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The Nineteenth Amendment And The U.S. "Women's Emancipation Policy" In Post-World War Ii Occupied Japan: Going Beyond Suffrage, Cornelia Weiss 2020 The University of Akron

The Nineteenth Amendment And The U.S. "Women's Emancipation Policy" In Post-World War Ii Occupied Japan: Going Beyond Suffrage, Cornelia Weiss

Akron Law Review

This paper explores the influence of the Nineteenth Amendment on U.S. military occupation policy in Post-World War II Japan. A mere 25 years after the ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment, actions taken during the military occupation did not stop at suffrage for Japanese women. Actions included a constitution that provided for women’s “equality” (what, even 100 years after the ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment, is still absent in the U.S. constitution). In addition to addressing women’s suffrage and constitutional equality, this paper examines the successes and failures of the Occupation to eradicate the legal enslavement of ...


National And International Security In Space: International Law Implications Of Space Force And Planetary Defense, Dr. Andrea Harrington 2020 Air Command and Staff College

National And International Security In Space: International Law Implications Of Space Force And Planetary Defense, Dr. Andrea Harrington

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Congressional Committee Resources On Space Policy During The 115th Congress (2017-2018): Providing Context And Insight Into Us Government Space Policy, Bert Chapman 2020 Purdue University

Congressional Committee Resources On Space Policy During The 115th Congress (2017-2018): Providing Context And Insight Into Us Government Space Policy, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Presentations

Article 1 of the US Constitution assigns the US Congress numerous responsibilities. These include creating new laws, revising existing laws, funding government programs, and conducting oversight of these programs' performance. Oversight of US Government agency space policy programs is executed by various congressional space policy committees including the House and Senate Science Committees, Armed Services, and Appropriations Committees. These committees conduct many public hearings on space policy, which invite expert witnesses to testify on US space policy programs and feature debate on the strengths and weaknesses of these programs. Documentation produced by these committees is widely available to the public ...


Dprk Maritime Sanctions Enforcement, Raul (Pete) Pedrozo 2020 U.S. Indo-Pacific Command

Dprk Maritime Sanctions Enforcement, Raul (Pete) Pedrozo

International Law Studies

The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) has been under U.N. sanctions since 2006 to dissuade the DPRK from continuing its nuclear weapons and ballistic missile programs. Nonetheless, the DPRK has evaded these sanctions, particularly through unlawful ship-to-ship transfers of refined petroleum products and coal. DPRK sanctions evasion, particularly as it relates to maritime activities, remains a critical issue that allows the DRPK government to continue its pursuit of nuclear weapons and its testing and amassment of ballistic missiles. Given the DPRK’s use of maritime tactics to evade sanctions, maritime interdiction is the most effective way to ...


Narcotraffic As Connected Political Crime In Colombia: The Farc Case, Andrea Mateus-Rugeles, Paula C. Arias 2020 Universidad del Rosario School of Law

Narcotraffic As Connected Political Crime In Colombia: The Farc Case, Andrea Mateus-Rugeles, Paula C. Arias

University of Miami Inter-American Law Review

No abstract provided.


Combating Sexual Misconduct And Abuse Of Authority In The United States Army: Same Long Fight, Wesley Martin 2020 United States Army Military Police (Retired)

Combating Sexual Misconduct And Abuse Of Authority In The United States Army: Same Long Fight, Wesley Martin

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

Before my combat deployments into Iraq, I, Colonel Wes Martin, had successfully fought another war. As a military police officer, I spent many years fighting against sexual misconduct, abuse of authority, and cover-ups within the senior officer and sergeant ranks in the United States Army. During this fight I faced continual criticism from my senior officers who claimed I was discrediting the Army by exposing the corrupt and immoral behavior of senior officers and sergeants.

During the early days of standing up to the corruption, when I had the rank of Major, I received retaliatory evaluations and was forced to ...


Evolution Of United States Navy Amphibious Landing Doctrine During World War Ii, Jaedon A. Foreman 2020 University of South Dakota

Evolution Of United States Navy Amphibious Landing Doctrine During World War Ii, Jaedon A. Foreman

Honors Thesis

Leaving World War I and heading into World War II the United States Navy had to prepare for an unforeseen future on the open seas. After the attack on Pearl Harbor the United States was thrust into World War II and needed an effective amphibious landing doctrine to be able to counter adversary advances. This thesis covers the evolution of landing doctrine from the beginning to the end of World War II while highlighting the impacts that Operations Torch, Husky, Shingle, and Overlord had on the Navy's landing doctrine after the war.


