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A Rational Approach To Business Entity Choice, Eric Franklin 2015 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

A Rational Approach To Business Entity Choice, Eric Franklin

Eric H. Franklin

Choosing the correct legal entity for a business is a decision that should not be taken lightly. For an entrepreneur, the legal entity decision carries consequences that will affect vital aspects of the business, including how it will be managed, taxed, and viewed by the public. Unfortunately, entrepreneurs generally give this decision little attention and make the choice without legal or tax advice. Compounding the issue is the fact that many states offer a dizzying number of legal entity forms. Indeed, many states offer more than a dozen different legal entity forms, despite the fact that most of these forms ...


A Constitutinal Analysis Of The Ncaa’S New Autonomous Governance Model And Its Effects On Student Athletes, Non-Athletes, And Professors – Is The Termination Of Uab’S Football Program Just The Beginning Of Things To Come?, Tyler N. Wilson 2015 St. Mary's University School of Law in San Antonio, TX

A Constitutinal Analysis Of The Ncaa’S New Autonomous Governance Model And Its Effects On Student Athletes, Non-Athletes, And Professors – Is The Termination Of Uab’S Football Program Just The Beginning Of Things To Come?, Tyler N. Wilson

Tyler N Wilson

No abstract provided.


Corporate Complicity In Human Rights Violations Under International Criminal Law, Danielle Olson 2015 DePaul University

Corporate Complicity In Human Rights Violations Under International Criminal Law, Danielle Olson

International Human Rights Law Journal

This paper examines the main legal elements of corporate criminal responsibility for involvement in serious human rights violations, focusing specifically on the mens rea, or mental element requirement of a crime. It analyzes in detail what it means for a business to be complicit, the degree of knowledge corporations and their officials must have to be implicated in accomplice liability, and a case study demonstrating the consequences of such liability on corporations.


The Investigation Procedures Of The United Nations Office Of Internal Oversight Services And The Rights Of The United Nations Staff Member: An Analysis Of The United Nations Judicial Tribunals’ Judgments On Disciplinary Cases In The United Nations, Tamara A. Shockley 2015 UNICEF

The Investigation Procedures Of The United Nations Office Of Internal Oversight Services And The Rights Of The United Nations Staff Member: An Analysis Of The United Nations Judicial Tribunals’ Judgments On Disciplinary Cases In The United Nations, Tamara A. Shockley

Pace International Law Review

An employee of an international organization misappropriates over one million dollars from a United Nations Peace-Keeping Mission’s designated for procurement of supplies. As a staff member of an international organization, he or she has functional immunity and cannot be investigated by the local jurisdiction or by authorities in his home country. Is this the “perfect crime”? Taking into consideration that these misappropriated funds are contributions from Member States of the United Nations, is there any recourse to investigate the facts of the incident to determine culpability?

International organizations have a legal obligation to ensure compliance with internal regulations, rules ...


An Approach To The Regulation Of Spanish Banking Foundations, Miguel Martínez 2015 Universidad Pontificia de Comillas

An Approach To The Regulation Of Spanish Banking Foundations, Miguel Martínez

Miguel Martínez

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the legal framework governing banking foundations as they have been regulated by Spanish Act 26/2013, of December 27th, on savings banks and banking foundations. Title 2 of this regulation addresses a construct that is groundbreaking for the Spanish legal system, still of paramount importance for the entire financial system insofar as these foundations become the leading players behind certain banking institutions given the high interest that foundations hold in the share capital of such institutions.


Papa's Brand New Bag: The Need For Irs Recognition Of An Independent Nonprofit Limited Liability Company (Nllc), Kenya JH Smith 2015 Marquette University Law School

Papa's Brand New Bag: The Need For Irs Recognition Of An Independent Nonprofit Limited Liability Company (Nllc), Kenya Jh Smith

Marquette Law Review

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And Then There Were Two: Why Is The United States One Of Only Two Countries In The World That Has Not Ratified The Convention On The Rights Of The Child?, Mark Engman 2015 Director, Public Policy and Advocacy at U.S. Fund for UNICEF

And Then There Were Two: Why Is The United States One Of Only Two Countries In The World That Has Not Ratified The Convention On The Rights Of The Child?, Mark Engman

International Human Rights Law Journal

Twenty-five years ago, the United Nations General Assembly (‘U.N. General Assembly’) unanimously adopted the Convention on the Rights of the Child (hereinafter the “CRC”), which became the most widely accepted human rights treaty in history. Today, every nation in the world is a party to the CRC – except for two: Somalia, and the United States. This article will analyze the politics behind America’s failure to ratify this treaty. That may seem a little out of place in a law journal, but in reality the United States’ (‘U.S.’) acceptance or rejection of international law is as much a ...


