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Future Children As Property, Carter Dillard 2010 Emory University

Future Children As Property, Carter Dillard

Carter Dillard

Between Skinner v. Oklahoma and the advent of modern substantive due process, procreation, at least in the eyes of many courts and commentators, became entrenched as a fundamental, if not absolute, right. And yet ironically, the establishment of this right, often taken as symbolic of personal liberty, has diminished autonomy for those persons inevitably caught on the other end of it – our future children. Expanding procreative autonomy has diminished public norms that might otherwise ensure that future children are born into circumstances that also expand their autonomy. Instead, the broad, modern, privacy-based version of the right to procreate leaves the ...


Antecedent Law: The Law Of People Making, Carter Dillard 2010 Emory University

Antecedent Law: The Law Of People Making, Carter Dillard

Carter Dillard

In our conception of law we have largely presumed the process by which the people whose behavior the law is meant to regulate come to be present and susceptible to the law's influence. As a result, that process is largely outside of our account of the law, and any role the law might have over the matter is relatively ignored. This article introduces a simple and concrete conceptual device, a form of law called antecedent law, which seeks to undo this presumption and refocus our attention on that which can determine the presence of persons in the polity and ...


Transnational Litigation And Institutional Choice, Cassandra Burke Robertson 2010 Case Western Reserve University School of Law

Transnational Litigation And Institutional Choice, Cassandra Burke Robertson

Cassandra Burke Robertson

When U.S. corporations cause harm abroad, should foreign plaintiffs be allowed to sue in the United States? Federal courts are increasingly saying no. The courts have expanded the doctrines of forum non conveniens and prudential standing to dismiss a growing number of transnational cases. This restriction of court access has sparked considerable tension in international relations, as a number of other nations view such dismissals as an attempt to insulate U.S. corporations from liability. A growing number of countries have responded by enacting retaliatory legislation that may ultimately harm U.S. interests. This article argues that the judiciary ...


Residual-Risk Model For Classifying Business Arrangements, Brad Borden 2010 Brooklyn Law School

Residual-Risk Model For Classifying Business Arrangements, Brad Borden

Bradley T. Borden

Tax law classifies business arrangements as one of three general structures: (1) disregarded arrangements, (2) tax partnerships, or (3) tax corporations. Since the enactment of the income tax in 1913, tax law has struggled unsuccessfully to develop an ideal model for classifying business arrangements. The current model’s sole virtue is its simplicity, derived from formalistic, elective attributes. Its greatest shortcoming may be that it disregards the reasons parties form business arrangements and the reasons they use economic items to reduce rent-seeking behavior and agency costs. That disregard often allows business participants to choose their tax classification and minimize their ...


Law, Facts, And Power, Elizabeth Thornburg 2010 Southern Methodist University

Law, Facts, And Power, Elizabeth Thornburg

Beth Thornburg

The Supreme Court’s opinion in Ashcroft v. Iqbal is wrong in many ways. This essay is about only one of them: the Court’s single-handed return to a pleading system that requires lawyers and judges to distinguish between pleading facts and pleading law. This move not only resuscitates a distinction purposely abandoned by the generation that drafted the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, but also serves as an example of the very difficulties created by the distinction. The chinks in the law-fact divide are evident in Iqbal itself—both in the already notorious pleading section of the opinion, and ...


The Managerial Judge Goes To Trial, Elizabeth Thornburg 2010 Southern Methodist University

The Managerial Judge Goes To Trial, Elizabeth Thornburg

Beth Thornburg

Scholars have examined the phenomenon of pre-trial judicial management, but have ignored the ways in which this problematic set of attitudes has invaded the trial phase of litigation. This article examines the use of managerial discretion at the trial stage and demonstrates that trial-phase managerial decisions suffer from all the problems of their pre-trial counterparts: 1) trial management involves judges so intimately in the parties’ information and strategies that it may compromise the judges’ impartiality; 2) it leads to a loss of transparency as more decisions are made off the record or in chambers; 3) management decisions are not guided ...


Some, Meaningful, Or Appropriate: How Should A Child’S Special Education Be Judged? A Comparison Of The Approaches In The United States And England, Bradley M. Wanner 2010 SelectedWorks

Some, Meaningful, Or Appropriate: How Should A Child’S Special Education Be Judged? A Comparison Of The Approaches In The United States And England, Bradley M. Wanner

Bradley M Wanner

The Note discusses the substantive educational benefit guaranteed under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (“IDEA”) to children with a qualifying disability. Since the late 1980s, there have been two standards employed by the courts: the “some” educational benefit and the “meaningful” educational benefit. The Note discusses the application of both standards as applied to cases under the IDEA generally. As both standards find their roots in the same decision of the Supreme Court, the goal here is to determine if there is a perceptible difference in the two standards. This is followed by a discussion of the application of ...


