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Prosecuting Rape Victims While Rapists Run Free: The Consequences Of Police Failure To Investigate Sex Crimes In Britain And The United States, Lisa Avalos 2019 University of Arkansas School of Law

Prosecuting Rape Victims While Rapists Run Free: The Consequences Of Police Failure To Investigate Sex Crimes In Britain And The United States, Lisa Avalos

Michigan Journal of Gender and Law

Imagine that a close friend is raped, and you encourage her to report it to the police. At first, she thinks that the police are taking her report seriously, but the investigation does not seem to move forward. The next thing she knows, they accuse her of lying and ultimately file charges against her. You and your friend are in shock; this outcome never entered your minds. This nightmare may seem inconceivable, but it has in fact occurred repeatedly in both the United States and Britain—countries that are typically lauded for their high levels of gender equality. In Britain ...


Social Networking Sites And Learning In International Relations: The Impact Of Platforms, Josh Pallas, Joakim Eidenfalk, Susan N. Engel 2019 University of Wollongong

Social Networking Sites And Learning In International Relations: The Impact Of Platforms, Josh Pallas, Joakim Eidenfalk, Susan N. Engel

Faculty of Law, Humanities and the Arts - Papers

This article reports on a pilot undergraduate subject that incorporated a range of technology-enhanced learning approaches including online lectures, an online site for in and out of class communications, and strong encouragement for students to blog and use Twitter. This paper evaluates student engagement through the social networking sites (SNS), focusing on the online communication and content platform. We examine whether changing from an educationally oriented SNS platform to Facebook impacted on student engagement and feedback. To achieve this, both empirical data and qualitative student feedback were used.


#Metoo Meets The Ministerial Exception: Sexual Harassment Claims By Clergy And The First Amendment's Religion Clauses, Ira C. Lupu, Robert W. Tuttle 2019 George Washington University Law School

#Metoo Meets The Ministerial Exception: Sexual Harassment Claims By Clergy And The First Amendment's Religion Clauses, Ira C. Lupu, Robert W. Tuttle

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

In Hosanna-Tabor Evangelical Lutheran Church & School v. EEOC (2012), the Supreme Court unanimously held that the Religion Clauses of the First Amendment create a “ministerial exception” to certain employment laws. The ministerial exception bars claims by clergy of wrongful dismissal by religious institutions. In the years before Hosanna-Tabor, however, courts had ruled in four prominent decisions – two state, and two federal – that suits by clergy for sexual harassment
based on a pervasively hostile environment could go forward, notwithstanding the ministerial exception. The rise of the #MeToo movement invites new and more detailed consideration of the tension between the policies behind sexual harassment law and the constitutional values protected by the ministerial exception.

Part I describes the contours of the ministerial exception, explains its constitutional provenance, and highlights the issues left open by Hosanna-Tabor. Part II addresses relevant developments in the law of sexual harassment, from the pioneering work of Professor Catherine MacKinnon, through and including the Supreme Court’s decisions in Burlington Industries v. Ellerth and Faragher v. City of Boca Raton.

Part III explores the leading judicial opinions on the relationship between sexual harassment law and the ministerial exception. These include the germinal state court decisions in Black v. Snyder (Minnesota) and McKelvey v. Pierce (New Jersey), and the path breaking 9th Circuit decisions in Bollard v. California Province of the Society of Jesus, and Elvig v. Calvin Presbyterian Church. In the law that has emerged, the ministerial exception bars adverse job action claims by clergy but does not bar hostile environment claims. That brief statement, however, masks the analytical complexities and constitutional concerns arising from the interplay between harassment law and the ministerial exception. The sources of tension include the affirmative defenses, requiring employer-created mechanisms for reasonable prevention and correction in sexual harassment cases, as well as matters of discovery and choice of remedies.

Part IV applies our theoretical and doctrinal insights to the major questions raised by this interplay. We explain why the ministerial exception is constitutionally sound, but nevertheless should not bar damage claims for pervasive, hostile environments based on sex. We offer a tort-based theory of harm as the underpinning of hostile environment doctrine; analyze the tenuous connection between religious belief and sexual harassment of clergy; and unpack constitutional questions of entanglement between church and state that may arise when religious institutions face hostile environment lawsuits. Our analysis should be of interest to scholars of employment law and the Religion Clauses, lawyers litigating such cases, and judges who must decide them.

