Climate Change, Carbon Sequestration, And Property Rights, 2010 University of Minnesota Law School
Climate Change, Carbon Sequestration, And Property Rights, Alexandra B. Klass, Elizabeth J. Wilson
This Article considers the role of property rights in efforts to sequester underground hundreds of millions of tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) per year from power plants and other industrial facilities in order to mitigate climate change. This technology, known as carbon capture and sequestration (CCS), could provide deep emission cuts, particularly from coal power generation, on a worldwide basis. In order to implement this technology, future CCS operators must be able to access hundreds of millions of acres of "pore space" roughly a kilometer below the earth's surface in which to store CO2 for hundreds to thousands of ...
Returning Home: Women In Post-Conflict Societies, 2010 George Washington University Law School
Returning Home: Women In Post-Conflict Societies, Naomi Cahn, Dina Francesca Haynes, Fionnuala Ní Aoláin
This paper explores the situation of women returning to their homes and communities after their countries have experienced major conflicts. In that context, it assesses the range of barriers and challenges that women face and offers some thinking to addresses and remedy these complex issues. As countries face the transition process, they can begin to measure the conflict’s impact on the population and the civil infrastructure. Not only have people been displaced from their homes, but, typically, health clinics, schools, roads, businesses, and markets have deteriorated substantially. While the focus is on humanitarian aid in the midst of and ...
An Assessment Of U.S. Responses To Greenwashing And Proposals To Improve Enforcement, 2010 Maurice A. Deane School of Law at Hofstra University
An Assessment Of U.S. Responses To Greenwashing And Proposals To Improve Enforcement, Ashley Lorance
Hofstra Law Student Works
Consumers are conscious of their ability to impact the environment through their spending power. As buying “green” has become increasingly mainstream, greenwashing, or the practice of companies disingenuously spinning their products as environmentally friendly, has become a problem. The Federal Trade Commission (FTC), in its Green Guides, takes on the problem of greenwashing. However, its enforcement of violations of the Guides has been minimal. This paper will assess the current U.S. response to greenwashing in general, and specifically, FTC enforcement of the Green Guides. Based on this assessment, the paper will make proposals for the FTC to strengthen enforcement ...
Plurality Of Political Opinion And The Concentration Of Media In The United States, 2010 University of Missouri School of Law
Plurality Of Political Opinion And The Concentration Of Media In The United States, William B. Fisch
This paper reviews regulatory efforts of the U.S. federal govern- ment to promote viewpoint diversity in broadcast media (radio, television, cable, and satellite) in the face of increasing concentration of ownership of such media, and the impact on such efforts of the free- doms of speech and press embodied in the First Amendment to the federal constitution. With respect to this issue, the regulatory work has been done overwhelmingly by the Federal Communications Commis- sion, operating under an act of Congress which has been amended from time to time to push the FCC in particular directions. The anti- trust ...
An Empirical Study Of The Role Of The Written Description Requirement In Patent Prosecution, 2010 University of Missouri School of Law
An Empirical Study Of The Role Of The Written Description Requirement In Patent Prosecution, Dennis D. Crouch
An en banc Federal Circuit is now considering whether Section 112 of the Patent Act as properly interpreted includes a written description requirement that is separate and distinct from the enablement requirement. Although the USPTO has no direct role in the infringement dispute, the government submitted an amicus curie brief arguing that a separate written description requirement is “necessary to permit the USPTO to perform its basic examination function.” However, when pressed during oral arguments the government could not point to any direct evidence supporting its contention.
This essay presents the results of a retrospective empirical study of the role ...
Educating The United States Supreme Court At Summers' School: A Lesson On The "Special Character Of The Animal", 2010 University of Missouri School of Law
Educating The United States Supreme Court At Summers' School: A Lesson On The "Special Character Of The Animal", Rafael Gely, Ramona L. Paetzold, Leonard Bierman
In this article, we explore the implications that Professor Summers' insights regarding public employment have for the Garcetti and Davenport decisions. In particular, we focus on the extent to which the political nature of public employment affects public employees' rights to freedom of speech as well as matters regarding the representational functions of public employee unions.
Thoughts On Preemption In The Wake Of The Levine Decision, 2010 University of Missouri School of Law
Thoughts On Preemption In The Wake Of The Levine Decision, Erika Lietzan, Sarah E. Pitlyk
This article discusses the prospects for preemption doctrine in the wake of the Supreme Court’s decision in Wyeth v. Levine. Part I describes the Levine decision. Part II examines the majority’s holding as it relates to impossibility preemption and considers the future of the doctrine in failure-to-warn suits after Levine. We argue that the announced standard for impossibility preemption — the clear evidence standard — should be interpreted reasonably and not in a manner that effectively eviscerates the doctrine. We also describe other instances of impossibility in the food and drug regulatory context that were not presented to the Court ...
