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Report On The Investigation Into Russian Interference In The 2016 Presidential Election. Volumes I & Ii. (Redacted Version Of 4/18/2019), Robert S. Mueller III 2019 Special Counsel's Office

Report On The Investigation Into Russian Interference In The 2016 Presidential Election. Volumes I & Ii. (Redacted Version Of 4/18/2019), Robert S. Mueller Iii

U.S. Department of Justice Publications and Materials

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY TO VOLUME I

RUSSIAN SOCIAL MEDIA CAMPAIGN

The Internet Research Agency (IRA) carried out the earliest Russian interference operations identified by the investigation- a social media campaign designed to provoke and amplify political and social discord in the United States. The IRA was based in St. Petersburg, Russia, and received funding from Russian oligarch Y evgeniy Prigozhin and companies he controlled. Pri ozhin is widel re orted to have ties to Russian President Vladimir Putin [redacted]

In mid-2014, the IRA sent employees to the United States on an intelligence-gathering mission with instructions [redacted]

The IRA later used social ...


Public Or Private? The Split Over First Amendment Protection Of Union Speech By Public Employees, Meredith McCaffrey 2019 Boston College Law School

Public Or Private? The Split Over First Amendment Protection Of Union Speech By Public Employees, Meredith Mccaffrey

Boston College Law Review

On May 16, 2018, the Second Circuit held, in Montero v. City of Yonkers, that a police officer who criticized other officers at a union meeting and then sued for retaliation in the wake of his remarks spoke “as a private citizen” and was therefore protected by the First Amendment. However, the Second Circuit limited its ruling by refusing to adopt a per se rule that any person who speaks as a union member speaks “as a private citizen” and is therefore protected from retaliation by the First Amendment. By specifically refusing to adopt a per se rule on union ...


Hour Late On Your Bail, Spend The Weekend In Jail: Substantive Due Process And Pretrial Detention, Coleman Gay 2019 Boston College Law School

Hour Late On Your Bail, Spend The Weekend In Jail: Substantive Due Process And Pretrial Detention, Coleman Gay

Boston College Law Review

On March 9, 2018, the United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit held, in Dawson v. Board of County Commissioners of Jefferson County, that the right to be free from pretrial detention absent a determination of guilt is not a fundamental right. Rather, the court held, it is a non-fundamental liberty interest. In so doing, the Tenth Circuit split with the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, which had held that the right is fundamental. The Tenth Circuit also diverged from the Ninth Circuit in its application of a test to determine whether the government ...


The Concrete Jungle: Where Dreams Are Made Of . . . And Now Where Children Are Protected, Samantha A. Mumola 2019 Elisabeth Haub School of Law at Pace University

The Concrete Jungle: Where Dreams Are Made Of . . . And Now Where Children Are Protected, Samantha A. Mumola

Pace Law Review

The tragic and unsettling story of Kalief Browder has notably emerged as a prominent illustration of our criminal justice system’s historical failure to protect our youth. Kalief’s story gained massive media attention with the help of a TIME documentary series featured on Netflix and famous A-listers such as music artist Jay-Z and TV host Rosie O’Donnell. It is hard to ignore the fact that Kalief Browder was cheated by the system; he chose suicide to escape his demons, which developed after undeserved time spent at Riker’s – a place he would have never experienced had he initially ...


George Washington’S Attorneys: The Political Selection Of United States Attorneys At The Founding, Scott Ingram 2019 High Point University

George Washington’S Attorneys: The Political Selection Of United States Attorneys At The Founding, Scott Ingram

Pace Law Review

This Article examines the relationship between the Nation’s first President and the selection of United States Attorneys. It argues that politics played an important, if not primary, role in the President’s selections. George Washington sought those who would represent the government’s interests, adhere to the government’s policies, and advance Washington’s political goals. His selections also demonstrated Washington’s requirement of loyalty to America. In this respect, the politicization of United States Attorneys occurred at the outset. Part I of this Article defines politicization and identifies its four aspects. Part II describes the United States Attorney ...


Stress Reduction: Mindful Mandalas, Olivia Parrott, Carolyn Gillespie, Krystal Klag, Eleke Bonsi, Jenn Smith 2019 Olivet Nazarene University

Stress Reduction: Mindful Mandalas, Olivia Parrott, Carolyn Gillespie, Krystal Klag, Eleke Bonsi, Jenn Smith

Scholar Week 2016 - present

Mental Health is an ever-increasing topic of discussion in several sectors of today’s society. One career, law enforcement, seems to correlate job-related responsibilities with rising numbers in post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety. A group of nursing students from Olivet Nazarene University sought to incorporate their understanding of stressors associated with the helping profession of law enforcement while researching cost-effective, evidence-based, self-care methods that have a proven ability to reduce signs of depression and anxiety. One such method is the practice of mindfulness.

Mindfulness must be understood fundamentally before it may be useful in practice in reducing the effects ...