In Hosanna-Tabor Evangelical Lutheran Church & School v. EEOC (2012), the Supreme Court unanimously held that the Religion Clauses of the First Amendment create a “ministerial exception” to certain employment laws. The ministerial exception bars claims by clergy of wrongful dismissal by religious institutions. In the years before Hosanna-Tabor, however, courts had ruled in four prominent decisions – two state, and two federal – that suits by clergy for sexual harassment
based on a pervasively hostile environment could go forward, notwithstanding the ministerial exception. The rise of the #MeToo movement invites new and more detailed consideration of the tension between the policies behind sexual harassment law and the constitutional values protected by the ministerial exception.

Part I describes the contours of the ministerial exception, explains its constitutional provenance, and highlights the issues left open by Hosanna-Tabor. Part II addresses relevant developments in the law of sexual harassment, from the pioneering work of Professor Catherine MacKinnon, through and including the Supreme Court’s decisions in Burlington Industries v. Ellerth and Faragher v. City of Boca Raton.

Part III explores the leading judicial opinions on the relationship between sexual harassment law and the ministerial exception. These include the germinal state court decisions in Black v. Snyder (Minnesota) and McKelvey v. Pierce (New Jersey), and the path breaking 9th Circuit decisions in Bollard v. California Province of the Society of Jesus, and Elvig v. Calvin Presbyterian Church. In the law that has emerged, the ministerial exception bars adverse job action claims by clergy but does
not bar hostile environment claims. That brief statement, however, masks the analytical complexities and constitutional concerns arising from the interplay between harassment law and the ministerial exception. The sources of tension include the affirmative defenses, requiring employer-created mechanisms for reasonable prevention and correction in sexual harassment cases, as well as matters of discovery and choice of remedies.

Part IV applies our theoretical and doctrinal insights to the major questions raised by this interplay. We explain why the ministerial exception is constitutionally sound, but nevertheless should not bar damage claims for pervasive, hostile environments based on sex. We offer a tort-based theory of harm as the underpinning of hostile environment doctrine; analyze the tenuous connection between religious belief and sexual harassment of clergy; and unpack constitutional questions of entanglement between church and state that may arise when religious institutions face hostile environment lawsuits. Our ...


Finding Law, Stephen E. Sachs 2019 Duke Law School

Finding Law, Stephen E. Sachs

Faculty Scholarship

That the judge's task is to find the law, not to make it, was once a commonplace of our legal culture. Today, decades after Erie, the idea of a common law discovered by judges is commonly dismissed -- as a "fallacy," an "illusion," a "brooding omnipresence in the sky." That dismissive view is wrong. Expecting judges to find unwritten law is no childish fiction of the benighted past, but a real and plausible option for a modern legal system.

This Essay seeks to restore the respectability of finding law, in part by responding to two criticisms made by Erie and ...


Mmu: 12/11/17 - 12/17/17, Notre Dame Law School 2018 Notre Dame Law School

Mmu: 12/11/17 - 12/17/17, Notre Dame Law School

Monday Morning Update

The Monday Morning Update, or MMU as it is referred to by students, is a weekly email newsletter of news, events, and opportunities of special interest to Notre Dame Law School students.


Clinical And Experiential Learning In Canadian Law Schools: Current Perspectives, Gemma Smyth, Samantha Hale, Neil Gold 2018 Faculty of Law, University of Windsor

Clinical And Experiential Learning In Canadian Law Schools: Current Perspectives, Gemma Smyth, Samantha Hale, Neil Gold

Law Publications

What are some of the challenges and possibilities animating modern Canadian clinical and experiential learning in law? This question was the starting point for our research, which examined two sets of data. In the first part of this project, we analyzed available information on existing clinical and experiential learning programs in Canadian law schools. This data revealed a growing quantity and variety of programs across the country. We then held qualitative interviews with deans, professors, and clinicians across Canada regarding their views of clinical and experiential learning. While the interviews suggested that many of the same financial and curricular challenges ...