Principled Humanitarian Organizations And The Use Of Force: Is There Space To Speak Out?, Scott Paul, Elizabeth Holland 2015 Senior Humanitarian Advisor, Oxfam America

Principled Humanitarian Organizations And The Use Of Force: Is There Space To Speak Out?, Scott Paul, Elizabeth Holland

International Human Rights Law Journal

Humanitarian organizations are fundamentally concerned with addressing the suffering of civilians. The decision by an armed actor to resort to force can result in greater protection or greater harm, and has at least as significant an impact on civilian lives as any decision made during the conduct of hostilities. Yet, humanitarian organizations rarely publicly advocate for or against the use of force. This article explores the perceived and actual limitations that humanitarian principles place on the public advocacy of humanitarian organizations regarding the recourse to force. It begins with a discussion of the relevant legal framework and explication of the ...


Parliamentary Diplomacy And The North-South Dialogue, Noel Lateef 2015 Yale Law School

Parliamentary Diplomacy And The North-South Dialogue, Noel Lateef

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


The Associational Hoax: Corporate Personhood & Shareholder Rights After Hobby Lobby And Citizens United, Jaimie K. McFarlin 2015 Harvard University

The Associational Hoax: Corporate Personhood & Shareholder Rights After Hobby Lobby And Citizens United, Jaimie K. Mcfarlin

Jaimie K. McFarlin

No abstract provided.


From Prosecutorial To Reparatory: A Valuable Post-Conflict Change Of Focus, Nancy A. Combs 2015 William & Mary Law School

From Prosecutorial To Reparatory: A Valuable Post-Conflict Change Of Focus, Nancy A. Combs

Michigan Journal of International Law

The ICC is well known in international legal circles. Indeed, everyone who knows anything about international law knows that the ICC is the acronym for the International Criminal Court, the body charged with prosecuting international crimes around the globe. Created in 2002, the ICC was intended to “put an end to impunity” for the perpetrators of international crimes” and to affirm “that the most serious crimes of concern to the international community as a whole must not go unpunished.”1 Imagine, however, a world where the “ICC” instead was an acronym for the International Compensation Court. That is, what if ...


Inciting Genocide With Words, Richard A. Wilson 2015 University of Connecticut School of Law

Inciting Genocide With Words, Richard A. Wilson

Michigan Journal of International Law

During the 1994 genocide in Rwanda, observers emphasized the role of media propaganda in inciting Rwandan Hutus to attack the Tutsi minority group, with one claiming that the primary tools of genocide were “the radio and the machete.” As a steady stream of commentators referred to “radio genocide” and “death by radio” and “the soundtrack to genocide,” a widespread consensus emerged that key responsibility for the genocide lay with the Rwandan media. Mathias Ruzindana, prosecution expert witness at the ICTR, supports this notion, writing, “In the case of the 1994 genocide in Rwanda, the effect of language was lethal . . . hate ...


The Incitement Of Terrorism On The Internet: Legal Standards, Enforcement, And The Role Of The European Union, Ezekiel Rediker 2015 University of Michigan Law School

The Incitement Of Terrorism On The Internet: Legal Standards, Enforcement, And The Role Of The European Union, Ezekiel Rediker

Michigan Journal of International Law

Consider this sentence: “The Shining Path is a heroic organization.” Over the past thirty years, the Shining Path has waged a violent guerilla war against the Peruvian government, prompting the European Union to designate the group as a terrorist organization. In certain European countries, speech inciting or glorifying terrorist organizations is criminalized. As a result, citizens risk prosecution if they do not carefully limit what they say about the Shining Path, or other terrorist organizations. But where does free speech end and incitement to terrorism begin? The debate over free speech and incitement to terrorism is actively being played out ...