The Legal Characterization Of Lethal Autonomous Maritime Systems: Warship, Torpedo, Or Naval Mine?, Hitoshi Nasu, David Letts 2020 University of Exeter

The Legal Characterization Of Lethal Autonomous Maritime Systems: Warship, Torpedo, Or Naval Mine?, Hitoshi Nasu, David Letts

International Law Studies

With the rapid advances in autonomous navigation and artificial intelligence technology, naval industries are edging closer to the development of unmanned maritime platforms with lethal autonomous capability—lethal autonomous maritime systems (LAMS). The emergence of LAMS as a sui generis hybrid weapon system will almost certainly generate disagreement on their legal status. Currently, there is no agreement among States as to whether LAMS should legally be characterized as warships or other means of warfare, such as torpedoes and naval mines. This lack of certainty represents a significant deficiency with potential strategic and operational implications if left unresolved. To assist States ...


Australian National Audit Office: Evaluating Australian Army Program Performance, Bert Chapman 2020 Purdue University

Australian National Audit Office: Evaluating Australian Army Program Performance, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Scholarship and Research

The Australian National Audit Office (ANAO) evaluates the management and financial performance of Australian government programs for the Australian Parliament, Australian government agencies, Australian taxpayers, and individuals interested in the performance of these programs globally. This article examines how ANAO has examined the performance of Australian Army programs and strengths and weaknesses found in these programs while recommending changes to improve program performance. It also examines how government agencies and corporations which have been the subject of ANAO analyses have reacted to ANAO findings. This assessment also examines how Plan B (the possibility that Australia might have to rely less ...


Contemporary Practice Of The United States Relating To International Law (114:2 Am J Int'l L), Jean Galbraith 2020 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Contemporary Practice Of The United States Relating To International Law (114:2 Am J Int'l L), Jean Galbraith

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This article is reproduced with permission from the April 2020 issue of the American Journal of International Law © 2020 American Society of International Law. All rights reserved.


Life Factors Affecting U.S. Army Junior-Enlisted Soldiers In Reaching Their Educational Goals, Irina Rader 2020 Western Kentucky University

Life Factors Affecting U.S. Army Junior-Enlisted Soldiers In Reaching Their Educational Goals, Irina Rader

Dissertations

This study focused on drawing a picture of the dynamics and educational experiences of U.S. Army junior-enlisted soldiers in the rank of specialist in the RA. Those soldiers are eligible to participate in the U.S. Army’s VolEd Program available worldwide. According to Gleiman and Zacharakis (2016):

The military relies on continuing professional education as a key component to the success of its organization. With decreasing budgets and increasing importance for a force that operates efficiently and thinks critically, the cognitive tension among training, education, and learning come center stage. (p. 81)

The researcher formed the research questions ...


Smart Language: How To Address An Inherent Weakness Undermining The Implementation Of U.N. Sanctions On North Korea, Maiko Takeuchi 2020 Waseda University

Smart Language: How To Address An Inherent Weakness Undermining The Implementation Of U.N. Sanctions On North Korea, Maiko Takeuchi

International Law Studies

Since 2006, the U.N. has adopted ten sanction resolutions against North Korea (The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea or DPRK) to date. While these sanctions appear comprehensive, the DPRK is still advancing its nuclear and ballistic missile programs and continuing relevant procurement, according to the U.N. 1874 Panel of Experts, which monitors the implementation of these sanctions. There are constant discussions on how to improve the U.N. Member States’ implementation of the resolutions. However, the shortcomings of the language of the resolutions often is overlooked and should be examined, as these shortcomings frustrate effective implementation by ...


How Conscientious Objectors Killed The Draft: The Collapse Of The Selective Service During The Vietnam War, Bill Raley 2020 Hanyang University School of Law

How Conscientious Objectors Killed The Draft: The Collapse Of The Selective Service During The Vietnam War, Bill Raley

Cleveland State Law Review

This Article argues that a key-but-overlooked factor in the Vietnam-era breakdown of the draft system was the Supreme Court’s expansion of the religious conscientious objector ("CO") exemption. It asserts that the Court understood that the CO exemption violated the Establishment Clause, but rather than strike the exemption down, the Court avoided the constitutional issue by interpreting away the religious element of CO statutes. The Article concludes that the Court’s rulings caused CO exemptions to skyrocket, which in turn caused the draft system to collapse toward the end of the Vietnam War.