Color-Blind: Procedure's Quiet But Crucial Role In Achieving Racial Justice, Benjamin V. Madison III 2010 Regent University School of Law

Color-Blind: Procedure's Quiet But Crucial Role In Achieving Racial Justice, Benjamin V. Madison Iii

Benjamin V Madison, III

This article explores the role of procedural institutions, both in the Constitution and in other laws related to the judicial system, that promote impartial justice. The article explores the twin principles of human fallibility and the equality of all human beings as the fundamental bases of the judicial system. The role of procedure in enabling federal courts to enforce the Supreme Court's decision in Brown v. Board of Education is a featured part of the article.


No Sirve: The Invalidity Of Service Of Process Abroad By Mail Or Private Process Server, Charles B. Campbell 2010 Faulkner University, Jones School of Law

No Sirve: The Invalidity Of Service Of Process Abroad By Mail Or Private Process Server, Charles B. Campbell

Charles B. Campbell

Service of process abroad by mail or private process server on parties in Mexico is invalid under the Hague Service Convention. The other alternative methods of service abroad listed in Article 10 of the Convention are invalid, as well. As one might say in Spanish, such alternative service no sirve—i.e., is useless—in Mexico. Accordingly, service of process abroad by United States litigants and courts on parties in Mexico should proceed through Mexico’s Central Authority in accordance with Articles 3 through 7 of the Convention.


Classification Of Participants In Suicide Attacks And The Implications Of This Classification For The Severity Of The Sentence: The Israeli Experience In The Military Courts In Judea And Samaria, Chagai D. Vinizky, Amit Preiss 2010 Sha'arei Mishpat College, Israel

Classification Of Participants In Suicide Attacks And The Implications Of This Classification For The Severity Of The Sentence: The Israeli Experience In The Military Courts In Judea And Samaria, Chagai D. Vinizky, Amit Preiss

Chagai D Vinizky

*** A revised version of this article is forthcoming in 30 Pace Law Review (Winter2010) *** The twenty-first century witnessed a considerable rise in the number of suicide attacks. The largest suicide attacks were carried out by Al-Qaeda in the United States on 11.9.2001 when that organization crashed four passenger planes (two into the Twin Towers and one into the Pentagon building) killing 2,973 civilians. Between the 11th September and the present time, suicide attacks have taken place throughout the world, including in Turkey, Great Britain, Egypt, India, Jordan, Spain and Iraq leading to thousands of deaths. A large ...


Charles Sumner: History's Misunderstood Idealist, Chad G. Marzen 2010 Florida State University

Charles Sumner: History's Misunderstood Idealist, Chad G. Marzen

Chad G. Marzen

Few historical figures in the history of the United States have received such contrasting treatment by historians and scholars than Senator Charles Sumner. One view of Sumner mainly focuses on Sumner as a “Cardboard Yankee,” a figure who was arrogantly too tied to principle and was someone who seldom tried to understand others, was lacking in humor, was a pedant, lacked the judgment and self-control to be effective in settling disputes, and was unable to compromise.

A more recent “revised” interpretation of Sumner contends Sumner was driven into reform movements and politics for two reasons: first, that Sumner believed the ...


Protecting Statements In Catholic Tribunal Proceedings Under The Priest-Penitent Privilege: Cimijotti V. Paulsen Considered, Chad G. Marzen 2010 Florida State University

Protecting Statements In Catholic Tribunal Proceedings Under The Priest-Penitent Privilege: Cimijotti V. Paulsen Considered, Chad G. Marzen

Chad G. Marzen

No abstract provided.


The Furundzija Judgment And Its Continued Vitality In International Law, Chad G. Marzen 2010 Florida State University

The Furundzija Judgment And Its Continued Vitality In International Law, Chad G. Marzen

Chad G. Marzen

The Furundzija decision of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia stands as a landmark decision in international jurisprudence since it not only affirmed that the norm prohibiting torture has attained jus cogens status under international law, but expanded accountability and liability for violations of commission as well as omission. In this essay, I not only address Furundzija’s holdings and its implications in the international sphere, but specifically analyze the legacy of the Furundzija judgment on U.S. domestic civil cases involving the Alien Tort Statute.

Significantly, the Tribunal’s decision not only properly recognizes faults and crimes ...


Law Without The State: The Theory Of High Engagement And The Emergence Of Spontaneous Legal Order Within Commercial Systems, Bryan H. Druzin 2010 King's College London

Law Without The State: The Theory Of High Engagement And The Emergence Of Spontaneous Legal Order Within Commercial Systems, Bryan H. Druzin

Bryan H. Druzin

This paper examines the idea that commercial law has the capacity to evolve spontaneously in the absence of a clear state authority because of its unique nature. I argue that the manner of interaction implied by commerce plays a crucial role in this ability as it involves a high degree of overall engagement. This I term “high engagement,” which I divide into two elements: repetition and the creation of clear cycles of interaction. Together they produce identifiable legal norms and subsequent compliance. Game theorists have long recognized the importance of repeated interaction in inducing cooperation; however, how the manner of ...


