunding, And The Resistance To Governance Reform, Thomas J. Fitzpatrick, Amy B. Monahan
Florida Law Review
Much attention has been paid to the significant underfunding of many state and local employee pension plans, as well as to efforts by states and cities to alleviate that underfunding by modifying the benefits provided to workers. Yet relatively little attention has been paid to the systemic causes of such financial distress—such as chronic underfunding that shifts financial burdens to future taxpayers, and governance rules that may reduce the likelihood that a plan’s trustees will make optimal investment decisions. This Article presents the results of a qualitative study of the funding and governance provisions of twelve public pension ...
Definitions, Religion, And Free Exercise Guarantees, 2015 Capital University Law School
Definitions, Religion, And Free Exercise Guarantees, Mark Strasser
The First Amendment to the United States Constitution protects the free exercise of religion. Non-religious practices do not receive those same protections, which makes the ability to distinguish between religious and non-religious practices important. Regrettably, members of the Court have been unable to agree about how to distinguish the religious from the non-religious—sometimes, the implicit criteria focus on the sincerity of the beliefs, sometimes the strength of the beliefs or the role that they play in an individual’s life, and sometimes the kind of beliefs. In short, the Court has virtually guaranteed an incoherent jurisprudence by sending contradictory ...
Problematic Self-Directed Retirement Plan Activities, 2015 Unaffiliated
Problematic Self-Directed Retirement Plan Activities, David Randall Jenkins
David Randall Jenkins
Changes in Form 5498 reporting requirements, the IRS Form 5500 amnesty program commencing June 2014, and several 2013 and 2014 Tax Court decisions signal the IRS is on the cusp of launching a major nationwide assault undertaken to correct self-directed retirement plan fiduciary abuses.
This paper is under publication consideration and, as a result, cannot be currently posted.
Funding Discipline For U.S. Public Pension Plans: An Empirical Analysis Of Institutional Design, 2015 Boston College Law School
Funding Discipline For U.S. Public Pension Plans: An Empirical Analysis Of Institutional Design, Natalya Shnitser
Boston College Law School Faculty Papers
Using newly collected data on over 100 state-administered pension plans, this Article shows that previously overlooked differences in institutional design are associated with the striking variation in funding discipline across U.S. public pension plans. As state and local governments grapple with unfunded pension obligations, this Article presents a timely examination of public plan governance across two key dimensions: the allocation of control over funding decisions and the transparency with respect to funding liabilities. It shows empirically that greater constraints on legislative control over funding decisions—typically through the delegation of control to pension-system boards—have been associated with better ...
Newsroom: Yelnosky On State Pension Dispute, 2014 Roger Williams University
Newsroom: Yelnosky On State Pension Dispute, Roger Williams University School Of Law
Life of the Law School (1993- )
No abstract provided.
Broker-Dealers And Investment Advisers: A Behaviorial-Economics Analysis Of Competing Suggestions For Reform, 2014 University of Michigan Law School
Broker-Dealers And Investment Advisers: A Behaviorial-Economics Analysis Of Competing Suggestions For Reform, Polina Demina
Michigan Law Review
For the average investor trying to save for retirement or a child’s college fund, the world of investing has become increasingly complex. These retail investors must turn more frequently to financial intermediaries, such as broker-dealers and investment advisers, to get sound investment advice. Such intermediaries perform different duties for their clients, however. The investment adviser owes his client a fiduciary duty of care and therefore must provide financial advice that is in the client’s best interests, while the broker-dealer must merely provide advice that is suitable to the client’s interests—a lower standard than the fiduciary duty ...
Gender Discrimination - European Economic Community - European Court Of Justice Determines That A Non-Contributory Occupational Pension Scheme Should Not Discriminate On The Basis Of Sex. Barber V. Royal Exchange Assurance Group, 1990 E. Comm. Ct. J. Rep. ___,  2 Comm. Mkt. L. Rep. 513., 2014 University of Georgia School of Law
Gender Discrimination - European Economic Community - European Court Of Justice Determines That A Non-Contributory Occupational Pension Scheme Should Not Discriminate On The Basis Of Sex. Barber V. Royal Exchange Assurance Group, 1990 E. Comm. Ct. J. Rep. ___,  2 Comm. Mkt. L. Rep. 513., R. Mace Flournoy
Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law
No abstract provided.