U.S. Citizens Detained And Deported? A Test Of The Great Writ's Reach In Protecting Due Process Rights In Removal Proceedings, Caroline Holliday 2019 Boston College Law School

U.S. Citizens Detained And Deported? A Test Of The Great Writ's Reach In Protecting Due Process Rights In Removal Proceedings, Caroline Holliday

Boston College Law Review

Every year, the U.S. government unlawfully detains a significant number of U.S. citizens and places them in immigration removal proceedings. Before the United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit’s 2018 decision in Gonzalez-Alarcon v. Macias, four circuits had held that an individual in removal proceedings with a valid claim to U.S. citizenship need not exhaust administrative remedies before the claim could be subject to judicial review. With its decision in Gonzalez-Alarcon, the Tenth Circuit joined the majority of circuits that have ruled on this issue and asserted the right of such an individual to ...


Pay Up Or Else: Immigration Bond And How A Small Procedural Change Could Liberate Immigrant Detainees, Jeremy Pepper 2019 Boston College Law School

Pay Up Or Else: Immigration Bond And How A Small Procedural Change Could Liberate Immigrant Detainees, Jeremy Pepper

Boston College Law Review

On any given day, thousands of immigrants are detained while they await their day in court. While there are procedures in place that would allow them to be released on bond, many immigrants who are granted bond remain detained due to their inability to pay. This is partially because immigration judges are not required to consider an immigrant’s financial situation when setting bond. A recent decision from the Ninth Circuit requires immigration judges to consider an immigrant’s financial situation when setting bond. This decision has both policy and legal merit and could result in the liberation of thousands ...


How Was That Reasonable? The Misguided Development Of Qualified Immunity And Excessive Force By Law Enforcement Officers, Marcus R. Nemeth 2019 Boston College Law School

How Was That Reasonable? The Misguided Development Of Qualified Immunity And Excessive Force By Law Enforcement Officers, Marcus R. Nemeth

Boston College Law Review

Under the qualified immunity doctrine, current policy shields law enforcement officers who utilize excessive force against ordinary American citizens. As a result, police departments and enforcement officers lack incentives to change their behavior, leaving victims and grieving families powerless in the face of an unforgiving legal doctrine that provides little to no justice. This Note explores the creation and development of the qualified immunity doctrine within the policing context and argues that its near-impossible and unjust standards have been problematically overextended and drastically need reform by the Supreme Court. The countless lives lost at the hands of those who are ...


Size Matters: Force And Size Disparity In Cases Of Aggravated Sexual Abuse, Janine Hanrahan 2019 Boston College Law School

Size Matters: Force And Size Disparity In Cases Of Aggravated Sexual Abuse, Janine Hanrahan

Boston College Law Review

In 2018, the Third Circuit Court of Appeals affirmed a jury’s finding that a corrections officer deprived a female inmate of her civil rights through his commission of aggravated sexual abuse. Following the Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals while splitting with the Fifth, Eighth, and Tenth Circuit Courts of Appeals, the Third Circuit held that size and coercive power disparities between a defendant and a victim do not speak to the force element of the federal aggravated sexual abuse statute, 18 U.S.C. § 2241(a). Although the Third Circuit takes a balanced approach, its adoption of the Seventh ...


Bloody Hell: How Insufficient Access To Menstrual Hygiene Products Creates Inhumane Conditions For Incarcerated Women, Lauren Shaw 2019 Texas A&M University School of Law

Bloody Hell: How Insufficient Access To Menstrual Hygiene Products Creates Inhumane Conditions For Incarcerated Women, Lauren Shaw

Texas A&M Law Review

For thousands of incarcerated women in the United States, dealing with menstruation is a nightmare. Across the country, many female prisoners lack sufficient access to feminine hygiene products, which negatively affects their health and rehabilitation. Although the international standards for the care of female prisoners have been raised in attempt to eliminate this issue, these stan- dards are often not followed in the United States. This Comment argues that denial of feminine hygiene products to female prisoners violates human de- cency. Additionally, this Comment considers possible constitutional violations caused by this denial, reviews current efforts to correct this problem, and ...


Policing The Admissibility Of Body Camera Evidence, Jeffrey Bellin, Shevarma Pemberton 2019 William & Mary Law School

Policing The Admissibility Of Body Camera Evidence, Jeffrey Bellin, Shevarma Pemberton

Faculty Publications

Body cameras are sweeping the nation and becoming, along with the badge and gun, standard issue for police officers. These cameras are intended to ensure accountability for abusive police officers. But, if history is any guide, the videos they produce will more commonly be used to prosecute civilians than to document abuse. Further, knowing that the footage will be available as evidence, police officers have an incentive to narrate body camera videos with descriptive oral statements that support a later prosecution. Captured on an official record that exclusively documents the police officer’s perspective, these statements—for example, “he just ...


