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Admission Of Deaf Soldiers To The Military: Rethinking The "Undifferentiated Soldier" Paradigm, Michael Schwartz 2018 Syracuse University

Admission Of Deaf Soldiers To The Military: Rethinking The "Undifferentiated Soldier" Paradigm, Michael Schwartz

Arkansas Law Review

Keith Nolan, a deaf man with undergraduate and graduate degrees, asked to be admitted to military training to become a uniformed American soldier.1 The military said no, and the issue was joined. Nolan’s application presents the Department of Defense (DOD) with an opportunity to reconsider its historical bar to people who are deaf.2 The Article suggests a new paradigm in thinking about the selection criteria used to screen out deaf applicants for military service, a paradigm rooted in a disability studies framework. With a few exceptions in the Civil War, the United States armed forces have barred ...


Moral Context And Risks Of Death, Dov Waisman 2018 Southwestern Law School

Moral Context And Risks Of Death, Dov Waisman

Arkansas Law Review

When an industry poses a risk of premature death to consumers, workers, or others, regulatory agencies employ a figure known as the “value of a statistical life” (VSL) to monetize the life-saving benefit of regulations designed to reduce that risk. Use of the VSL, which currently hovers around $9 million, has been highly controversial. While a number of prominent scholars have vigorously endorsed the VSL as necessary to the cost-benefit analysis of mortality risk regulations, other prominent scholars have vehemently rejected the very idea of attaching a monetary value to a statistical human life. This article stakes out a novel ...


Employment By Design: Employees, Independent Contractors And The Theory Of The Firm, Richard R. Carlson 2018 University of Memphis

Employment By Design: Employees, Independent Contractors And The Theory Of The Firm, Richard R. Carlson

Arkansas Law Review

Employment laws protect “employees” and impose duties on their “employers.” In the modern working world, however, “em-ployee” and “employer” status is not always clear. The status of some workers and the firms they serve can be ambiguous, espe-cially when the workers work as individuals not organized as firms. Individual workers might be “employees,” but they might also be self-employed individuals working as “independent con-tractors.”1 Even if it is clear that workers are someone’s “em-ployees,” the identity of the employer can be unclear. If one firm pays “employees” to work mainly or exclusively for another firm that pays the ...


What Does Law Have To Do With It? The Jury's Role In Cases Alleging Violations Of Law, Custom And Standards, Barbara Kritchevsky 2018 University of Memphis

What Does Law Have To Do With It? The Jury's Role In Cases Alleging Violations Of Law, Custom And Standards, Barbara Kritchevsky

Arkansas Law Review

Rules telling people how to act come from many sources. Statutory law governs a wide range of conduct—driving an auto-mobile, operating a business, building a home. Non-governmen-tal standards reach just as far. Individuals run their businesses in accordance with the law, but also by observing professional standards and industry customs. A hotel owner might look to state or local law to determine how to fence the hotel pool or whether to have a lifeguard on duty. The owner might also de-cide what to do by looking to industry customs or non-govern-mental safety guidelines, such as those a private body ...


Incapacity And The Infancy Illation, Ralph C. Brashier 2018 University of Memphis

Incapacity And The Infancy Illation, Ralph C. Brashier

Arkansas Law Review

As the population of elderly Americans swells in coming decades, growing numbers of citizens will experience some degree of cognitive incapacity and require the assistance of surrogate decision-makers. Consequently, the decisions of guardians, conservators, and agents will become increasingly important. Experts have frequently noted that, despite modern reforms, doctrines concerning surrogate decision-making are problematic and often do not result in outcomes that maximize autonomy and promote respect for the unique personhood of the adult with diminished capacity. Unlike other writings that seek to refashion or clarify surrogate decision-making statutes and standards, this Article suggests that a more fundamental problem lies ...


Upstate Citizens For Equality, Inc. V. United States, Kirsa Shelkey 2018 Alexander Blewett III School of Law at the University of Montana

Upstate Citizens For Equality, Inc. V. United States, Kirsa Shelkey

Public Land and Resources Law Review

The Indian Reorganization Act of 1935 is the proper avenue for Tribes pursuing restoration of their historic trust lands. The Oneida Indian Nation of New York long sought to reassert tribal jurisdiction over its historic homeland in Central New York. These efforts were largely unsuccessful until 2008 when the United States took 13,000 acres of this historic homeland into trust on behalf of the Tribe under the Indian Reorganization Act. This case affirms the federal government’s plenary powers over Indian Tribes, and that neither state sovereignty principles, nor the Enclave Clause upset that authority.