‘Drive-Thru’ Arbitration In The Digital Age: Empowering Consumers Through Regulated Odr, 2010 University of Missouri School of Law
‘Drive-Thru’ Arbitration In The Digital Age: Empowering Consumers Through Regulated Odr, Amy J. Schmitz
Online Dispute Resolution (ODR) has been promoted for quickly and conveniently resolving claims using online “drive-thru” processes instead of more costly and time-consuming face-to-face meetings and hearings. Most commentators have nonetheless focused mainly on non-binding or automated bidding processes, perhaps due in part to fairness concerns associated with off-line arbitration. This Article, however, explores the potential for online binding arbitration (OArb), and sheds new light on arbitration as means for empowering consumers to obtain remedies on their e-merchant claims. By moving arbitration online, OArb helps address concerns regarding companies’ use of arbitration clauses to curb consumers’ access to remedies on ...
Unofficial Legislative History Of The Biologics Price Competition And Innovation Act 2009, An, 2010 University of Missouri School of Law
Unofficial Legislative History Of The Biologics Price Competition And Innovation Act 2009, An, Erika Lietzan, Krista Hessler Carver, Jeffrey Elikan
On March 23, 2010, President Obama signed into law the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009 (BPCIA) which created a regulatory pathway for, and scheme for litigation of patent issues relating to, “biosimilar” biological products. This article discusses the history of the BPCIA and explains its provisions. Section I provides background and a history of the regulation of drugs and biological products in the United States. Section II describes the growing interest in biosimilar approval from the early 2000s through September 2006, when the legislative debate began in earnest. Section III describes the legislative and stakeholder process from ...
Discriminatory Housing Advertisements On-Line: Lessons From Craigslist, 2010 University of Missouri School of Law
Discriminatory Housing Advertisements On-Line: Lessons From Craigslist, Rigel C. Oliveri
The Fair Housing Act makes it illegal to publish discriminatory housing advertisements. This has long been applied to newspapers, which have effectively screened all discriminatory housing ads from sight. However, in 1996 Congress created a loophole when it immunized website operators from liability for the content posted to their sites by third parties. Without publisher liability, websites have no incentive to screen out discriminatory housing ads. The result is that such ads are proliferating in cyberspace.While this situation is problematic from a fair housing standpoint, it presents a valuable opportunity. For the first time in a generation discriminatory housing ...
Shadows On The Cathedral: Solar Access Laws In A Different Light, 2010 University of Missouri School of Law
Shadows On The Cathedral: Solar Access Laws In A Different Light, Troy A. Rule
Unprecedented growth in rooftop solar energy development is drawing increased attention to the issue of solar access. To operate effectively, solar panels require un-shaded access to the sun’s rays during peak sunlight hours. Some landowners are reluctant to invest in rooftop solar panels because they fear that a neighbor will erect a structure or grow a tree on nearby property that shades their panels. Existing statutory approaches to protecting solar access for such landowners vary widely across jurisdictions, and some approaches ignore the airspace rights of neighbors. Which rule regime for solar access protection best promotes the efficient allocation ...
Renewable Energy And The Neighbors, 2010 University of Missouri School of Law
Renewable Energy And The Neighbors, Troy A. Rule
Small wind turbines and rooftop solar panels are a highly attractive energy option, capable of generating clean, renewable power without the need for transmission lines across vast stretches of rural land. State and federal incentive programs have made these devices increasingly affordable for landowners in recent years, generating an unprecedented level of interest in “distributed” renewable energy.Unfortunately, small wind turbines and solar panels are often far less attractive in the eyes of neighbors, who fear that the systems will erode neighborhood aesthetics and property values. Despite aggressive state and federal programs aimed at promoting renewable energy systems, land use ...
State Secrets & Executive Accountability, 2010 University of Missouri School of Law
State Secrets & Executive Accountability, Christina E. Wells
This essay, part of a symposium on executive power, examines use of the state secrets privilege in the Obama administration. Specifically, it views the Obama administration’s approach to the state secrets privilege through the lens of “explanatory accountability” – i.e., the notion that executive officials must explain and justify their decisions or face negative consequences.Although President Obama entered office criticizing the Bush administration’s overly broad assertions of the state secrets privilege, Obama officials nevertheless continued the Bush administration’s actions in various lawsuits. In response to sharp criticism, however, the Obama administration eventually revealed a new policy ...
