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Against The ‘Safety Net’, Matthew Lawrence 2020 Penn State Dickinson Law

Against The ‘Safety Net’, Matthew Lawrence

Matthew B. Lawrence

Jack Kemp and Ronald Reagan originated the ‘safety net’ conception of United States health and welfare laws in the late 1970s and early 1980s, defending proposed cuts to New Deal and Great Society programs by asserting that such cuts would not take away the “social safety net of programs” for those with “true need.” Legal scholars have adopted their metaphor widely and uncritically. This Essay deconstructs the ‘safety net’ metaphor and counsels against its use in understanding health and welfare laws. The metaphor is descriptively confusing because it means different things to different audiences. Some understand the ‘safety net’ as ...


Civil Rights And Shareholder Activism: Sec V. Medical Committee For Human Rights, Sarah C. Haan 2019 Washington and Lee University School of Law

Civil Rights And Shareholder Activism: Sec V. Medical Committee For Human Rights, Sarah C. Haan

Sarah Haan

This article builds upon the author's remarks at the 2018-2019 Lara D. Gass Annual Symposium: Civil Rights and Shareholder Activism at Washington and Lee University School of Law, February 15, 2019.

What does “corporate democracy” mean? How far does federal law go to guarantee public company investors a say in a firm’s policies on important social, environmental, or political issues? In 1972, the U.S. Supreme Court appeared ready to start sketching the contours of corporate democracy—and then, at the last minute, it pulled back. This Article tells the story of Securities and Exchange Commission v. Medical ...


Social Activism Through Shareholder Activism, Lisa M. Fairfax 2019 George Washington University Law School

Social Activism Through Shareholder Activism, Lisa M. Fairfax

Washington and Lee Law Review

This article is based on the author's keynote address at the 2018-2019 Lara D. Gass Annual Symposium: Civil Rights and Shareholder Activism at Washington and Lee University School of Law, February 15, 2019.

In 1952, the SEC altered the shareholder proposal rule to exclude proposals made “primarily for the purpose of promoting general economic, political, racial, religious, social or similar causes.” The SEC did not reference civil rights activist James Peck or otherwise acknowledge that its actions were prompted by Peck’s 1951 shareholder proposal to Greyhound for desegregating seating. Instead, the SEC indicated that its change simply reflected ...


Chancery’S Greatest Decision: Historical Insights On Civil Rights And The Future Of Shareholder Activism, Omari Scott Simmons 2019 Wake Forest University School of Law

Chancery’S Greatest Decision: Historical Insights On Civil Rights And The Future Of Shareholder Activism, Omari Scott Simmons

Washington and Lee Law Review

This article builds upon the author's remarks at the 2018-2019 Lara D. Gass Annual Symposium: Civil Rights and Shareholder Activism at Washington and Lee University School of Law, February 15, 2019.

Shareholder activism—using an equity stake in a corporation to influence management—has become a popular tool to effectuate social change in the twenty-first century. Increasingly, activists are looking beyond financial performance to demand better corporate performance in such areas as economic inequality, civil rights, human rights, discrimination, and diversity. These efforts take many forms: publicity campaigns, litigation, proxy battles, shareholder resolutions, and negotiations with corporate management. However ...


From Public Policy To Materiality: Non-Financial Reporting, Shareholder Engagement, And Rule 14a-8’S Ordinary Business Exception, Virginia Harper Ho 2019 University of Kansas School of Law

From Public Policy To Materiality: Non-Financial Reporting, Shareholder Engagement, And Rule 14a-8’S Ordinary Business Exception, Virginia Harper Ho

Washington and Lee Law Review

This article builds upon the author's remarks at the 2018-2019 Lara D. Gass Annual Symposium: Civil Rights and Shareholder Activism at Washington and Lee University School of Law, February 15, 2019.

In 2017, shareholder proposals urging corporate boards to report on their climate-related risk made headlines when they earned majority support from investors at ExxonMobil, Occidental Petroleum, and PPL. The key to this historic vote was the support of Blackrock, State Street, and Vanguard, which broke with management and cast their votes behind the proposals. The 2018 proxy season saw several more climate-related proposals earn majority support, and in ...


