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The History, Means, And Effects Of Structural Surveillance, Jeffrey L. Vagle 2016 University of Pennsylvania

The History, Means, And Effects Of Structural Surveillance, Jeffrey L. Vagle

Faculty Scholarship

The focus on the technology of surveillance, while important, has had the unfortunate side effect of obscuring the study of surveillance generally, and tends to minimize the exploration of other, less technical means of surveillance that are both ubiquitous and self-reinforcing—what I refer to as structural surveillance— and their effects on marginalized and disenfranchised populations. This Article proposes a theoretical framework for the study of structural surveillance which will act as a foundation for follow-on research in its effects on political participation.


Rejecting Sovereign Immunity In Public Law Litigation, Howard Wasserman 2016 FIU College of Law

Rejecting Sovereign Immunity In Public Law Litigation, Howard Wasserman

Howard M Wasserman

No abstract provided.


Environmental Crimes And Imprisonment: Does Prison Work To Prevent And Punish Environmental Criminals?, Rafael Wolff 2016 Elisabeth Haub School of Law at Pace University

Environmental Crimes And Imprisonment: Does Prison Work To Prevent And Punish Environmental Criminals?, Rafael Wolff

Dissertations & Theses

Environmental degradation is a global problem. Humans need natural resources to survive and, as those resources are limited, humans’ use of these resources should respect a sustainable pace established by law. There are many approaches to addressing environmental degradation that do not honor the legal limitations and one of them is through criminal law. The question that is posed in this thesis is whether imprisonment, one of the most severe methods of punishment, is a suitable option to repress and prevent environmental crimes.

This thesis is divided in three chapters. The first chapter discusses why environmental crimes are relevant. It ...


Police Culture In The Twenty-First Century: A Critique Of The President's Task Force's Final Report, Julian A. Cook III 2016 University of Georgia School of Law

Police Culture In The Twenty-First Century: A Critique Of The President's Task Force's Final Report, Julian A. Cook Iii

Notre Dame Law Review Online

In response to a series of events involving police-citizen encounters, including those in Ferguson, Missouri, and Staten Island, New York, that have strained relations between law enforcement and the communities (primarily minority) that they serve, President Barack Obama established a task force charged with developing a set of recommendations designed to improve police practices and enhance public trust. Headed by Charles Ramsey, Commissioner of the Philadelphia Police Department, and Laurie Robinson, former Assistant Attorney General for the U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs, and currently a Professor of Criminology, Law, and Society at George Mason University, the ...


Dusty Order: Law Enforcement And Participant Cooperation At Burning Man, Manuel Gomez 2016 Florida International University College of Law

Dusty Order: Law Enforcement And Participant Cooperation At Burning Man, Manuel Gomez

Manuel A. Gómez

Media depictions of Burning Man focus on the picturesque and eccentric appearance of the weeklong affair. The event is sometimes misportrayed as a lawless environment where participants are encouraged to engage in rowdy behavior. Most carnivalesque events offer an escape from reality and are generally thought to enable unruly conduct. Despite stereotypes, Burning Man is a different beast. Not only is the crime rate in Black Rock City lower than any other city of comparable size, but Burners show a high level of cooperative and law abiding behavior that helps maintain the social order without depending on official means of ...


Using Data To Reduce Police Violence, Stephen Rushin 2016 University of Alabama School of Law

Using Data To Reduce Police Violence, Stephen Rushin

Boston College Law Review

Congress passed the Death in Custody Reporting Act in 2014, which created a national database on civilian deaths caused by law enforcement. The Federal Bureau of Investigations and the Bureau of Justice Statistics have subsequently also announced new efforts to collect data on the frequency of deadly encounters between law enforcement and civilians. This Article explores how the federal government could use these newly amassed datasets to reduce police violence. This Article makes two contributions. The first Part of the Article argues that data alone will be insufficient to bring about widespread reform in local police departments. By making these ...


Journey Out Of Neverland: Cori Reform, Commonwealth V. Peter Pon, And Massachusetts’S Emergence As A National Exemplar For Criminal Record Sealing, Chris Skall 2016 Boston College Law School

Journey Out Of Neverland: Cori Reform, Commonwealth V. Peter Pon, And Massachusetts’S Emergence As A National Exemplar For Criminal Record Sealing, Chris Skall

Boston College Law Review

Even after a criminal case is disposed of and a period of incarceration or probation is completed, individuals who have become involved in the criminal justice system often face a myriad of collateral consequences based on their criminal records. In order to promote reintegration and combat recidivism, many states have taken legislative actions to ease the burden associated with having a criminal record. In recent years, these efforts have led several states to reform or enact statutes for criminal record sealing or expungement, a controversial, yet highly efficacious tool to provide greater employment and housing opportunities for ex-offenders. In 2010 ...


