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Remarks, Andrea Dennis 2022 University of Georgia School of Law

Remarks, Andrea Dennis

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Over the course of one week, the Michigan Journal of Law Reform presented its annual Symposium, this year titled Reimagining Police Surveillance: Protecting Activism and Ending Technologies of Oppression. During this week, the Journal explored complicated questions surrounding the expansion of police surveillance technologies, including how police and federal agencies utilize their extensive resources to identify and surveil public protest, the ways in which technology employed by police is often flawed and disparately impacts people of color, and potential reforms of police surveillance technology. Before delving into these complicated questions, I presented remarks on the history of police surveillance …


“Bang!”: Shotspotter Gunshot Detection Technology, Predictive Policing, And Measuring Terry’S Reach, Harvey Gee 2022 San Jose City Attorney’s Office

“Bang!”: Shotspotter Gunshot Detection Technology, Predictive Policing, And Measuring Terry’S Reach, Harvey Gee

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

ShotSpotter technology is a rapid identification and response system used in ninety American cities that is designed to detect gunshots and dispatch police. ShotSpotter is one of many powerful surveillance tools used by local police departments to purportedly help fight crime, but they often do so at the expense of infringing upon privacy rights and civil liberties. This Article expands the conversation about ShotSpotter technology considerably by examining the adjacent Fourth Amendment issues emanating from its use. For example, law enforcement increasingly relies on ShotSpotter to create reasonable suspicion where it does not exist. In practice, the use of ShotSpotter …


Officer-Created Jeopardy And Reasonableness Reform: Rebuttable Presumption Of Unreasonableness Within 42 U.S.C. § 1983 Police Use Of Force Claims, Bryan Borodkin 2022 University of Michigan Law School

Officer-Created Jeopardy And Reasonableness Reform: Rebuttable Presumption Of Unreasonableness Within 42 U.S.C. § 1983 Police Use Of Force Claims, Bryan Borodkin

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

This Note analyzes the current state of civil law surrounding police use of excessive force, highlighting the evolution of the “objective reasonableness” test employed in civil police use of force lawsuits brought under 42 U.S.C. § 1983. This Note also discusses the role that social movements and surveillance technologies have played in furthering police accountability and shifting public opinion surrounding police use of force. After detailing this social and technological context, this Note addresses the numerous problems presented by the “objective reasonableness” test employed within civil police use of force cases, analyzing this problematic test from the perspective of both …


Deprogramming Bias: Expanding The Exclusionary Rule To Pretextual Traffic Stop Using Data From Autonomous Vehicle And Drive-Assistance Technology, Joe Hillman 2022 University of Michigan Law School

Deprogramming Bias: Expanding The Exclusionary Rule To Pretextual Traffic Stop Using Data From Autonomous Vehicle And Drive-Assistance Technology, Joe Hillman

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

As autonomous vehicles become more commonplace and roads become safer, this new technology provides an opportunity for courts to reconsider the constitutional rationale of modern search and seizure law. The Supreme Court should allow drivers to use evidence of police officer conduct relative to their vehicle’s technological capabilities to argue that a traffic stop was pretextual, meaning they were stopped for reasons other than their supposed violation. Additionally, the Court should expand the exclusionary rule to forbid the use of evidence extracted after a pretextual stop. The Court should retain some exceptions to the expanded exclusionary rule, such as when …


The Pathological Whiteness Of Prosecution, India Thusi 2022 Maurer School of Law - Indiana University

The Pathological Whiteness Of Prosecution, India Thusi

Articles by Maurer Faculty

Criminal law scholarship suffers from a Whiteness problem. While scholars appear to be increasingly concerned with the racial disparities within the criminal legal system, the scholarship’s focus tends to be on the marginalized communities and the various discriminatory outcomes they experience as a result of the system. Scholars frequently mention racial bias in the criminal legal system and mass incarceration, the lexical descendent of overcriminalization. However, the scholarship often fails to consider the roles Whiteness and White supremacy play as the underlying logics and norms driving much of the bias in the system.

This Article examines the ways that Whiteness …


An Argument Against Unbounded Arrest Power: The Expressive Fourth Amendment And Protesting While Black, Karen J. Pita Loor 2022 Boston University School of Law

An Argument Against Unbounded Arrest Power: The Expressive Fourth Amendment And Protesting While Black, Karen J. Pita Loor

Michigan Law Review

Protesting is supposed to be revered in our democracy, considered “as American as apple pie” in our nation’s mythology. But the actual experiences of the 2020 racial justice protesters showed that this supposed reverence for political dissent and protest is more akin to American folklore than reality on the streets. The images from those streets depicted police officers clad in riot gear and armed with shields, batons, and “less than” lethal weapons aggressively arresting protesters, often en masse. In the first week of the George Floyd protests, police arrested roughly 10,000 people, and approximately 78 percent of those arrests were …