Civil Rights And Shareholder Activism: Sec V. Medical Committee For Human Rights, Sarah C. Haan 2019 Washington and Lee University School of Law

Civil Rights And Shareholder Activism: Sec V. Medical Committee For Human Rights, Sarah C. Haan

Washington and Lee Law Review

This article builds upon the author's remarks at the 2018-2019 Lara D. Gass Annual Symposium: Civil Rights and Shareholder Activism at Washington and Lee University School of Law, February 15, 2019.

What does “corporate democracy” mean? How far does federal law go to guarantee public company investors a say in a firm’s policies on important social, environmental, or political issues? In 1972, the U.S. Supreme Court appeared ready to start sketching the contours of corporate democracy—and then, at the last minute, it pulled back. This Article tells the story of Securities and Exchange Commission v. Medical ...


Cda 230 For A Smart Internet, Madeline Byrd, Katherine J. Strandburg 2019 New York University School of Law

Cda 230 For A Smart Internet, Madeline Byrd, Katherine J. Strandburg

Fordham Law Review

This Article analyzes CDA 230 liability in light of the evolution of smart services employing data-driven personalized models of user behavior. As an illustrative case study, we discuss discrimination claims against Facebook’s ad-targeting platform, relying on recent empirical studies5 and litigation documents for factual background.


Urbanism Under Google: Lessons From Sidewalk Toronto, Ellen P. Goodman, Julia Powles 2019 Rutgers Law School

Urbanism Under Google: Lessons From Sidewalk Toronto, Ellen P. Goodman, Julia Powles

Fordham Law Review

Cities around the world are rapidly adopting digital technologies, data analytics, and the trappings of “smart” infrastructure. These innovations are touted as solutions to help rationalize services and address rising urban challenges, whether in housing, transit, energy, law enforcement, health care, waste management, or population flow. Promises of urban innovation unite cities’ need for help with technology firms’ need for markets and are rarely subject to evidentiary burdens about projected benefits (let alone costs). For the city, being smart is about functioning better and attracting tech plaudits. For the technology company, the smart city is a way to capture the ...


Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, And Bias In Finance: Toward Responsible Innovation, Kristin Johnson, Frank Pasquale, Jennifer Chapman 2019 Tulane University Law School

Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, And Bias In Finance: Toward Responsible Innovation, Kristin Johnson, Frank Pasquale, Jennifer Chapman

Fordham Law Review

According to some futurists, financial markets’ automation will substitute increasingly sophisticated, objective, analytical, model-based assessments of, for example, a borrower’s creditworthiness for direct human evaluations irrevocably tainted by bias and subject to the cognitive limits of the human brain. However, even if they do occur, such advances may violate other legal principles.


Liability For Ai Decision-Making: Some Legal And Ethical Considerations, Iria Giuffrida 2019 William & Mary Law School

Liability For Ai Decision-Making: Some Legal And Ethical Considerations, Iria Giuffrida

Fordham Law Review

The creation and commercialization of these systems raise the question of how liability risks will play out in real life. However, as technical advancements have outpaced legal actions, it is unclear how the law will treat AI systems. This Article briefly addresses the legal ramifications and liability risks associated with reliance on—or delegation to—AI systems, and it sketches a framework suggesting how we can address the question of whether AI merits a new approach to deal with the liability challenges it raises when humans remain “in” or “on” the loop.


Artificial Intelligence, Finance, And The Law, Tom C.W. Lin 2019 Temple University Beasley School of Law

Artificial Intelligence, Finance, And The Law, Tom C.W. Lin

Fordham Law Review

Artificial intelligence is an existential component of modern finance. The progress and promise realized and presented by artificial intelligence in finance has been thus far remarkable. It has made finance cheaper, faster, larger, more accessible, more profitable, and more efficient in many ways. Yet for all the significant progress and promise made possible by financial artificial intelligence, it also presents serious risks and limitations. This Article offers a study of those risks and limitations—the ways artificial intelligence and misunderstandings of it can harm and hinder law, finance, and society. It provides a broad examination of inherent and structural risks ...


Artificial Intelligence In Pharmaceuticals, Biologics, And Medical Devices: Present And Future Regulatory Models, David W. Opderbeck 2019 Seton Hall University Law School

Artificial Intelligence In Pharmaceuticals, Biologics, And Medical Devices: Present And Future Regulatory Models, David W. Opderbeck

Fordham Law Review

Artificial intelligence (AI) and AI-assisted technologies are set to transform the pharmaceutical, biologic, and medical device industries. AI is accelerating a convergence in the pharmaceutical and medical device industries and, in the health-care industry more broadly, is similar to the convergence of the media, entertainment, and communications industries.