Riley V. California And The Stickiness Principle, Steven I. Friedland 2016 Duke Law

Riley V. California And The Stickiness Principle, Steven I. Friedland

Duke Law & Technology Review

In Fourth Amendment decisions, different concepts, facts and assumptions about reality are often tethered together by vocabulary and fact, creating a ‘Stickiness Principle.’ In particular, form and function historically were considered indistinguishable, not as separate factors. For example, “containers” carried things, “watches” told time, and “phones” were used to make voice calls. Advancing technology, though, began to fracture this identity and the broader Stickiness Principle. In June 2014, Riley v. California and its companion case, United States v. Wurie, offered the Supreme Court an opportunity to begin untethering form and function and dismantling the Stickiness Principle. Riley presented the question ...


Tasers Help Police Avoid Fatal Mistakes, Paul H. Robinson 2016 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Tasers Help Police Avoid Fatal Mistakes, Paul H. Robinson

Faculty Scholarship

This op-ed piece argues that police will inevitably be placed in impossible situations in which they reasonably believe they must shoot to defend themselves but where the shooting in fact turns out to be unnecessary. What can save the police, and the community, from these regular tragedies is a more concerted shift to police use of nonlethal weapons. Taser technology, for example, continues to become increasingly more effective and reliable. While we will always have reasonable mistakes by police in the use of force, it need not be the case that each ends in death or permanent injury. Such a ...


Trespass And Deception, 2016 Brigham Young University Law School

Trespass And Deception

BYU Law Review

Police routinely use deception to get into people’s homes without warrant or probable cause. They may pose as UPS delivery persons or homebuyers, or they may say they are looking for a kidnapping victim or a pedophile, when really they are looking for drugs or guns. Recent years have brought hundreds of reported decisions concerning such police ruses. When the police lie about their identity or their purpose to enter a home, as when they pose as a homebuyer, the courts surprisingly, but routinely, approve these deceptions under the Fourth Amendment. Such intrusions, the courts reason, do not violate ...


Imprisonment Inertia And Public Attitudes Toward "Truth In Sentencing", 2016 Brigham Young University Law School

Imprisonment Inertia And Public Attitudes Toward "Truth In Sentencing"

BYU Law Review

No abstract provided.


What's Going On In Our Prisons?, Michael B. Mushlin 2016 Elisabeth Haub School of Law at Pace University

What's Going On In Our Prisons?, Michael B. Mushlin

Pace Law Faculty Publications

Additional governmental oversight is urgently needed to truly change the culture of a system that holds 53,000 inmates across 54 prisons in New York State. What goes on inside these prisons is largely hidden from view, and there is little accountability for wrongdoing. The State Legislature should follow the A.B.A.’s guidance and establish a monitoring body with unfettered access to prison facilities, staff, inmates and records in announced or unannounced visits.


The Firing Squad As "A Known And Available Alternative Method Of Execution" Post-Glossip, Deborah W. Denno 2016 Fordham University School of Law

The Firing Squad As "A Known And Available Alternative Method Of Execution" Post-Glossip, Deborah W. Denno

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

This Article does not address the medical debate surrounding the role of midazolam in executions; the problems associated with using the drug have been persuasively argued elsewhere. Nor does it question the soundness of the Glossip Court’s “alternative method of execution” requirement. Rather, this Article’s proposed reform is a constitutionally acceptable alternative that meets the Glossip Court’s standard, rendering moot—at least for the purposes of the following discussion—very real concerns regarding the validity of that dictate. Part I of this Article pinpoints several areas where the Glossip Court goes wrong in glaringly inaccurate or misleading ...


Retention And Reform In Japanese Capital Punishment, David T. Johnson 2016 University of Michigan Law School

Retention And Reform In Japanese Capital Punishment, David T. Johnson

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

This Article focuses on the failure of abolition and of death penalty reform in Japan in order to illustrate contingencies in the trajectory of capital punishment in the modern world. Part I describes three facts about postwar Japan that help explain why it retains capital punishment today: a missed opportunity for abolition during the American occupation of the country after World War II; the long-term rule of a conservative political party; and economic and geopolitical power that has enabled the country to resist the influence of international norms. Part II describes a few ways in which Japanese capital punishment has ...