Can Islamic Law Principles Regarding Settlement Of Criminal Disputes Solve The Problem Of The U.S. Mass Incarceration?, Amin R. Yacoub, Becky Briggs 2022 Pepperdine University

Can Islamic Law Principles Regarding Settlement Of Criminal Disputes Solve The Problem Of The U.S. Mass Incarceration?, Amin R. Yacoub, Becky Briggs

Pepperdine Dispute Resolution Law Journal

The mass incarceration crisis in the United States (US) remains a vexing issue to this day. Although the US incarcerated population has decreased by twenty-five percent amid the COVID-19 pandemic, the US remains a leading country in the number of incarcerated people per capita. Focusing on Islamic law principles governing settlement in criminal cases, the rehabilitative approach of the Icelandic criminal justice model, and the powerful role of prosecutors in serving justice, this research argues that integrating settlement and mediation into the prosecutorial proceedings will significantly reduce mass incarceration in the US.


Disposable Immigrants: The Reality Of Sexual Assault In Immigration Detention Centers, Valerie Gisel Zarate 2022 St. Mary's University School of Law

Disposable Immigrants: The Reality Of Sexual Assault In Immigration Detention Centers, Valerie Gisel Zarate

St. Mary's Law Journal

Abstract forthcoming.


Parole, Victim Impact Evidence, And Race, Alexis Karteron 2022 Brooklyn Law School

Parole, Victim Impact Evidence, And Race, Alexis Karteron

Brooklyn Law Review

Parole offers the possibility of release for a substantial number of incarcerated people in the United States, the world’s largest jailer, but is seriously understudied. In particular, the role of victims and race in the parole decision-making process deserves attention. Decades of research has shown that the “race-of-victim effect” leads to more punitive sentences when white victimhood is at issue. In the parole context, the ubiquity of victim impact statements and the emotional responses they trigger raise the likelihood that the “race-of-victim effect” plagues parole decision-making as well. This essay calls for greater data collection and scrutiny into the role …


Rotten Social Background And Mass Incarceration: Who Is A Victim?, Steven Zeidman 2022 Brooklyn Law School

Rotten Social Background And Mass Incarceration: Who Is A Victim?, Steven Zeidman

Brooklyn Law Review

Despite the theoretical right to be heard at different junctures in the criminal legal system, in practice, the right is unsecured for many accused and convicted of various offenses. Criminal defendants are rarely heard at trial, upon sentencing, or at parole board interviews to determine eligibility for release. Consequently, these individuals are not able to offer explanations for their behavior. This is particularly harmful given the role that “severe environmental deprivation” or, sometimes controversially referred to as “rotten social background,” plays in criminal behavior. Research now indicates that societal shortcomings, including a lack of healthcare, education, and employment opportunities, combined …


Which Police Departments Make Black Lives Matter, Which Don’T, And Why Don’T Most Social Scientists Care?, Robert Anthony Maranto, Wilfred Reilly, Patrick Wolf, Mattie Harris 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Which Police Departments Make Black Lives Matter, Which Don’T, And Why Don’T Most Social Scientists Care?, Robert Anthony Maranto, Wilfred Reilly, Patrick Wolf, Mattie Harris

Education Reform Faculty and Graduate Students Publications

In part via skillful use of social media, Black Lives Matter (BLM) has become among the most influential social movements of the past half century, with support across racial lines, and considerable financial backing (Fisher, 2019). Will this translate into public policy reforms which save Black lives? After all, higher education is a key institutional backer of BLM, and a considerable literature dating back decades (e.g., Lindblom & Cohen, 1979) casts doubt on the effectiveness of social science in solving social problems, for numerous reasons. Often, the best social science is simple counting. This paper makes two unique contributions. First, …


Public Safety Presence And Response In Campus Housing: Using Restorative Justice Interventions To Mitigate Harm And Restore Trust In The Residential Community, Sydney Pidgeon 2022 University of San Diego

Public Safety Presence And Response In Campus Housing: Using Restorative Justice Interventions To Mitigate Harm And Restore Trust In The Residential Community, Sydney Pidgeon

M.A. in Higher Education Leadership: Action Research Projects

In the wake of social unrest and demands of police reform (Childress et al., 2020; Davidson, 2020; Rogers & Gravelle, 2020), institutions of higher education have a unique opportunity to model a system of campus safety that mitigates harm and restores trust. This research explores the complex relationship between campus safety officers and residential life staff and student leaders at a mid-sized private institution and implements restorative justice interventions to rebuild trust between the two populations. This research created an intervention framework that improved the ongoing partnership between the Office of Residential Life and Department of Public Safety and facilitated …


A Cleave Within The Piney Woods: Nacogdoches, Stephen F. Austin State University And How Racial Integration Divided The Town And Gown, Caitlin Hornback 2022 Stephen F Austin State University