How Irrational Actors In The Ceo Suite Affect Corporate Governance, Renee M. Jones 2018 Boston College Law School

How Irrational Actors In The Ceo Suite Affect Corporate Governance, Renee M. Jones

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

No abstract provided.


Medical Marijuana And The Healthcare System, John T. Lear-Phillips 2018 Eastern Kentucky University

Medical Marijuana And The Healthcare System, John T. Lear-Phillips

Kentucky Journal of Undergraduate Scholarship

Many individuals in America suffer from chronic diseases (Glaucoma, Cancer, PTSD, HIV/AIDS, and multiple sclerosis) and medical marijuana can alleviate the side effects associated with these conditions. The federal government should legalize marijuana in order to give individuals with chronic diseases the organic medication they need to manage their symptoms. The current literature discusses how this topic is a national and community healthcare issue due to the large numbers of individuals with chronic conditions who could benefit from access to medical marijuana. Medical marijuana has the ability to improve the cost, access, and quality of healthcare in the United ...


Islamic Terrorism In The United States – The Association Of Religious Fundamentalism With Social Isolation & Paths Leading To Extreme Violence Through Processes Of Radicalization., Shay Shiran 2018 Shay Shiran

Islamic Terrorism In The United States – The Association Of Religious Fundamentalism With Social Isolation & Paths Leading To Extreme Violence Through Processes Of Radicalization., Shay Shiran

Student Theses

This exploratory study focuses on identifying motivations for religious terrorism and Islamic terrorism in the United States in particular. Terrorism is a crime of extreme violence with the end purpose of political influence. This crime is challenging to encounter for its multi-faced characteristics, the unusual motivations of its actors, and their semi-militant conduct. The hypothesis of this study asserts that religious terrorists are radicalized by passing from fundamental to extreme devout agendas, caused by isolation from the dominant society, and resulted in high potential to impose those agendas by extreme violence. Under the theoretical framework of subculture in criminology, this ...


Prior Mental Health Treatment And Mental Health Court Program Outcomes, Lauren Rubenstein 2018 CUNY John Jay College

Prior Mental Health Treatment And Mental Health Court Program Outcomes, Lauren Rubenstein

Student Theses

In response to the high volume of mentally ill individuals involved in the criminal justice system, mental health courts have emerged as an alternative to incarceration for these individuals. Based on the literature, it is hypothesized that participants with a history of prior mental health treatment will have better outcomes in MHC programs, including more compliant behavior and more successful completion of the program than participants with no history of prior mental health treatment. The findings of this research can be used in order to help MHC programs better accommodate all participants regardless of their treatment history.


Cancelled Credit Cards: Substantial Risk Of Future Injury As A Basis For Standing In Data Breach Cases, Jennifer Wilt 2018 Southern Methodist University

Cancelled Credit Cards: Substantial Risk Of Future Injury As A Basis For Standing In Data Breach Cases, Jennifer Wilt

SMU Law Review

No abstract provided.


Extraterritoriality And The Alien Tort Statute— Narrow Application Preserves Crucial Boundaries, Alicia Pitts 2018 Southern Methodist University

Extraterritoriality And The Alien Tort Statute— Narrow Application Preserves Crucial Boundaries, Alicia Pitts

SMU Law Review

No abstract provided.


First Amendment Electronic Speech: Ex Parte Reece, A Missed Opportunity To Narrow Texas’S Unconstitutionally Overbroad Anti-Harassment Statute, Brian Long 2018 Southern Methodist University

First Amendment Electronic Speech: Ex Parte Reece, A Missed Opportunity To Narrow Texas’S Unconstitutionally Overbroad Anti-Harassment Statute, Brian Long

SMU Law Review

No abstract provided.


Second Amendment: D.C. Circuit Court Creates Split On The Constitutionality Of Good-Reason Laws, Madeleine Giese 2018 Southern Methodist University

Second Amendment: D.C. Circuit Court Creates Split On The Constitutionality Of Good-Reason Laws, Madeleine Giese

SMU Law Review

No abstract provided.