The (Erroneous) Requirement For Human Judgment (And Error) In The Law Of Armed Conflict, Eric Talbot Jensen 2020 Brigham Young University Law School

The (Erroneous) Requirement For Human Judgment (And Error) In The Law Of Armed Conflict, Eric Talbot Jensen

International Law Studies

One of the most intriguing and important discussions in international law is the potential impact of emerging technologies on the law of armed conflict (LOAC), including weapons that incorporate machine learning and/or artificial intelligence. Because one of the likely characteristics of these advanced weapons would be the ability to make decisions implicating life and death on the battlefield, these discussions have highlighted a fundamental question concerning the LOAC: Does the law regulating armed conflict require human input in selecting and engaging targets or can that decision be made without human input? This article analyzes views expressed by scholars and ...


The Future Is Today: Preparing The Legal Ground For The United States Space Force, Clayton J. Schmitt 2020 University of Miami Law School

The Future Is Today: Preparing The Legal Ground For The United States Space Force, Clayton J. Schmitt

University of Miami Law Review

The Space Race officially launched on October 4, 1957, when the Soviet Union placed Sputnik I, the first man-made satellite, into Earth’s orbit. The United States fired back four months later, on January 31, 1958, by launching its own satellite, Explorer I. While both superpowers’ programs facially focused on scientific research, each was funded and directed by their respective militaries. Military functions in space followed shortly, with the United States beginning to place its first reconnaissance satellites in space in 1959 as part of the Corona program. American and Soviet discussions following these initial military developments eventually led to ...


The Unlawfulness Of A “Bloody Nose Strike” On North Korea, Kevin Jon Heller 2020 University of Amsterdam; Australian National University

The Unlawfulness Of A “Bloody Nose Strike” On North Korea, Kevin Jon Heller

International Law Studies

The United States has reportedly been debating whether to "react to some nuclear or missile test with a targeted strike against a North Korean facility to bloody Pyongyang’s nose and illustrate the high price the regime could pay for its behavior." This article asks a simple question: would such a “bloody nose strike” (BNS) violate the jus ad bellum?

Providing a coherent answer is complicated by the lack of clarity surrounding the United States’ planning. In particular, the U.S. government has not specified what kind of provocation it believes would justify launching a BNS, has not identified precisely ...


The International Criminal Court Appeals Chamber Ruling In Ntaganda: An Opportunity To Improve Accountability For Sexual And Gender-Based Crimes Against Men And Boys, Elizabeth Modzeleski 2020 University of Georgia School of Law

The International Criminal Court Appeals Chamber Ruling In Ntaganda: An Opportunity To Improve Accountability For Sexual And Gender-Based Crimes Against Men And Boys, Elizabeth Modzeleski

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Twelve Key Questions On Self-Defense Against Non-State Actors, Terry D. Gill, Kinga Tibori-Szabó 2020 University of Amsterdam

Twelve Key Questions On Self-Defense Against Non-State Actors, Terry D. Gill, Kinga Tibori-Szabó

International Law Studies

This article examines the most pertinent questions relating to the applicability of the right of self-defense to attacks conducted by non-State armed groups (NSAGs) acting independently of State control from the territory of one or more States against the territory of another State. These questions are approached from the perspective of legality (does the right of self-defense apply to attacks not mounted by or under the control of a State) and modality (assuming the applicability of self-defense to such attacks; how do the principles of necessity, proportionality and immediacy affect its application)? Starting with an assessment of the place of ...


Bent Nose Row, Joe Maslanka 2020 Virginia Commonwealth University

Bent Nose Row, Joe Maslanka

Mighty Pen Project Anthology & Archive

A young man joins a boxing club and learns some hard lessons about the world.

This piece was written by a student of the Mighty Pen Project. The Mighty Pen Project is an organization based in Richmond, Virginia, that offers a classroom experience for veterans to learn how to write and, if they so choose, share their own stories.


Going Ashore In Thule, David Schlitz 2020 Virginia Commonwealth University

Going Ashore In Thule, David Schlitz

Mighty Pen Project Anthology & Archive

A Coast Guard member aboard The Westwind recounts his team’s adventures during the summer of 1961 in Thule.

This piece was written by a student of the Mighty Pen Project. The Mighty Pen Project is an organization based in Richmond, Virginia, that offers a classroom experience for veterans to learn how to write and, if they so choose, share their own stories.


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