The Best Of Times And The Worst Of Times: Lessons From Recent Reforms Of The French Retirement, 2014 University of Kentucky College of Law
The Best Of Times And The Worst Of Times: Lessons From Recent Reforms Of The French Retirement, Kathryn L. Moore
Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law
No abstract provided.
From Chrysler And General Motors To Detroit, 2014 University of Pennsylvania Law School
From Chrysler And General Motors To Detroit, David A. Skeel Jr.
In the past five years, three of the most remarkable bankruptcy cases in American history have come out of Detroit: the bankruptcies of Chrysler and General Motors in 2009, and of Detroit itself in 2012. The principal objective of this Article is simply to show that the Grand Bargain at the heart of the Detroit bankruptcy is the direct offspring of the bankruptcy sale transactions that were used to restructure Chrysler and GM. The proponents of Detroit’s “Grand Bargain” never would have dreamed up the transaction were it not for the federal government-engineered carmaker bankruptcies. The Article’s second ...
A Public Pensions Bailout: Economics And Law, 2014 Willamette University College of Law
A Public Pensions Bailout: Economics And Law, Terrance O'Reilly
University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform
In several states, public pension plans are at risk of insolvency within a decade. These risks are significant, and the solutions currently contemplated are likely to fall short of what is necessary to contain the problem. If public pension plans do become insolvent, it seems likely the federal government will bail them out. This Article proposes that the federal government prepare for the prospect of federal financial support of public pension plans by instituting an optional regulatory regime for public pensions. If a state elects not to participate, its public pension plans would be ineligible for federal financial support. In ...
Litigating For The Future Of Public Pensions, 2014 Marquette University Law School
Litigating For The Future Of Public Pensions, Paul M. Secunda
Paul M. Secunda
Public pensions are horribly unfunded, millions of public employees are being forced to make greater contributions to their pensions, retirees are being forced to take benefit cuts, retirement ages and service requirements are being increased, and the list goes on and on. These alarming developments involve all level of American government, from the recent move to require new federal employees to contribute more to their pensions, to the significant underfunding of state and local public pension funds across the country, to the sad spectacle of the Detroit municipal bankruptcy where the plight of public pensions plays a leading role in ...
What Is A Lien? Lessons From Municipal Bankruptcy, 2014 University of Pennsylvania Law School
What Is A Lien? Lessons From Municipal Bankruptcy, David A. Skeel Jr.
From the outset of Detroit’s bankruptcy, an unlikely set of issues kept coming up: What exactly is a lien? Who has a property interest or its equivalent in bankruptcy? Did general obligation bondholders have special status, due to Detroit’s promise to use its “full faith and credit” for repayment? What about Detroit’s pension beneficiaries, who could point to a provision in the Michigan Constitution stating that accrued pension benefits cannot be diminished or impaired. In this Article, I explore these and related issues that have arisen in Detroit and other recent municipal bankruptcy cases.
Part I of ...
Multiple Myopias, Multiple Selves, And The Under-Saving Problem, 2014 NYU School of Law
Multiple Myopias, Multiple Selves, And The Under-Saving Problem, Daniel Shaviro
New York University Law and Economics Working Papers
In both public policy debate and the academic literature, there is widespread, though not universal, agreement that millions of Americans are saving too little for their own retirements. If this is true, we could potentially increase such individuals’ welfare through the adoption of policies that resulted in their saving more. A key dilemma, however, is that, unless one understands why people are under-saving, it is hard to evaluate the likely responses to or merits of a given policy.
Possible explanations for systematic under-saving include at least the following: (1) naïve myopia, (2) sophisticated or self-aware myopia, (3) procrastination, or putting ...