Finding Footing In A Postmodern Conception Of Law, Bryan H. Druzin 2010 King's College London

Finding Footing In A Postmodern Conception Of Law, Bryan H. Druzin

Bryan H. Druzin

The following jurisprudence paper examines the implications of postmodern thought upon our conception of law. In this paper I argue that, despite the absolute, all-consuming moral relativism towards which postmodernism seems to lead in its most extreme form, its acceptance in fact in no way undermines the possibility of finding solid ground for our legal principles. This paper contends that moral objectivity can be found in the individual experience of suffering generated by these very subjective concoctions. Subjective concoctions or not, they are real in that they imbue a sense of value into conditions, and may thus serve as foundational ...


What Does Kosovo Teach Us About Using Human Rights Law To Prosecute Corruption Offences?, Bryane Michael 2010 Stockholm School of Economics

What Does Kosovo Teach Us About Using Human Rights Law To Prosecute Corruption Offences?, Bryane Michael

Bryane Michael (bryane.michael@stcatz.ox.ac.uk)

If a patient must pay a bribe to obtain life-saving surgery, does the doctor’s solicitation of a bribe represent a violation of the victim’s human rights? This paper explores the ways in which anti-corruption practitioners can look to various provisions in human rights law in order to prevent or prosecute corruption-related offences. We use Kosovo as a case study because its constitution gives direct effect to the major international human rights conventions. We find -- using Kosovo as a case study -- that some types of corruption lead to separately prosecutable human rights offences. We also find that pre-existing violations ...


What Do We Know About Corruption (And Anti-Corruption) In Customs?, Bryane Michael, Nigel Moore 2010 Stockholm School of Economics

What Do We Know About Corruption (And Anti-Corruption) In Customs?, Bryane Michael, Nigel Moore

Bryane Michael (bryane.michael@stcatz.ox.ac.uk)

What are the lessons from anti-corruption programmes in Customs agencies over the last 20 years? The data suggest that many of the usual activities -- like codes of conduct and posters do not work. Internal inspectorates, and particularly internal audit, has a large effect on reducing corruption. A review of the literature and best practice presented.


Do Customs Trade Facilitation Programmes Help Reduce Customs-Related Corruption?, Bryane Michael, Frank Ferguson, Alisher Karimov 2010 Columbia University

Do Customs Trade Facilitation Programmes Help Reduce Customs-Related Corruption?, Bryane Michael, Frank Ferguson, Alisher Karimov

Bryane Michael (bryane.michael@stcatz.ox.ac.uk)

Customs-related corruption costs World Customs Organisation (WCO) members at least $2 billion in customs revenue each year. Using recent data only about bribe payers’ actual experiences in paying bribes, we show that trade facilitation would only help reduce corruption and improve efficiency – in a large number of customs agencies -- if the customs agency’s director undertakes a big-bang approach to reform. We also find support for the corruption clubs theory – that customs agencies in the process of reform are either moving toward OECD levels of integrity and efficiency; or they are sliding toward a “red zone” group of countries. Such ...


Foreign Under-Investment In Us Securities And The Role Of Relational Capital, Bryane Michael 2010 Columbia University

Foreign Under-Investment In Us Securities And The Role Of Relational Capital, Bryane Michael

Bryane Michael (bryane.michael@stcatz.ox.ac.uk)

Over 70 academic papers attempt to explain why foreigners invest in US securities. All ignore the vital role of the US broker-dealer. Macroeconomic factors like a trade balance or corporate governance may guide foreign investors toward certain markets. But US broker-dealers provide information to foreign investors and execute the actual trades. We hypothesize that particular foreign investors under-invest in US securities because of a lack of relational capital with US broker-dealers. We find that broker-dealer marketing intensity in foreign markets partly explains foreigners’ decisions to invest in US securities. We also estimate “pent-up” demand for US securities in developing countries ...


The Size And Structure Of Government, Bryane Michael, Maja Popov 2010 Columbia University

The Size And Structure Of Government, Bryane Michael, Maja Popov

Bryane Michael (bryane.michael@stcatz.ox.ac.uk)

Does government size and structure adapt to changes in government’s organisational environment (particularly to uncertainty and complexity) as predicted by organisational theory? We find – using a range of statistical analyses – support for each of the major theories of organisation adaptation (the contingency-based view, resource-based view, and rational choice view). We find that both government size and structure change – holding other factors constant – for changes in the uncertainty and complexity of governments’ organisational environments. We find seven clusters of governments which adapt their organisational sizes differently in response to changes in the uncertainty and complexity of their organisational environments – and ...


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