Altera, The Arm's Length Standard, And Customary International Tax Law, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah 2018 University of Michigan Law School

Altera, The Arm's Length Standard, And Customary International Tax Law, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah

MJIL Opinio Juris

The recent Altera case in the US Tax Court (on appeal to the Ninth Circuit) raises interesting issues in regard to the much-debated topic of whether customary international tax law (CITL) exists. Altera involved the question whether the cost of employee stock options should be included in the pool of costs that must be shared under a cost sharing agreement. In Xilinx, the Ninth Circuit held under a previous version of the regulations that these costs should not be included because unrelated parties operating at arm’s length would not have agreed to include them. Treasury then amended the regulation ...


Moving Beyond The Wto: A Proposal To Adjudicate Gmo Disputes In An International Environmental Court, Marguerite A. Hutchinson 2018 University of San Diego

Moving Beyond The Wto: A Proposal To Adjudicate Gmo Disputes In An International Environmental Court, Marguerite A. Hutchinson

San Diego International Law Journal

This Article begins with a brief summary of the scientific basis of creating GMOs and its historic precursors. The second section provides an overview of risks to humans and the environment. The third part of this Article analyzes the arguments put forward by both the United States and the E.U., which have defined the conflict between blocs of countries pushing GMOs abroad and those who persistently reject them. The fourth section evaluates the respective regulatory schemes imposed on GMOs by the United States and Europe, domestically and by international treaty. The success of these systems is evaluated in the ...


Bazaar Transnational Drafting: An Analysis Of The Gnu Public License Version 3 Revision Process, Christopher M. DiLeo 2018 University of San Diego

Bazaar Transnational Drafting: An Analysis Of The Gnu Public License Version 3 Revision Process, Christopher M. Dileo

San Diego International Law Journal

This Article will step through the drafting process and compare bazaar and cathedral modes of drafting to determine if a bazaar mode can efficiently produce a legal instrument that crosses legal regimes. As the title suggests, the bazaar process analysis case will be the GNU General Public License version 3 (the GPLv3) Revision Process. A comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of the bazaar mode of drafting to the cathedral mode of drafting will hopefully demonstrate the overall value of a transnational bazaar process like the GPLv3 Revision Process.


Policing Against The State: United Nations Policing As Violative Of Sovereignty, Alexandra R. Harrington 2018 University of San Diego

Policing Against The State: United Nations Policing As Violative Of Sovereignty, Alexandra R. Harrington

San Diego International Law Journal

It is the author's contention that both parties to the policing arrangement-be they individuals, states, or organizations-give up portions of their sovereignty in the creation and maintenance of the police and policed relationship where the police are not serving the state which theoretically guards the policed. Part II of this Article provides a discussion of legal concepts of state sovereignty in international law. Part III examines the role of police in U.N. peacekeeping missions from the first peacekeeping mission entailing policing operations in the 1960s through present day operations. This examination reveals a pattern in the growth and ...


Tort Reform With Chinese Characteristics: Towards A Harmonious Society In The People's Republic Of China, Andrew J. Green 2018 University of San Diego

Tort Reform With Chinese Characteristics: Towards A Harmonious Society In The People's Republic Of China, Andrew J. Green

San Diego International Law Journal

This Article presents an analysis of tort law in China specifically focusing on personal injury tort law. It provides a general background on the role of tort law in society, and then it analyzes the specific laws, regulations, and cases that form the personal injury tort regime, covering both historical and recent laws. The article then explores the forces in society and politics that seem to be behind the new legal rules. It concludes by drawing attention to several steps that may be taken as part of further reform.


Equality In Germany And The United States, Edward J. Eberle 2018 University of San Diego

Equality In Germany And The United States, Edward J. Eberle

San Diego International Law Journal

This Article will proceed as follows. Part I will describe the methodology and approach of American and German equality law. The constitutional Courts of both countries value equality highly, resulting in strong and well developed jurisprudence. Each of the Courts employ a sliding scale of judicial scrutiny with the degree of scrutiny varying with the trait or personal interest affected by the governmental measure. Strict or extremely intensive scrutiny applies to measures targeting personal traits that especially affect a person's identity, like race, national heritage, or alienage under United States law, and race, sex, gender, language, national origin, disability ...