Who Will Educate Me? Using The Americans With Disabilities Act To Improve Educational Access For Incarcerated Juveniles With Disabilities, Lauren A. Koster 2019 Boston College Law School

Who Will Educate Me? Using The Americans With Disabilities Act To Improve Educational Access For Incarcerated Juveniles With Disabilities, Lauren A. Koster

Boston College Law Review

Youth involved with the juvenile justice system present with a higher rate of disability, including mental illness and learning disabilities, than do non-system-involved youth. These young people are often eligible for special education services as provided by the federal Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (“IDEA”). Eligible youth incarcerated in juvenile detention and correctional facilities, however, often fail to receive these services. Education advocates typically bring suits against school districts and correctional institutions alike under the IDEA’s mandate to provide a free appropriate public education to students with disabilities. Unfortunately, this approach is failing because the IDEA is not able ...


Safe Injection Sites And The Federal "Crack House" Statute, Alex Kreit 2019 Thomas Jefferson School of Law

Safe Injection Sites And The Federal "Crack House" Statute, Alex Kreit

Boston College Law Review

Safe injection sites have become the next battlefield in the conflict between state and federal drug laws. A safe injection site is a place where injection drug users can self-administer drugs in a controlled environment under medical supervision. They have been operating in other countries, including Canada, for decades, and a wealth of evidence suggests that they can help to reduce overdose deaths. To date, however, no United States city or state has sanctioned a safe injection site. Until recently, safe injection sites were politically untenable, seen as a form of surrender in the war on drugs. This dynamic, however ...


Remedying Wrongful Convictions Through Dna Testing: Expanding Post-Conviction Litigants’ Access To Dna Database Searches To Prove Innocence, Kayleigh E. McGlynn 2019 Boston College Law School

Remedying Wrongful Convictions Through Dna Testing: Expanding Post-Conviction Litigants’ Access To Dna Database Searches To Prove Innocence, Kayleigh E. Mcglynn

Boston College Law Review

Forensic science is used as evidence in criminal cases regularly. Recently, however, scientists have criticized several commonly used forensic methods that are unreliable, scientifically invalid, and have contributed to wrongful convictions. In contrast, DNA testing, which is reliable and valid, is a powerful resource for exonerating wrongfully convicted individuals. Congress and all fifty states have enacted statutes providing access to post-conviction DNA testing. Only nine states, however, have enacted statutes granting post-conviction litigants access to another important resource—law enforcement DNA database searches. Even though Congress amended the federal post-conviction DNA testing statute to provide access to DNA database searches ...


The Thirteenth Amendment, Prison Labor Wages, And Interrupting The Intergenerational Cycle Of Subjugation, Josh Halladay 2019 Seattle University School of Law

The Thirteenth Amendment, Prison Labor Wages, And Interrupting The Intergenerational Cycle Of Subjugation, Josh Halladay

Seattle University Law Review

This Comment argues that meager or no compensation for prisoners, who are disproportionately black and other persons of color, entraps them and their children in a cycle of subjugation that dates back to the days of slavery, and this Comment proposes to interrupt this cycle by setting a minimum wage for prisoners and creating college savings accounts for their children. As part of the cycle, when people enter prisons and the doors behind them close, so do their families’ bank accounts and the doors to their children’s schools. At the same time, the cells next to them open, ready ...


Table Of Contents, Seattle University Law Review 2019 Seattle University School of Law

Table Of Contents, Seattle University Law Review

Seattle University Law Review

No abstract provided.


Cardinal Safety Newsletter - February 2019, Otterbein University 2019 Otterbein University

Cardinal Safety Newsletter - February 2019, Otterbein University

Otterbein Police Department

No abstract provided.


Safe Streets, Inc. : The 'Hustle' To End Black Gang Violence In Philadelphia, 1969-1976, Menika Dirkson 2019 Temple University

Safe Streets, Inc. : The 'Hustle' To End Black Gang Violence In Philadelphia, 1969-1976, Menika Dirkson

Arlen Specter Center for Public Service Research Fellowship

From 1962 to 1968, gang stabbings and murders in Philadelphia drastically increased, inspiring Philadelphia District Attorney Arlen Specter (from 1965-1973) to establish Safe Streets, Inc. in August 1969 as a non-profit, anti-gang program designed to reduce gang violence, end turf wars between rival gangs, and provide social services like job training and academic tutoring to juveniles. Since the program came into existence amidst the Civil Rights Movement (1954-1968), numerous cases of police brutality, and over 200 race riots in post-industrial cities, the yearly Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA) grant from the federal government offered to cities under the Omnibus Crime ...


Efficacy Of Clery Act Timely Warning And Emergency Notification Messages, Travis W. Douglas 2019 Thomas Jefferson University

Efficacy Of Clery Act Timely Warning And Emergency Notification Messages, Travis W. Douglas

Arlen Specter Center for Public Service Research Fellowship

The Clery Act (20 U.S.C. § 1092(f)) was passed following the rape and murder of Jeanne Clery in 1986 at Lehigh University. The intent of the law was to improve campus safety by making information about crime as well as safety and security policies more accessible to students, parents, employees, and others. This study explored the efficacy of the emergency notification and timely warnings provisions of the law. The study found these messages to be useful in promoting campus safety, particularly by informing people about safety issues and impacting people’s behavior related to self-protection. However, safety related ...


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