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Restrictive Pursuit Policies And Rising Violent Crime, Ryan Kelly 2023 Concordia University St. Paul

Restrictive Pursuit Policies And Rising Violent Crime, Ryan Kelly

Master of Arts in Criminal Justice Leadership

Consequences can be a driving factor for why citizens follow laws in the United States. Financial and physical freedom is valued. Citizen’s behavior may change if police officers threaten to take these things away for breaking laws. Policymakers today are working to restrict when law enforcement officers can chase criminals for breaking the law. Suppose the ability of law enforcement to hold criminals accountable is restricted. Would this not lead a reasonable person to believe that criminals may think they are free to commit crimes? This paper will cover current trends in violent crime in both the United States and …


Table Of Contents, Seattle University Law Review 2023 Seattle University School of Law

Table Of Contents, Seattle University Law Review

Seattle University Law Review

Table of Contents


Private Patrolling At The Boundaries Of Public Duty, Kathleen M. Naccarato 2023 Northwestern Pritzker School of Law

Private Patrolling At The Boundaries Of Public Duty, Kathleen M. Naccarato

Northwestern University Law Review

In the shadow of contemporary debates over police functions, funding, and accountability, a new form of preventative policing has proliferated. Improvement districts, most commonly associated with downtown revitalization efforts, increasingly served a new purpose—crime control. Communities dissatisfied with public police services have found that they may leverage improvement district tax revenues to hire off-duty police officers to patrol their neighborhoods. This trend has not been without controversy. Critics have contended that these semiprivate, semipublic police patrols create a two-tier system of public safety, allowing wealthy residents to privately purchase powers that belong to the public as a whole.

This Note …


Life Without Parole: An Eighth Amendment Analysis, Alexis DiCarlo 2023 University at Buffalo School of Law

Life Without Parole: An Eighth Amendment Analysis, Alexis Dicarlo

Buffalo Human Rights Law Review

This Article will analyze the constitutionality of life without parole under the U.S. Supreme Court’s test for categorical bans on sentencing practices. This article first addresses the cruelty of prison and how that affects individuals with life sentences specifically. Next, it will analyze life without parole under the Supreme Court’s Eighth Amendment analysis, starting with examining evolving standards of decency. In doing so, this article will address how the U.S. operates with respect to sentencing compared to the rest of the world. Importantly, it will engage in a culpability analysis, following the Supreme Court’s logic, that ultimately favors abolition of …


How To Punish Your Least Favorite Online Influencer: Wellness Checks As Swatting And Their Disproportionate Impact On Marginalized Creators, Tara Blackwell 2023 Washington and Lee University School of Law

How To Punish Your Least Favorite Online Influencer: Wellness Checks As Swatting And Their Disproportionate Impact On Marginalized Creators, Tara Blackwell

Washington and Lee Journal of Civil Rights and Social Justice

Marginalized online creators are vulnerable to attacks using digital means of harassment including traditional swatting as well as the abuse of wellness checks that can act as swatting. Enabled by permissive Supreme Court 4th Amendment jurisprudence, malignant online actors have taken advantage of the ramshackle system of wellness checks that sends armed police officers with little training and even less compassion to the doors of individuals with reported mental health crises. This Note focuses on two polarizing influencers who have been subject to wellness check swatting after being very open about their mental health statuses online. This Note argues that …


Private Police Regulation And The Exclusionary Remedy: How Washington Can Eliminate The Public/Private Distinction, Jared Rothenberg 2023 University of Washington School of Law

Private Police Regulation And The Exclusionary Remedy: How Washington Can Eliminate The Public/Private Distinction, Jared Rothenberg

Washington Law Review

Private security forces such as campus police, security guards, loss prevention officers, and the like are not state actors covered by the Fourth Amendment’s prohibition against unreasonable searches and seizures nor the Fifth Amendment’s Miranda protections. As members of the umbrella category of “private police,” these private law enforcement agents often obtain evidence, detain individuals, and elicit confessions in a manner that government actors cannot, which can then be lawfully turned over to the government. Though the same statutory law governing private citizens (assault, false imprisonment, trespass, etc.) also regulates private police conduct, private police conduct is not bound by …