Can The Eu Be A Constitutional System Without Universal Access To Judical Review, Brian Libgober 2015 Harvard University

Can The Eu Be A Constitutional System Without Universal Access To Judical Review, Brian Libgober

Michigan Journal of International Law

This Comment engages with a central dilemma about the legal order of the European Union: is the EU a constitutional system, a treaty system, or a hybrid system for which we must develop a new conceptual vocabulary? Besides intrinsic interest, resolving this categorization problem is important for deciding a number of issues in European Union law. For example, are legal strategies that are normally available to parties in international law viable in the European legal order? Should Community law be supreme over national law? If so, what limits should be placed on that supremacy, and “who should have the ultimate ...


Lawyered Up: Local Communities, Courts, And Urban Renewal, Madeline Spolin 2015 Macalester College

Lawyered Up: Local Communities, Courts, And Urban Renewal, Madeline Spolin

Sociology Honors Projects

What is the role of the judicial system in solving issues of urban renewal? I propose that communities use courts as a redress to become part of the decision making process on urban renewal issues, because courts provide procedural issues that are easily open to challenge in federal statute. I analyze public statements made throughout the construction of the Green Line in Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota, a federally funded urban renewal project. In spite of built in public consultation processes, changes to transit design do not occur when concerns are raised at public consultation meetings; instead, they come from ...


Profile - Human Rights Watch, James Hagy, Mehgan Gallagher 2015 New York Law School

Profile - Human Rights Watch, James Hagy, Mehgan Gallagher

Rooftops Project

Rooftops Project Profile - Human Rights Watch - Every day, not-for-profit organizations face “stay or move” choices when they approach the end of their leases. Making predictions about space, and making space work, can be challenging. How did one such organization assess its choices as a tenant in one of the most iconic buildings in Manhattan? The Rooftops Project’s Mehgan Gallagher speaks with David Bragg at Human Rights Watch.


Professor Gerald Korngold On Conservation Easements, James Hagy, Katherine DiSalvo, Naveed Fazal 2015 New York Law School

Professor Gerald Korngold On Conservation Easements, James Hagy, Katherine Disalvo, Naveed Fazal

Rooftops Project

The Rooftops Project’s Katherine DiSalvo and Naveed Fazal talk with New York Law School Professor and conservation easement scholar, Gerald Korngold.


Perspectives - Cannon Design’S Open Hand Studio, James Hagy, Sahar Nikanjam 2015 New York Law School

Perspectives - Cannon Design’S Open Hand Studio, James Hagy, Sahar Nikanjam

Rooftops Project

Not only can architects create great space, they can also inspire better connections between the built environment and the social sector. John Syvertsen, Chris Lambert, and Ashley Marsh talk with Sahar Nikanjam and Professor James Hagy of The Rooftops Project about their work with not-for-profit organizations through architectural firm Cannon Design’s Open Hand Studio initiative.


Person, State Or Not: The Place Of Business Corporations In Our Constitutional Order, Daniel J.H. Greenwood 2015 Hofstra University, Deane School of Law

Person, State Or Not: The Place Of Business Corporations In Our Constitutional Order, Daniel J.H. Greenwood

Daniel J.H. Greenwood

Business corporations are critical institutions in our democratic republican market-based economic order. The United States Constitution, however, is completely silent as to their status in our system. The Supreme Court has filled this silence by repeatedly granting corporations rights against the citizenry and its elected representatives.

Instead, we ought to view business corporations, like municipal corporations, as governance structures created by We the People to promote our general Welfare. On this social contract view, corporations should have the constitutional rights specified in the text: none. Instead, we should be debating which rights of citizens against governmental agencies should also apply ...


Broad Shareholder Value And The Inevitable Role Of Conscience, Paul D. Weitzel, Zachariah J. Rodgers 2015 Davis Polk & Wardwell, LLP

Broad Shareholder Value And The Inevitable Role Of Conscience, Paul D. Weitzel, Zachariah J. Rodgers

Paul D. Weitzel

This article proposes an integrative solution to the modern debate on corporate purpose, the question of whether directors and officers must solely maximize profits or whether they may consider the effects on employees, the environment or the community. Many find pure profit maximization unseemly and suggest alternative theories, typically arguing that corporations owe a duty to a broader range of stakeholders. This position is inconsistent with the case law and unnecessary to allow conscience in the board room. We resolve the issue more simply by acknowledging that the purpose of a corporation is to promote the shareholders’ interests, which includes ...


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