What’S In A Name?: Proving Actual Damages For Reputational Harm In Texas Defamation Cases Will Only Get Harder, Austin Brakebill 2018 Southern Methodist University

What’S In A Name?: Proving Actual Damages For Reputational Harm In Texas Defamation Cases Will Only Get Harder, Austin Brakebill

SMU Law Review

No abstract provided.


“You’Re Not Gonna Reach My Telephone”— The Resurgence Of The Fourth Amendment’S Particularity Requirement, Tammie Beassie Banko 2018 Southern Methodist University

“You’Re Not Gonna Reach My Telephone”— The Resurgence Of The Fourth Amendment’S Particularity Requirement, Tammie Beassie Banko

SMU Law Review

No abstract provided.


Monitoring Behavior: Universities, Nonprofits, Patents, And Litigation, Teo Firpo, Michael S. Mireles 2018 NESTA

Monitoring Behavior: Universities, Nonprofits, Patents, And Litigation, Teo Firpo, Michael S. Mireles

SMU Law Review

This paper examines the confluence of two important issues concerning patent law. The two issues are the merits of the debate concerning the supposed “patent troll” crisis and the increased patenting and licensing of university and other nonprofit inventions, including the litigation of those patents.

First, there is a debate in the literature concerning the presence and scope of the problem concerning so-called “patent trolls.” To some, supposed “patent troll” behavior is ordinary litigation behavior, and to others, it points to problems with the patent litigation system. Indeed, some may argue that the benefits of “patent trolls” may outweigh the ...


The Enforceability Of Consent-To-Assign Provisions In Texas Oil And Gas Leases, T. Ray Guy, Jason Wright 2018 Weil, Gotshal & Manges

The Enforceability Of Consent-To-Assign Provisions In Texas Oil And Gas Leases, T. Ray Guy, Jason Wright

SMU Law Review

Oil and gas leases are unique instruments that, on their face, appear to be contracts or traditional landlord–tenant leases. Indeed, landowners often desire to have them treated as such by including provisions giving a lessor power to limit or control any assignment of the lease. Typically, this takes the form of a consent-to-assign provision seen in many types of ordinary contracts and leases. In Texas, however, an oil gas lease actually conveys a fee simple property interest; and property law, far more than contract or landlord–tenant law, greatly disfavors any restraint that acts to restrict the free transferability ...


Panel Effects In Administrative Law: A Study Of Rules, Standards, And Judicial Whistleblowing, Morgan Hazelton, Kristin E. Hickman, Emerson Tiller 2018 Saint Louis University

Panel Effects In Administrative Law: A Study Of Rules, Standards, And Judicial Whistleblowing, Morgan Hazelton, Kristin E. Hickman, Emerson Tiller

SMU Law Review

In this article, we consider whether “panel effects”—that is, the condition where the presence, or expected voting behavior, of one judge on a judicial panel influences the way another judge, or set of judges, on the same panel votes—varies depending upon the form of the legal doctrine. In particular, we ask whether the hand of an ideological minority appellate judge (that is, a Democrat-appointed judge with two Republican appointees or a Republican-appointed judge with two Democrat appointees) is strengthened by the existence of a legal doctrine packaged in the form of a rule rather than a standard. Specifically ...


Quarantine And The Federal Role In Epidemics, Michael R. Ulrich, Wendy K. Mariner 2018 Boston University School of Public Health

Quarantine And The Federal Role In Epidemics, Michael R. Ulrich, Wendy K. Mariner

SMU Law Review

Every recent presidential administration has faced an infectious disease threat, and this trend is certain to continue. The states have primary responsibility for protecting the public’s health under their police powers, but modern travel makes diseases almost impossible to contain intrastate. How should the federal government respond in the future? The Ebola scare in the U.S. repeated a typical response—demands for quarantine. In January 2017, the Department of Health and Human Services and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued final regulations on its authority to issue Federal Quarantine Orders. These regulations rely heavily on confining ...


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