Reasonable In Time, Unreasonable In Scope: Maximizing Fourth Amendment Protections Under Rodriguez V. United States, Thomas Heiden 2023 University of Washington School of Law

Reasonable In Time, Unreasonable In Scope: Maximizing Fourth Amendment Protections Under Rodriguez V. United States, Thomas Heiden

Washington Law Review

In Rodriguez v. United States, the Supreme Court held that a law enforcement officer may not conduct a drug dog sniff after the completion of a routine traffic stop because doing so extends the stop without reasonable suspicion in violation of the Fourth Amendment’s prohibition on unreasonable seizures. Tracing the background of Rodriguez from the Supreme Court’s landmark decision in Terry v. Ohio, this Comment argues that Rodriguez is best understood as a reaction to the continued erosion of Fourth Amendment protections in the investigative stop context. Based on that understanding, this Comment argues for a strict reading of Rodriguez, …


Reifying Injustice: Using Culturally Specific Tattoos As A Marker Of Gang Membership, Beth Caldwell 2023 Southwestern Law School

Reifying Injustice: Using Culturally Specific Tattoos As A Marker Of Gang Membership, Beth Caldwell

Washington Law Review

The “gang” label has been so highly racialized that white people who self- identify as gang members are almost never categorized as “gang members” by law enforcement, while Black and Latino people who are not gang members are routinely labeled and targeted as if they were. Different rules attach to people under criminal law once they are labeled gang members, yet this two-track system is justified under the guise that the racially disparate treatment is legitimate because of gang association.

This Article takes one concrete example—culturally specific tattoos—and unmasks how racial markers are used to attach the gang label. Specifically, …


Trauma-Informed Policing: The Impact Of Adult And Childhood Trauma On Law Enforcement Officers, andré douglas pond cummings, Todd J. Clark, Caleb Gregory Conrad, Honorable Amy Dunn Johnson 2023 University of Arkansas at Little Rock William H. Bowen School of Law

Trauma-Informed Policing: The Impact Of Adult And Childhood Trauma On Law Enforcement Officers, André Douglas Pond Cummings, Todd J. Clark, Caleb Gregory Conrad, Honorable Amy Dunn Johnson

Faculty Scholarship

For every six months that a police officer serves in the line of duty, he or she is likely to experience an average of three traumatic events. Such events may include fatal accidents, murders, suicides, and active threats to the life of the officer or someone else. Given the wealth of available data on how trauma reorganizes the nervous system to respond to everyday stimuli as threatening, this is an area that cries for critical exploration, especially in light of the frequency with which unarmed Black civilians are killed at the hands of officers who often make split-second decisions to …


Prosecutorial Data In Maine: Themes And Trends From 2017-2021, Tara Wheeler MPPM, Julia Bergeron-Smith MPPM, MSW, George Shaler MPH 2023 University of Southern Maine, Muskie School of Public Service, Cutler Institute for Health and Social Policy

Prosecutorial Data In Maine: Themes And Trends From 2017-2021, Tara Wheeler Mppm, Julia Bergeron-Smith Mppm, Msw, George Shaler Mph

Maine Statistical Analysis Center

The Maine Statistical Analysis Center (SAC), partnered with the Maine Prosecutors Association (MPA) to establish statewide and by-district prosecutorial data for a five-year period (2017-2021). These baseline data are for a variety of criminal cases, charges, and outcomes and this report is the first of its kind for Maine. The MPA sought to detail these baseline figures and trends in an annual report to both support the ongoing work of Maine’s District Attorneys to address serious crime through data-informed decision-making and to enable key stakeholders and the public to better understand how limited public resources are being used by their …


Pathways To Success: Unleashing Experiential Learning In Higher Education For Aspiring Law Enforcement Professionals, Leonard A. Averhoff 2023 Seton Hall University

Pathways To Success: Unleashing Experiential Learning In Higher Education For Aspiring Law Enforcement Professionals, Leonard A. Averhoff

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

This generic qualitative inquiry (GQI) explores experiential learning in higher education for students interested in law enforcement careers. Through interviews and focus group discussions, the study aimed to uncover insights into the perceptions and experiences of students engaging in a university student security program (USSP). The USSP allows full-time students to work as uniformed, unarmed paid employees of the university’s police department providing various law enforcement type functions. The research identified five themes that emerged from the data analysis: exposure, career development, training, leadership, and personal growth.