The Meaning Of Wrongdoing - A Crime Of Disrespecting The Flag: Grounds For Preserving National Unity, Mohammed Saif-Alden Wattad 2018 University of San Diego

The Meaning Of Wrongdoing - A Crime Of Disrespecting The Flag: Grounds For Preserving National Unity, Mohammed Saif-Alden Wattad

San Diego International Law Journal

To conclude on this issue, the rights of others, as individuals and as a whole, are formulated as the social protected interest that criminal law seeks to protect through criminal means, and it is with these rights that criminal law theory should be concerned in the first level of scrutiny. However, in the second level of scrutiny, an additional set of rights are brought into play; these are the rights of the individual, namely the actor, to exercise their constitutional rights e.g., free speech, liberty, free exercise of religion. The second level of scrutiny requires balancing those rights with ...


Foreword, Kate Ryzoc 2018 University of San Diego

Foreword, Kate Ryzoc

San Diego International Law Journal

The United States has experienced unprecedented change over the last several months: the election of a black President, extreme volatility in the stock market, and the price of a barrel of gas dropping almost $100 in five months. However, these events on U.S. soil remind us how globally connected the world is. The election of Barack Obama caused global celebration. The economic downturn in the U.S. induced Britain, France, and others to execute massive stimulus packages. And when the price of a barrel of gas hit highs and lows, international markets reacted.

These international impacts remind us that ...


Data Indicate Second Amendment Underenforcement, David Kopel 2018 Duke Law

Data Indicate Second Amendment Underenforcement, David Kopel

Duke Law Journal Online

No abstract provided.


Fool Me Once: Regulating "Fake News" And Other Online Advertising, Abby Wood, Ann M. Ravel 2018 University of Southern California

Fool Me Once: Regulating "Fake News" And Other Online Advertising, Abby Wood, Ann M. Ravel

University of Southern California Legal Studies Working Paper Series

A lack of transparency for online political advertising has long been a problem in American political campaigns. Disinformation attacks that American voters have experienced since the 2016 campaign have made the need for regulatory action more pressing.

Platforms desire self-regulation and have only recently come around to supporting transparency regulations. While government must not regulate the content of political speech, it can, and should, force transparency into the process. We propose several interventions aimed at transparency. Most importantly, campaign finance regulators should require platforms to store and make available ads run on their platforms, as well as the audience at ...


Status Offenses In The Juvenile Justice System: Liberty And Justice For Some, Zachary Auspitz 2018 University of Miami Law School

Status Offenses In The Juvenile Justice System: Liberty And Justice For Some, Zachary Auspitz

University of Miami Race & Social Justice Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Invisible Voices Of The Movement To End Violence Against Women: Immigrant Survivors With Criminal Convictions, Leoni Fred 2018 University of Miami Law School

The Invisible Voices Of The Movement To End Violence Against Women: Immigrant Survivors With Criminal Convictions, Leoni Fred

University of Miami Race & Social Justice Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Future Of Tort Litigation For Undocumented Immigrants In Donald Trump’S “Great” America, Dina Lexine Sarver 2018 University of Miami Law School

The Future Of Tort Litigation For Undocumented Immigrants In Donald Trump’S “Great” America, Dina Lexine Sarver

University of Miami Race & Social Justice Law Review

No abstract provided.


A Monumental Undertaking – Tackling Vestiges Of The Confederacy In The Florida Landscape, Juanita Solis 2018 University of Miami Law School

A Monumental Undertaking – Tackling Vestiges Of The Confederacy In The Florida Landscape, Juanita Solis

University of Miami Race & Social Justice Law Review

Symbols of the Confederacy have been a volatile topic across the country as recent events have spurred new resistance to their display. Part I of this note provides a brief introduction into the current controversy surrounding Confederate monuments in the United States, with a particular emphasis on the erected memorials in the Florida landscape. Part II argues that Confederate monuments were mainly erected with the intention of advancing racial subordination during time periods in American history where black Americans resisted white supremacy. As shown by the events that followed right–wing violence in both South Carolina and Virginia, this note ...


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