Coconspirators, “Coventurers,” And The Exception Swallowing The Hearsay Rule, 2010 University of Missouri School of Law
Coconspirators, “Coventurers,” And The Exception Swallowing The Hearsay Rule, Ben L. Trachtenberg
In recent years, prosecutors - sometimes with the blessing of courts - have argued that when proving the existence of a “conspiracy” to justify admission of evidence under the Coconspirator Exception to the Hearsay Rule, they need show only that the declarant and the defendant were “coventurers” with a common purpose, not coconspirators with an illegal purpose. Indeed, government briefs and court decisions specifically disclaim the need to show any wrongful goal whatsoever. This Article contends that such a reading of the Exception is mistaken and undesirable. Conducted for this article, a survey of thousands of court decisions, including the earliest English ...
Regulating Offensiveness: Snyder V. Phelps, Emotion, And The First Amendment, 2010 University of Missouri School of Law
Regulating Offensiveness: Snyder V. Phelps, Emotion, And The First Amendment, Christina E. Wells
In its upcoming term, the Court will decide in Snyder v. Phelps whether Albert Snyder can sue the Reverend Fred Phelps and other members of the Westboro Baptist Church for invasion of privacy and intentional infliction of emotional distress for protesting near his son’s funeral. Those arguing in favor of tort liability claim that the Phelps’ speech during a time of mourning and vulnerability is especially outrageous and injurious and that the First Amendment allows such regulation. Their arguments, however, effectively rely on the offensiveness of the Phelps’ message rather than on any external indicia of harm, such as ...
Book Review: Reviewing Part Iii Of Innovation For The 21st Century: Harnessing The Power Of Intellectual Property And Antitrust Law, 2010 University of Missouri School of Law
Book Review: Reviewing Part Iii Of Innovation For The 21st Century: Harnessing The Power Of Intellectual Property And Antitrust Law, Dennis D. Crouch
I have very much enjoyed reading Professor Michael Carrier's important new book on the intersection of law and innovation, and greatly appreciate his contributions to the field. In this short essay, I will focus my discussion on my sole area of expertise—patent law. Carrier takes-on the subject of patents in Part III of his book. I agree with most of what Carrier writes. To make this essay more interesting, I focus on some of our areas of apparent disagreement.
Foreclosure By Arbitration?, 2010 University of Missouri School of Law
Foreclosure By Arbitration?, R. Wilson Freyermuth
The recession and the drastic decline in home values have combined to trigger a wave of foreclosures. Predictably, legislators, policymakers, scholars, and consumer advocates have responded with a wide range of proposals designed to protect distressed mortgagors from losing their homes.
The Supreme Court And The Sophisticated Use Of Digs, 2010 University of Missouri School of Law
The Supreme Court And The Sophisticated Use Of Digs, Rafael Gely, Michael E. Solimine
In this article, we extend this literature in several ways. In part II, we provide a brief overview of the certiorari and DIG process, and explore the possible motivations for the Court to DIG a case. In Part III we describe our data, and in Part IV we discuss our results. Part V concludes the paper.
A Decision-Theoretic Rule Of Reason For Minimum Resale Price Maintenance, 2010 University of Missouri School of Law
A Decision-Theoretic Rule Of Reason For Minimum Resale Price Maintenance, Thom Lambert
This article evaluates these approaches from the perspective of decision theory and, finding each lacking, proposes an alternative approach to structuring the rule of reason governing RPM. Part II sets forth the decision-theoretic perspective, which seeks to maximize the net benefits of liability rules by minimizing the sum of decision and error costs. Part III then evaluates, from the standpoint of decision theory, the proposed approaches to evaluating instances of RPM. Part IV proposes an alternative evaluative approach that is more consistent with decision theory’s insights.
Understanding Card-Check Organizing: The Public Sector Experience, 2010 University of Missouri School of Law
Understanding Card-Check Organizing: The Public Sector Experience, Rafael Gely, Timothy D. Chandler
The use of “card checks” as a method of union organizing has recently garnered considerable attention, much of it surrounding the proposed Employee Free Choice Act. The proposed legislation seeks to amend the National Labor Relations Act by requiring employers to recognize a union when the employer is presented with evidence of majority support for union recognition via card checks. Despite this recent interest in card checks, there is little empirical research on the topic due, in part, to the lack of available data. Although card-check organizing in the private sector is not rare, such organizing is voluntary, and does ...