The theme of exposure highlighted the importance of hands-on learning, allowing students to …


What Are The Causes And Remedies Of Wrongful Convictions?, Audree Alick 2023 Fairmont State University

What Are The Causes And Remedies Of Wrongful Convictions?, Audree Alick

The Mid-Southern Journal of Criminal Justice

Wrongful convictions, also known as miscarriages of justice, are very common in the criminal justice system today. With the first known wrongful conviction in 1872, to the most recent in 2023, researchers have similarly identified three causes of wrongful convictions: false confessions, eyewitness errors, and investigative misconduct. Wrongful convictions can cause many physical and mental effects on post-exonerees and currently incarcerated individuals, including but not limited to, clinical anxiety, depression, and PTSD. Analyses of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) have proven instrumental in cases of wrongful convictions. Each exoneree should have access to the DNA database to test against the DNA evidence …


Unreliable Forensic Science, Sarah Ciuffetelli 2023 Collin County Community College

Unreliable Forensic Science, Sarah Ciuffetelli

Quest

The Effectiveness of Forensic Science

Research in progress for CRIJ 1301: Introduction to Criminal Justice

Faculty Mentor: Stefanie LeMaire

Sarah Ciuffetelli uses critical thinking to examine the effectiveness of forensic sciences during criminal investigations. The assignment requires students to find the most prominent scholarly research in forensic sciences and discuss its efficacy. Further, the research leads students to discuss the potential limitations investigators must consider when examining forensic evidence. Lastly, students find at least six scholarly sources to provide an in-depth analysis of the research.

Sarah begins by discussing the history of forensic science and the ever-increasing technology used in …


Contextual Determinants Of Re-Reporting For Families Receiving Alternative Response: A Survival Analysis In A Midwestern State, Jianchao Lai, Michelle Graef, Todd Franke, Toby Burnham 2023 University of California, Los Angeles

Contextual Determinants Of Re-Reporting For Families Receiving Alternative Response: A Survival Analysis In A Midwestern State, Jianchao Lai, Michelle Graef, Todd Franke, Toby Burnham

Center on Children, Families, and the Law: Faculty Publications

Differential response (DR) has been widely adopted in over 30 states to address shortcomings of the traditional approach to child maltreatment reports in complex family and case circumstances. However, despite continued evaluation efforts, evidence of the effectiveness of DR remains inconclusive. The current study aims to assess the impact of a DR program and potential predictors, including service match and number of family case workers, on maltreatment re-reports in a Midwestern state. The study utilized a randomized control trial and assigned eligible families to either the Alternative Response (AR) track or Traditional Response (TR) track. The enrollment was implemented in …


When Machines Can Be Judge, Jury, And Executioner: Justice In The Age Of Artificial Intelligence (Book Review), Stacy Fowler 2023 St. Mary's University School of Law

When Machines Can Be Judge, Jury, And Executioner: Justice In The Age Of Artificial Intelligence (Book Review), Stacy Fowler

Faculty Articles

In When Machines Can Be Judge, Jury, and Executioner, former federal judge Katherine Forrest raises concerns over the pervasive use of artificial intelligence (AI) in the American justice system to produce risks and need assessments (RNA) regarding the probability of recidivism for citizens charged with a crime. Forrest’s argument centers on AI’s primary focus on utilitarian outcomes when assessing liberty for individual citizens. This approach leads Forrest to the conclusion that in its current form, AI is “ill-suited to the criminal justice context.” Forrest contends that AI should instead be programmed to focus on John Rawl’ 'concept of justice as …