A Cleave Within The Piney Woods: Nacogdoches, Stephen F. Austin State University And How Racial Integration Divided The Town And Gown, Caitlin Hornback

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Stephen F. Austin State University was once the pride and joy of the city of Nacogdoches, Texas. When the Texas State Legislature began to look for a location for their new state normal school, the people of the East Texas town fought to have it built there and the Stephen F. Austin Teacher’s College opened its doors in September 1923 to a proud community. Through the trials and tribulations of early twentieth century events, the school managed to stay afloat and grow in numbers. Dr. Ralph W. Steen became the president of the college in 1958 and he oversaw a …


Critical Race Theory And It's Implications For The United States Criminal Justice System, Shiona Arthur 2022 Liberty University

Critical Race Theory And It's Implications For The United States Criminal Justice System, Shiona Arthur

Liberty University Research Week

Undergraduate

Textual or Investigative


Education, Income, Racial Composition, And Urbanization: An Examination Of Factors That Affect Intervention Court Participation And Drug-Related Arrests In Mississippi, Will Hengehold 2022 University of Mississippi

Education, Income, Racial Composition, And Urbanization: An Examination Of Factors That Affect Intervention Court Participation And Drug-Related Arrests In Mississippi, Will Hengehold

Honors Theses

This paper serves as an evaluation of Mississippi Intervention Courts and attempts to determine the effectiveness and use of those courts. The regressions in this paper attempt to show how the use of intervention courts and demographic characteristics of Mississippi District Circuit Courts affect the number of drug-related arrests in Mississippi, how the number of drug-related arrests and demographic characteristics of Mississippi district circuit courts areas affects intervention court use and intervention court participation rates in Mississippi, and how demographic characteristics affected the delay in the adoption of intervention courts by Mississippi District Circuit Courts. Demographic characteristic variables used include …


Police Frisks, David S. Abrams, Hanming Fang, Priyanka Goonetilleke 2022 University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School

Police Frisks, David S. Abrams, Hanming Fang, Priyanka Goonetilleke

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Carey Law

The standard economic model of police stops implies that the contraband hit rate should rise when the number of stops falls, ceteris paribus. We provide empirical corroboration of such optimizing models of police behavior by examining changes in stops and frisks around two extraordinary events of 2020 - the pandemic onset and the nationwide protests following the killing of George Floyd. We find that hit rates from pedestrian and vehicle stops generally rose as stops and frisks fell dramatically. Using detailed data, we are able to rule out a number of alternative explanations, including changes in street population, crime, police …


Calling Strikes: The Sixth Circuit’S Interpretation Of The Prison Litigation Reform Act, Emily O'Hara 2022 Boston College Law School

Calling Strikes: The Sixth Circuit’S Interpretation Of The Prison Litigation Reform Act, Emily O'Hara

Boston College Law Review

On May 3, 2021, in Simons v. Washington, the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit held that a court’s non-binding “strike” recommendation under the Prison Litigation Reform Act (PLRA) did not violate the PLRA or Article III of the United States Constitution. Courts agree that binding strikes are impermissible, but disagree on the underlying reasoning. The Sixth Circuit reasoned that the PLRA, which revokes in forma pauperis filing from indigent prisoner-litigants after three qualifying dismissals, renders binding strikes impermissible before a prisoner accrues three strikes. By resolving the issue using the PLRA, the Sixth Circuit found …


The Corruption Of The Pardon Power, Albert W. Alschuler 2022 University of St. Thomas, Minnesota

The Corruption Of The Pardon Power, Albert W. Alschuler

University of St. Thomas Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Digging Out From Under Section 50-A: The Initial Impact Of Public Access To Police Misconduct Records In New York State, Cynthia Conti-Cook 2022 University of St. Thomas, Minnesota

Digging Out From Under Section 50-A: The Initial Impact Of Public Access To Police Misconduct Records In New York State, Cynthia Conti-Cook

University of St. Thomas Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Procedural Pitfalls: The Eleventh Circuit Holds That The Sentencing Commission’S Policy Statement On Sentence Reduction Is Binding On Defendant-Filed Motions, Allison Cheney 2022 Boston College Law School

Procedural Pitfalls: The Eleventh Circuit Holds That The Sentencing Commission’S Policy Statement On Sentence Reduction Is Binding On Defendant-Filed Motions, Allison Cheney

Boston College Law Review

On May 7, 2021, in United States v. Bryant, the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit held that the U.S. Sentencing Commission’s policy statement in Section 1B1.13 of the U.S. Sentencing Guidelines binds defendant-filed motions for compassionate release. In its Application Notes, the policy statement provides four “extraordinary and compelling circumstances” that warrant a sentence reduction. Application Note 1(D) is the “catch-all provision” because it states that judges may grant compassionate release for “other reasons” not specifically listed in the preceding Application Notes. Application Note 1(D) states that the Director of the Bureau of Prisons (BOP) …


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