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Algorithmic Risk Assessments And The Double-Edged Sword Of Youth, Megan T. Stevenson, Christopher Slobogin 2019 George Mason University

Algorithmic Risk Assessments And The Double-Edged Sword Of Youth, Megan T. Stevenson, Christopher Slobogin

Christopher Slobogin

Risk assessment algorithms—statistical formulas that predict the likelihood a person will commit crime in the future—are used across the country to help make life-altering decisions in the criminal process, including setting bail, determining sentences, selecting probation conditions, and deciding parole. Yet many of these instruments are “black-box” tools. The algorithms they use are secret, both to the sentencing authorities who rely on them and to the offender whose life is affected. The opaque nature of these tools raises numerous legal and ethical concerns. In this paper we argue that risk assessment algorithms obfuscate how certain factors, usually considered ...


Is It Time For A Universal Genetic Forensic Database?, Christopher Slobogin, Ellen Wright Clayton, J. W. Hazel, B. A. Malin 2019 Center for Biomedical Ethics and Society

Is It Time For A Universal Genetic Forensic Database?, Christopher Slobogin, Ellen Wright Clayton, J. W. Hazel, B. A. Malin

Christopher Slobogin

The ethical objections to mandating forensic profiling of newborns and/or compelling every citizen or visitor to submit to a buccal swab or to spit in a cup when they have done nothing wrong are not trivial. But newborns are already subject to compulsory medical screening, and people coming from foreign countries to the United States already submit to fingerprinting. It is also worth noting that concerns about coercion or invasions of privacy did not give pause to legislatures (or, for that matter, even the European Court) when authorizing compelled DNA sampling from arrestees, who should not forfeit genetic privacy ...


A Blueprint For A New American Trade Policy, Timothy Meyer, Ganesh Sitaraman 2019 Selected Works

A Blueprint For A New American Trade Policy, Timothy Meyer, Ganesh Sitaraman

Ganesh Sitaraman

In recent years, it has become clear that American trade policy needs to change. For decades, U.S. policy has reflected the implicit assumption that trade liberalization is beneficial for everyone, with few distributional downsides over time. But this assumption hasn’t been borne out. Instead, decades of trade liberalization have led to a backlash that resulted in both 2016 presidential nominees opposing the Obama Administration’s proposed Trans Pacific Partnership (TPP). And since 2017, President Donald Trump has begun a trade war with China; raised tariffs on the grounds of protecting national security; renegotiated NAFTA, though on terms that ...


Taking Antitrust Away From The Courts, Ganesh Sitaraman 2019 Selected Works

Taking Antitrust Away From The Courts, Ganesh Sitaraman

Ganesh Sitaraman

A small number of firms hold significant market power in a wide variety of sectors of the economy, leading commentators across the political spectrum to call for a reinvigoration of antitrust enforcement. But the antitrust agencies have been surprisingly timid in response to this challenge, and when they have tried to assert themselves, they have often found that hostile courts block their ability to foster competitive markets. In other areas of law, Congress delegates power to agencies, agencies make regulations setting standards, and courts provide deferential review after the fact. Antitrust doesn’t work this way. Courts – made up of ...


Topic Modeling The President: Conventional And Computational Methods, J.B. Ruhl, John Nay, Jonathan Gilligan 2019 New York University

Topic Modeling The President: Conventional And Computational Methods, J.B. Ruhl, John Nay, Jonathan Gilligan

J.B. Ruhl

Legal and policy scholars modeling direct actions into substantive topic classifications thus far have not employed computational methods. To compare the results of their conventional modeling methods with the computational method, we generated computational topic models of all direct actions over time periods other scholars have studied using conventional methods, and did the same for a case study of environmental-policy direct actions. Our computational model of all direct actions closely matched one of the two comprehensive empirical models developed using conventional methods. By contrast, our environmental-case-study model differed markedly from the only empirical topic model of environmental-policy direct actions using ...


Revisiting The Public Utility, Jim Rossi, Morgan Ricks 2019 Selected Works

Revisiting The Public Utility, Jim Rossi, Morgan Ricks

Morgan Ricks

This foreword introduces "Revisiting the Public Utility," a series of essays published in a special issue of Yale Journal on Regulation. We cluster the contributions to this issue around public utility regulation’s core rationales and its scope, its implications for innovation and industry stability, and its evolving approach to price regulation. The scholarship represented in this issue challenges the notion that public utility ideas are obsolete or irrelevant to modern issues in economic regulation. It questions whether public utility regulation has fallen short of its goals, and shows that there are some good reasons to question many embedded regulatory ...


Money As Infrastructure, Morgan Ricks 2019 Selected Works

Money As Infrastructure, Morgan Ricks

Morgan Ricks

Traditional infrastructure regulation—the law of regulated industries—rests atop three pillars: rate regulation, entry restriction, and universal service. This mode of regulation has typically been applied to providers of network-type resources: resources that are optimally supplied as integrated systems. The monetary system is such a resource; and money creation is the distinctive function of banks. Bank regulation can therefore be understood as a subfield of infrastructure regulation. With few exceptions, modern academic treatments of banking have emphasized banks’ intermediation function and downplayed or ignored their monetary function. Concomitantly, in recent decades U.S. bank regulation has strayed from its ...


Youth And Punishment At The Roberts Court, Sara Mayeux 2019 Selected Works

Youth And Punishment At The Roberts Court, Sara Mayeux

Sara Mayeux

No abstract provided.