Evaluation Of Field Sobriety Tests For Identifying Drivers Under The Influence Of Cannabis: A Randomized Clinical Trial, Thomas D Marcotte, Anya Umlauf, David J Grelotti, Emily G Sones, Kyle F Mastropietro, Raymond T Suhandynata, Marilyn A. Huestis, Igor Grant, Robert L Fitzgerald 2023 Thomas Jefferson University

Evaluation Of Field Sobriety Tests For Identifying Drivers Under The Influence Of Cannabis: A Randomized Clinical Trial, Thomas D Marcotte, Anya Umlauf, David J Grelotti, Emily G Sones, Kyle F Mastropietro, Raymond T Suhandynata, Marilyn A. Huestis, Igor Grant, Robert L Fitzgerald

Institute of Emerging Health Professions Faculty Papers

IMPORTANCE: With increasing medicinal and recreational cannabis legalization, there is a public health need for effective and unbiased evaluations for determining whether a driver is impaired due to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure. Field sobriety tests (FSTs) are a key component of the gold standard law enforcement officer-based evaluations, yet controlled studies are inconclusive regarding their efficacy in detecting whether a person is under the influence of THC.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the classification accuracy of FSTs with respect to cannabis exposure and driving impairment (as determined via a driving simulation).

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel randomized clinical trial was …


Abolition And Environmental Justice, Allegra M. McLeod 2023 Georgetown University Law Center

Abolition And Environmental Justice, Allegra M. Mcleod

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

During the coronavirus pandemic, movements for penal abolition and racial justice achieved dramatic growth and increased visibility. While much public discussion of abolition has centered on the call to divest from criminal law enforcement, contemporary abolitionists also understand public safety in terms of building new life-sustaining institutions and collective structures that improve human well-being, linking penal divestment to environmental justice. In urging a reimagination of public safety, abolitionists envision much more than decriminalization or a reallocation of police functions to social service agencies or other alternatives to imprisonment and policing. Instead, for abolitionists, meaningful public safety requires, among other things, …


Carceral Data: The Limits Of Transparency-As-Accountability In Prison Risk Data, Becka Hudson, Tomas Percival 2023 Birkbeck, University of London

Carceral Data: The Limits Of Transparency-As-Accountability In Prison Risk Data, Becka Hudson, Tomas Percival

Secrecy and Society

Prison data collection is a labyrinthine infrastructure. This article engages with debates around the political potentials and limitations of transparency as a form of “accountability,” specifically as it relates to carceral management and data gathering. We examine the use of OASys, a widely used risk assessment tool in the British prison system, in order to demonstrate how transparency operates as a means of legitimating prison data collection and ensuing penal management. Prisoner options to resist their file, or “data double,” in this context are considered and the decisive role of OASys as an immediately operationalized technical structure is outlined. We …


Wellness And The Occupational Impact Of Being A Police Officer, Daisy Nunez, Karen Park 2023 University of St. Augustine for Health Sciences

Wellness And The Occupational Impact Of Being A Police Officer, Daisy Nunez, Karen Park

Summer 2023 Virtual OTD Capstone Symposium

The occupational impact of being a police officer was researched. Along with the barriers and supports to wellness services. The study aimed to answer both those questions to analyze the impact of wellness on the population.


United States Of America V. Donald J. Trump, Defendant, Jack Smith 2023 Special Counsel, DOJ

United States Of America V. Donald J. Trump, Defendant, Jack Smith

United States Department of Justice: Publications and Materials

Violations: Count 1: 18 U.S.C. § 371 (Conspiracy to Defraud the United States) Count 2: 18 U.S.C. § 1512(k) (Conspiracy to Obstruct an Official Proceeding) Count 3: 18 U.S.C. §§ 1512(c)(2), 2 (Obstruction of and Attempt to Obstruct an Official Proceeding) Count 4: 18 U.S.C. § 241 (Conspiracy Against Rights)

The Grand Jury charges that, at all times material to this Indictment, on or about the dates and at the approximate times stated below:

1. The Defendant, DONALD J. TRUMP, was the forty-fifth President of the United States and a candidate for re-election in 2020. The Defendant lost the 2020 …


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