Investigative Inadequacies Or Investigative Corruption? Exploring The Role Of Police Misconduct Within Canadian Wrongful Conviction Cases, Michelle L. Lovegrove 2016 Wilfrid Laurier University

Investigative Inadequacies Or Investigative Corruption? Exploring The Role Of Police Misconduct Within Canadian Wrongful Conviction Cases, Michelle L. Lovegrove

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

The phenomenon of wrongful convictions has begun to attract the attention of the public and scholars alike within the past few decades. However, despite this recent fixation the issue of wrongful convictions is not new, as research on the subject dates back to 1932 with the work of Edwin Borchard. Most of the research on the subject of wrongful convictions has focused largely on identifying the factors that contribute to these injustices. For the most part academics are in agreement when it comes to the causes of wrongful convictions, which include, eyewitness misidentification, false confessions, police & prosecutor misconduct, use of ...


The Exceptional Circumstances Of Johnson V. United States, Leah M. Litman 2016 Harvard Law School

The Exceptional Circumstances Of Johnson V. United States, Leah M. Litman

Michigan Law Review First Impressions

Johnson v. United States held that the “residual clause” of the Armed Career Criminal Act (ACCA) is unconstitutionally vague. Since Johnson was decided six months ago, courts have been sorting out which of the currently incarcerated defendants who were sentenced under ACCA’s residual clause may be resentenced. Determining who can be resentenced in light of Johnson requires courts to answer several questions. For example, does the rule in Johnson apply retroactively to convictions that have already become final? And can prisoners who have already filed one petition for postconviction review—review that occurs after a defendant’s conviction has ...


Why And How To Compensate Exonerees, Erik Encarnacion 2016 University of Michigan Law School

Why And How To Compensate Exonerees, Erik Encarnacion

Michigan Law Review First Impressions

How can we bring greater uniformity to exoneree compensation in a principled and just way? This paper argues that answering this question becomes easier once we identify the principles of justice that best justify and explain compensation statutes. In particular, commentators have assumed incorrectly that the goal of compensating exonerees should be understood primarily in terms of corrective justice, which posits a duty to undo or repair wrongfully inflicted harms. This paper argues, by contrast, that restitutionary justice, which forces parties to relinquish unjust gains, better justifies and explains compensation statutes. The unjust gains at issue are fair wages withheld ...


The Incremental Retributive Impact Of A Death Sentence Over Life Without Parole, Michael L. Radelet 2016 University of Colorado, Boulder

The Incremental Retributive Impact Of A Death Sentence Over Life Without Parole, Michael L. Radelet

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

In this paper, the author takes a closer look at retribution, which is the primary justification for the death penalty today in the United States and the main component of the additional punishment imposed by the death penalty over and above life imprisonment without parole (LWOP). While all criminal punishments, to varying degrees, punish both the inmate and his or her family, this paper argues that the death penalty’s added punishment over LWOP often punishes the family just as much as the inmate, and after the execution the full brunt of the punishment falls on the family. This added ...


Transparency And Comparative Executive Clemency: Global Lessons For Pardon Reform In The United States, Andrew Novak 2016 George Mason University

Transparency And Comparative Executive Clemency: Global Lessons For Pardon Reform In The United States, Andrew Novak

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

This Article argues for transparency in the clemency process and contends that the concept of clemency as a benign sovereign’s “act of grace” is no longer appropriate in the modern world where executive action is subordinate to principles of constitutional due process and administrative equity. Despite calls for federal clemency reform in the United States, little comparative research examines clemency elsewhere in the common law world. This Article compares common law countries’ constitutional clemency mechanisms designed to promote openness, public and victim participation, and rational decision-making. In addition, this Article proposes four reforms to the U.S. pardon system ...


Measuring Older Adult Confidence In The Courts And Law Enforcement, Joseph A. Hamm, Lindsey E. Wylie, Eve M. Brank 2016 Michigan State University

Measuring Older Adult Confidence In The Courts And Law Enforcement, Joseph A. Hamm, Lindsey E. Wylie, Eve M. Brank

Faculty Publications, Department of Psychology

Older adults are an increasingly relevant subpopulation for criminal justice policy but, as yet, are largely neglected in the relevant research. The current research addresses this by reporting on a psychometric evaluation of a measure of older adults’ Confidence in Legal Institutions (CLI). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) provided support for the unidimensionality and reliability of the measures. In addition, participants’ CLI was related to cynicism, trust in government, dispositional trust, age, and education, but not income or gender. The results provide support for the measures of confidence in the courts and law enforcement, so we present the scale as a ...


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