Investor-State Dispute Settlement: Human Rights And Regulatory Lessons From "Lilly V. Canada", Daniel J. Gervais 2019 Selected Works

Investor-State Dispute Settlement: Human Rights And Regulatory Lessons From "Lilly V. Canada", Daniel J. Gervais

Daniel J Gervais

The triangular interface between trade, intellectual property (IP) and human rights has yet to be fully formed, both doctrinally and normatively. Adding investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS) to the mix increases the complexity of the equations to solve. Two resultant issues are explored in this Article. First, the Article considers ways in which broader public policy objectives—in particular the protection of human rights—can and should be factored into determinations of whether a state’s action is compatible with its trade obligations and commitments in the state-to-state dispute settlement context. Second, the Article examines whether doctrinal tools used in state-to-state ...


Is Groton The Next "Evenwel"?, Paul H. Edelman 2019 Selected Works

Is Groton The Next "Evenwel"?, Paul H. Edelman

Paul Edelman

In Evenwel v Abbott the Supreme Court left open the question of whether states could employ population measures other than total population as a basis for drawing representative districts so as to meet the requirement of ``one person- one vote'' (OPOV). It was thought that there was little prospect of resolving this question soon as no appropriate instances of such behavior was known. That belief was mistaken. In this note I report on the Town of Groton, Connecticut which uses registered voting data to apportion seats in its Representative Town Meeting, and has done so since its incorporation in 1957 ...


Is It Time For A Universal Genetic Forensic Database?, Christopher Slobogin, Ellen Wright Clayton, J. W. Hazel, B. A. Malin 2019 Center for Biomedical Ethics and Society

Is It Time For A Universal Genetic Forensic Database?, Christopher Slobogin, Ellen Wright Clayton, J. W. Hazel, B. A. Malin

Ellen Wright Clayton

The ethical objections to mandating forensic profiling of newborns and/or compelling every citizen or visitor to submit to a buccal swab or to spit in a cup when they have done nothing wrong are not trivial. But newborns are already subject to compulsory medical screening, and people coming from foreign countries to the United States already submit to fingerprinting. It is also worth noting that concerns about coercion or invasions of privacy did not give pause to legislatures (or, for that matter, even the European Court) when authorizing compelled DNA sampling from arrestees, who should not forfeit genetic privacy ...


Explicit Bias, Jessica A. Clarke 2019 Vanderbilt University

Explicit Bias, Jessica A. Clarke

Jessica Clarke

In recent decades, legal scholars have advanced sophisticated models for understanding prejudice and discrimination, drawing on disciplines such as psychology, sociology, and economics. These models explain how inequality is implicit in cognition and seamlessly woven into social structures. And yet, obvious, explicit, and overt forms of bias have not gone away. The law does not need empirical methods to identify bias when it is marching down the street in Nazi regalia, hurling misogynist invective, or trading in anti-Muslim stereotypes. Official acceptance of such prejudices may be uniquely harmful in normalizing discrimination. But surprisingly, many discrimination cases ignore explicit bias. Courts ...


Surprise Vs. Probability As A Metric For Proof, Edward K. Cheng, Matthew Ginther 2019 U.S. Court of Federal Claims

Surprise Vs. Probability As A Metric For Proof, Edward K. Cheng, Matthew Ginther

Edward Cheng

In this Symposium issue celebrating his career, Professor Michael Risinger in Leveraging Surprise proposes using "the fundamental emotion of surprise" as a way of measuring belief for purposes of legal proof. More specifically, Professor Risinger argues that we should not conceive of the burden of proof in terms of probabilities such as 51%, 95%, or even "beyond a reasonable doubt." Rather, the legal system should reference the threshold using "words of estimative surprise" -asking jurors how surprised they would be if the fact in question were not true. Toward this goal (and being averse to cardinality), he suggests categories such ...


Women's Day Feature, Srividhya Ragavan 2019 Texas A&M University School of Law

Women's Day Feature, Srividhya Ragavan

Srividhya Ragavan

No abstract provided.


Classic Star Wars Patents Coloring Book, Paulina Borrego 2019 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

Classic Star Wars Patents Coloring Book, Paulina Borrego

Paulina Borrego

Coloring book containing a selected page from twelve different U.S. design patents pertaining to the Star Wars movie.


Setting The Farm Animal Welfare Scene In North America, Anna K. Johnson 2019 Iowa State University

Setting The Farm Animal Welfare Scene In North America, Anna K. Johnson

Anna K. Butters-Johnson

The objectives of this paper are to (1) set the scene on what animal welfare is, the schools that one can subscribe and how this could influence the direction that farm animal welfare could go (2) provide an overview on some of the critical farm animal welfare events that have occurred over the past 10 years in North America and (3) to review the legislative events; past and future that will affect farm animal welfare. Animal welfare is not a term that arose in science to express a scientific concept; rather it arose in western civilization through society to express ...


Trump V. International Refugee Assistance Program, Jeremy Martin 2019 Ohio Northern University Pettit College of Law

Trump V. International Refugee Assistance Program, Jeremy Martin

Ohio Northern University Law Review

No abstract provided.


Packingham V. North Carolina, Madeleine Burnette-McGrath 2019 Ohio Northern University Pettit College of Law

Packingham V. North Carolina, Madeleine Burnette-Mcgrath

Ohio Northern University Law Review

No abstract provided.


Bank Of America Corporation V. City Of Miami, Veronica Nicholson 2019 Ohio Northern University Pettit College of Law

Bank Of America Corporation V. City Of Miami, Veronica Nicholson

Ohio Northern University Law Review

No abstract provided.


Luck And Tax Policy, Mark J. Mazur 2019 Urban-Brookings Tax Policy Center

Luck And Tax Policy, Mark J. Mazur

Ohio Northern University Law Review

No abstract provided.


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