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Targeted Killings—Never Not An Act Of International Criminal Law Enforcement, Barry Kellman 2017 DePaul University College of Law

Targeted Killings—Never Not An Act Of International Criminal Law Enforcement, Barry Kellman

Boston College International and Comparative Law Review

Defenders of targeted killings proffer a straightforward elaboration of military necessity in the context of modern technological capabilities and conclude that killing members of terrorist organizations is legal under international law. In this essay, I assert that targeted killings to combat terrorist threats should not be governed predominantly by the law of war but should be synthesized with widely recognized principles of international criminal justice. Targeted killings are now the only aspect of counter-terrorism policy that operates outside constraints of criminal justice and beyond judicial review. That many people are being killed without anything like due process of law undermines ...


O'Keeffe V. Ireland: The State's Obligation To Protect Children From Sexual Assault In State Schools, Heekyoung Lee 2017 Boston College Law School

O'Keeffe V. Ireland: The State's Obligation To Protect Children From Sexual Assault In State Schools, Heekyoung Lee

Boston College International and Comparative Law Review

Ireland’s unique primary education system creates a national school system that is denominational, yet state-financed. The Irish government defers managerial duties to the Catholic Church, and this deference of duties relieves Ireland from liability. As a result, students in Ireland attending primary schools historically were not guaranteed legal protection from sexual assaults committed by faculty members. On January 28, 2014, the Grand Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights held in O’Keeffe v. Ireland that despite Ireland’s delegation of authority to religious denominations, the State was obligated to protect students from sexual assaults. The court reasoned ...


Putting An End To The Silence: Educating Society About The Canadian Residential School System, Jamie Lee Kuhl 2017 Wilfrid Laurier University

Putting An End To The Silence: Educating Society About The Canadian Residential School System, Jamie Lee Kuhl

Bridges: An Undergraduate Journal of Contemporary Connections

This paper advocates for the increased education of Canadian society regarding the Indian Residential School System. Many Canadian’s tend to be uninformed on the history of the schools and as a result risk subjecting Aboriginal peoples to further harm. The contents of this paper demonstrates by informing all Canadian citizens of the truth regarding the assimilative schools and their enduring legacy on Aboriginal peoples, several benefits can occur. Specifically, through revealing the truth regarding the residential schools, healing becomes possible for victims, over-representation within the criminal justice system can be better understood as well as addressed, and future harm ...


Bias In Blue: Instructing Jurors To Consider The Testimony Of Police Officer Witnesses With Caution, Vida B. Johnson 2017 Pepperdine University

Bias In Blue: Instructing Jurors To Consider The Testimony Of Police Officer Witnesses With Caution, Vida B. Johnson

Pepperdine Law Review

Jurors in criminal trials are instructed by the judge that they are to treat the testimony of a police officer just like the testimony of any other witness. Fact-finders are told that they should not give police officer testimony greater or lesser weight than any other witness they will hear from at trial. Jurors are to accept that police are no more believable or less believable than anyone else. Jury instructions regarding police officer testimony stand in contrast to the instructions given to jurors when a witness with a legally recognized interest in the outcome of the case has testified ...


Virginia Law Enforcement Retention, Brianna M. Egan Miss. 2017 Lynchburg College

Virginia Law Enforcement Retention, Brianna M. Egan Miss.

Student Scholar Showcase

When talking about retention, law enforcement agencies have been facing challenges with retaining their officers. Although problems associated with turnover effect all careers, there has been a significant rise in turnover rates within local law enforcement. Agencies invest a great deal of time, money, and other resources into training officers with the intentions of having them on their team for a while. This research aims to investigate different variables that may be related to officer retention within Sheriffs’ Offices. A cross-sectional survey was sent to all 123 Sheriffs’ Offices in the Commonwealth of Virginia for data collection. Although literature suggests ...


The Racialization Of Juvenile Justice And The Role Of The Defense Attorney, Tamar R. Birckhead 2017 Yale Law School

The Racialization Of Juvenile Justice And The Role Of The Defense Attorney, Tamar R. Birckhead

Boston College Law Review

The existence of structural racism is not new. In fact, as the second decade of the twenty-first century comes to a close, there is evidence of a national political openness to acknowledging the phenomenon. This Article seizes upon this openness as it seeks to provide a fuller understanding of how structural racism operates within a branch of the criminal justice system that is often overlooked—the juvenile justice system. The Article offers a definition of racialization that acknowledges its multi-dimensional and fluid nature and the ways it is perpetuated via juvenile court rhetoric, processing, and procedure. It demonstrates how the ...