A Failure To Supervise: How The Bureaucracy And The Courts Abandoned Their Intended Roles Under Erisa, Lauren R. Roth
Pace Law Review
This Article addresses how courts failed to adequately supervise employers administering pension plans before ERISA. Relying on a number of different legal theories—from an initial theory that pensions were gratuities offered by employers to the recognition that pension promises could create contractual rights—the courts repeatedly found ways to allow employers to promise much and provide little to workers expecting retirement security. In Section III, this Article addresses how Congress failed to create an effective structure for strong bureaucratic enforcement and the bureaucratic agencies with enforcement responsibilities failed to fulfill those functions. Finally, in Section IV, this Article discusses ...
Social Insecurity: A Modest Proposal For Remedying Federal District Court Inconsistency In Social Security Cases, Jonah J. Horwitz
Pace Law Review
This Article addresses a relatively narrow but consequential problem in the system: the inadequacy of federal judicial resolution of appeals from the denial of Social Security disability benefits. It addresses the problem with an equally narrow, and hopefully equally consequential, solution: granting a published district court decision in such a case the power of binding precedent with respect to the judicial district in which the opinion is issued. In so doing, greater uniformity, consistency, fairness, and efficiency would be brought to a process that is badly in need of all.
The Article proceeds in five parts. Part I provides some ...
Are Defined Contribution Pension Plans Fit For Purpose In Retirement?, 2014 Seattle University School of Law
Are Defined Contribution Pension Plans Fit For Purpose In Retirement?, Jeremy R. Cooper
Seattle University Law Review
This Article considers the historical basis for the shift from defined benefit plans to defined contribution plans, the structural and practical shortcomings of defined contribution plans, alternate pension models, and adjustments to existing retirement plan models that may offer a degree of protection to plan contributors. Like the United States, Australia is now realizing the limitations of a defined contribution retirement system insofar as it relates the provision of reliable retirement income for a population with increasing life expectancy. Unlike defined contribution plans, defined benefit plans provide a benefit based typically on time served and a predetermined proportion of either ...
Less Is More: Applying A Modified Reasonable Compensation Standard To Eliminate The Inconsistencies In The Payroll And Net Investment Income Tax Bases, John S. Treu
John S. Treu
The original policy for the implementation of payroll taxes was to impose a tax on wages as both a funding mechanism for, and a limitation to, qualifying for social security. However, the self-employment tax base developed severe inconsistencies with this original policy and among different tax entities by including certain returns on capital investments in the tax base. At present, different payroll tax obligations arise for similarly situated tax payers based solely on the type of entity the owner elects to be taxed as under the check-the-box regulations. These inconsistencies resulted from misguided efforts by congress and the treasury to ...
Financial Security Scorecard: A State-By-State Analysis Of Economic Pressures Facing Future Retirees, 2014 University of Massachusetts Boston
Financial Security Scorecard: A State-By-State Analysis Of Economic Pressures Facing Future Retirees, Christian Weller, Nari Rhee, Carolyn Arcand
Public Policy and Public Affairs Faculty Publication Series
As Americans increasingly worry about their retirement prospects, states play an important and growing role in retirement security policy. States already manage long-term care programs for the elderly through Medicaid. Concerned about the impact of future elder poverty on state and local budgets and their local economies, a number of states are exploring the creation of low-cost and low-risk retirement savings plans for private sector workers who lack access to pensions or 401(k)s on the job. Some states have developed programs to help older workers find work.
This report presents the Financial Security Scorecard, designed to inform state-level ...
Tontine Pensions: A Solution To The State And Local Pension Underfunding Crisis, 2014 University of Oklahoma
Tontine Pensions: A Solution To The State And Local Pension Underfunding Crisis, Jonathan B. Forman, Michael J. Sabin
Jonathan B. Forman
Tontines are investment vehicles that can be used to provide retirement income. Basically, a tontine is a financial product that combines features of an annuity and a lottery. In a simple tontine, a group of investors pool their money together to buy a portfolio of investments, and, as investors die, their shares are forfeited, with the entire fund going to the last surviving investor. Over the years, this last-survivor-takes-all approach has made for some great fiction. For example, on the television show “Mash,” Colonel Sherman T. Potter, as the last survivor of his World War I unit, got to open ...