Behavioral Health Unit: Case Study At The Portland Police Department, Anne Sedlack 2017 University of Southern Maine

Behavioral Health Unit: Case Study At The Portland Police Department, Anne Sedlack

Thinking Matters

There are 8,000 law enforcement agencies in the United States. 1,000 have some form of specialized policing and response presence - which means that they have at least a few officers who are crisis intervention trained (CIT). 200 of these law enforcement agencies have some form of program that is beyond a few police officers trained in CIT. In 2016, there were 6 departments that were awarded a grant from the Department of Justice and Bureau of Justice Assistance. These six are currently learning sites dedicated to studying the affects of having a behavioral health specialized co-response team. The ...


Bureaucracy As Violence, Jonathan Weinberg 2017 Wayne State University

Bureaucracy As Violence, Jonathan Weinberg

Michigan Law Review

Review of The Utopia of Rules: On Technology, Stupidity, and the Secret Joys of Bureaucracy by David Graeber.


The Murder Of Black Males In A World Of Non-Accountability: The Surreal Trial Of George Zimmerman For The Killing Of Trayvon Martin, Mark S. Brodin 2017 Boston College Law School

The Murder Of Black Males In A World Of Non-Accountability: The Surreal Trial Of George Zimmerman For The Killing Of Trayvon Martin, Mark S. Brodin

Mark S. Brodin

A critique of the "prosecution" of George Zimmerman for the murder of Trayvon Martin, concluding that the effort was botched from the beginning, tragically missing an early opportunity to hold killers of unarmed black youth accountable.


Mental Disorder And Criminal Justice, Stephen J. Morse 2017 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Mental Disorder And Criminal Justice, Stephen J. Morse

Faculty Scholarship

This paper is a chapter that will appear in ACADEMY FOR JUSTICE, A REPORT ON SCHOLARSHIP AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE REFORM (Erik Luna ed., forthcoming 2017). The criminal law treats some people with severe mental disorders doctrinally and practically differently at virtually every stage of the criminal justice process, beginning with potential incompetence to stand trial and ending with the question of competence to be executed, and such people have special needs when they are in the system. This chapter begins by exploring the fundamental mental health information necessary to make informed judgements about how the criminal justice system should respond ...


Freezing The Status Quo In Criminal Investigations: The Melting Of Probable Cause And Warrent Requirements, Fernand N. Dutile 2017 Notre Dame Law School

Freezing The Status Quo In Criminal Investigations: The Melting Of Probable Cause And Warrent Requirements, Fernand N. Dutile

Fernand "Tex" N. Dutile

No abstract provided.


Sentencing Reform: The Power Of Reasons, R. Michael Cassidy, Robert L. Ullmann 2017 Boston College Law School

Sentencing Reform: The Power Of Reasons, R. Michael Cassidy, Robert L. Ullmann

R. Michael Cassidy

No abstract provided.


Unintended Consequences: Addressing The Impact Of Domestic Violence Mandatory And Pro-Arrest Policies And Practices On Girls And Young Women, Francine T. Sherman 2017 Boston College Law School

Unintended Consequences: Addressing The Impact Of Domestic Violence Mandatory And Pro-Arrest Policies And Practices On Girls And Young Women, Francine T. Sherman

Francine T. Sherman

The OJJDP-funded National Girls Initiative and the Office on Violence Against Women (OVW) convened a roundtable of advocates to discuss the unintended consequences of mandatory and pro-arrest policies for domestic violence on girls and young women. Out of that convening arose this summary report, Unintended Consequences: Addressing the Impact of Domestic Violence Mandatory and Pro-Arrest Policies and Practices on Girls and Young Women. Our hope is that this summary report fuels a conversation about the unintended consequences and impact of mandatory and pro-arrest domestic violence policies on girls, young women, and women, as well as the disproportionate impact on communities ...


Bail Reform: New Directions For Pretrial Detention And Release, Megan Stevenson, Sandra G. Mayson 2017 University of Pennsylvania

Bail Reform: New Directions For Pretrial Detention And Release, Megan Stevenson, Sandra G. Mayson

Faculty Scholarship

Our current pretrial system imposes high costs on both the people who are detained pretrial and the taxpayers who foot the bill. These costs have prompted a surge of bail reform around the country. Reformers seek to reduce pretrial detention rates, as well as racial and socioeconomic disparities in the pretrial system, while simultaneously improving appearance rates and reducing pretrial crime. The current state of pretrial practice suggests that there is ample room for improvement. Bail hearings are often cursory, with no defense counsel present. Money-bail practices lead to high rates of detention even among misdemeanor defendants and those who ...


Draft Report Of The Somali Criminal Law Recodification Initiative, Paul H. Robinson, Criminal Law Research Group 2017 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Draft Report Of The Somali Criminal Law Recodification Initiative, Paul H. Robinson, Criminal Law Research Group

Faculty Scholarship

The Government of Somalia and the International Development Law Organization (IDLO) jointly commissioned the drafting of a modern criminal code for Somalia that embodies fundamental Islamic principles. The proposed code developed by the Criminal Law Research Group in cooperation with the major Somali players of the criminal justice process is a modern and comprehensive penal code incorporating numerous cutting-edge innovations in drafting forms, code structure, and criminal law doctrine. It is also the first and only such code incorporating the major tenets and principles of Islamic law as currently practiced in Somalia. This two-volume report to the Somali Working Group ...


Civil Liberty Or National Security: The Battle Over Iphone Encryption, Karen Lowell 2017 Georgia State University College of Law

Civil Liberty Or National Security: The Battle Over Iphone Encryption, Karen Lowell

Georgia State University Law Review

On June 5, 2013, Edward Snowden released what would be the first of many documents exposing the vast breadth of electronic surveillance the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and the National Security Agency (NSA) had been conducting on millions of United States citizens. Although the federal agencies had legal authority under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) to collect metadata from companies such as Verizon, many Americans considered this data collection to be a massive invasion of privacy.

Equipped with the knowledge of sweeping domestic surveillance programs, citizens and technology firms fighting for strong privacy and security protection, have started ...


Race And Wrongful Convictions In The United States, Samuel R. Gross, Maurice Possley, Klara Stephens 2017 University of Michigan Law School

Race And Wrongful Convictions In The United States, Samuel R. Gross, Maurice Possley, Klara Stephens

Other Publications

African Americans are only 13% of the American population but a majority of innocent defendants wrongfully convicted of crimes and later exonerated. They constitute 47% of the 1,900 exonerations listed in the National Registry of Exonerations (as of October 2016), and the great majority of more than 1,800 additional innocent defendants who were framed and convicted of crimes in 15 large-scale police scandals and later cleared in “group exonerations.” We see this racial disparity for all major crime categories, but we examine it in this report in the context of the three types of crime that produce the ...


Community Control Over Camera Surveillance: A Response To Bennett Capers’S Crime, Surveillance, And Communities, Christopher Slobogin 2017 Vanderbilt University Law School

Community Control Over Camera Surveillance: A Response To Bennett Capers’S Crime, Surveillance, And Communities, Christopher Slobogin

Christopher Slobogin

No abstract provided.


The Constitutionality Of The Immigration And Nationality Act Called Into Question Again: The Ninth Circuit Correctly Holds "Obstruction Of Justice" Raises Grave Constitutional Concerns In Valenzuela Gallardo V. Lynch, Taylor Gibson 2017 Boston College Law School

The Constitutionality Of The Immigration And Nationality Act Called Into Question Again: The Ninth Circuit Correctly Holds "Obstruction Of Justice" Raises Grave Constitutional Concerns In Valenzuela Gallardo V. Lynch, Taylor Gibson

Boston College Law Review

On March 31, 2016, in Valenzuela Gallardo v. Lynch, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit found that the phrase “an offense relating to obstruction of justice,” used as one definition of an aggravated felony within the Immigration and Nationality Act, raised grave unconstitutional vagueness concerns because there are no limits to where the process of justice begins and ends. This issue, identified by the Ninth Circuit, was not addressed by the Second or Eighth Circuits despite these courts interpreting the same statutory provision in separate cases. This Comment argues that the Ninth Circuit was correct on ...


Beyond Law And Fact: Jury Evaluation Of Law Enforcement, Lauren M. Ouziel 2017 Temple University Beasley School of Law

Beyond Law And Fact: Jury Evaluation Of Law Enforcement, Lauren M. Ouziel

Notre Dame Law Review

Criminal trials today are as much about the adequacy and legitimacy of the defendant’s accusers—police and prosecutors—as the alleged deeds of the accused. Yet we lack theory to conceptualize this reality, doctrine to set its parameters, and institutional mechanisms to adapt to it. The traditional framework used by courts and scholars to delineate the jury’s role—along the continuum between “fact-finding” and “law-finding”—is inadequate to the task. Jury evaluations of law enforcement are more accurately conceptualized as enforcement-finding, a process that functions both in and outside that continuum. In considering enforcement-finding’s justification and proper ...


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