Robot, Inc.: Personhood For Autonomous Systems?, Gerhard Wagner 2019 Humboldt University in Berlin, Germany

Robot, Inc.: Personhood For Autonomous Systems?, Gerhard Wagner

Fordham Law Review

Since the invention of the steam engine, technological progress has served as a driver of innovation for liability systems. Pertinent examples include the arrival of the railway and the introduction of motor-powered vehicles. Today, the digital revolution challenges established legal axioms more fundamentally than technological innovations from earlier times. The development of robots and other digital agents operating with the help of artificial intelligence will transform many, if not all, product markets. It will also blur the distinction between goods and services and call into question the existing allocation of responsibility between manufacturers and suppliers on one side and owners ...


Power, Process, And Automated Decision-Making, Ari Ezra Waldman 2019 Innovation Center for Law and Technology

Power, Process, And Automated Decision-Making, Ari Ezra Waldman

Fordham Law Review

Automated decision-making systems based on “big data”–powered algorithms and machine learning are just as prone to mistakes, biases, and arbitrariness as their human counterparts. The result is a technologically driven decision-making process that seems to defy interrogation, analysis, and accountability and, therefore, undermines due process.


Critical Reviews Of Flawed Research On Prostitution, Donna M. Hughes 2019 University of Rhode Island

Critical Reviews Of Flawed Research On Prostitution, Donna M. Hughes

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

No abstract provided.


The Supreme Court And The Future Of Affirmative Action, Vinay Harpalani 2019 University of New Mexico - School of Law

The Supreme Court And The Future Of Affirmative Action, Vinay Harpalani

Faculty Scholarship

On October 1, the U.S. District Court for the District of Massachusetts issued its much anticipated ruling in Students for Fair Admissions (SFFA) v. Harvard. The big question is whether the U.S. Supreme Court will grant certiorari, since SFFA is sure to appeal subsequently to the High Court. However, there are a few reasons why the Justices might deny certiorari.


The Social Costs Of Dividends And Share Repurchases, J.B. Heaton 2019 Pepperdine University

The Social Costs Of Dividends And Share Repurchases, J.B. Heaton

The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law

A long-held view in the academy is that shareholders are "residual claimants” in the sense that shareholders are paid in full only after the corporation pays its creditors. The reality on the ground is far different. Corporations give assets away to their shareholders long before they have satisfied creditors, both voluntary contract creditors and involuntary tort creditors. In particular, existing U.S. corporate and voidable transfer laws allow corporations to pay dividends and make share repurchases up to the point where the corporation is insolvent or nearly so. Voluntary creditors can limit dividends and share repurchases by contract, but involuntary ...


Perpetual Affordability Covenants: Can These Land Use Tools Solve The Affordable Housing Crisis?, Elizabeth Elia 2019 University of New Mexico - School of Law

Perpetual Affordability Covenants: Can These Land Use Tools Solve The Affordable Housing Crisis?, Elizabeth Elia

Faculty Scholarship

Approximately 3.8 million privately-owned residential housing units in America today contain affordability covenants recorded in their chains of title. State and local agencies and the District of Columbia use these covenants to ensure that publicly-subsidized properties are actually used to provide affordable housing. With rents at all-time highs and stagnant wages, the affordable housing crisis has reached a fever pitch. House Democrats are proposing billions more in housing subsidy. To the extent those funds subsidize privately-owned housing development they, too, will be secured by affordability covenants. In response to this crisis, a new trend in high cost markets is ...


The Effect Of Context On Practice, Susan D. Carle 2019 American University Washington College of Law

The Effect Of Context On Practice, Susan D. Carle

Susan D. Carle

Book review of Lynn Mather, Craig A. McEwan & Richard J. Maiman's Divorce Lawyers at Work: Varieties of Professionalism in Practice


Acting Differently: How Science On The Social Brain Can Inform Antidiscrimination Law, Susan D. Carle 2019 American University Washington College of Law

Acting Differently: How Science On The Social Brain Can Inform Antidiscrimination Law, Susan D. Carle

Susan D. Carle

Legal scholars are becoming increasingly interested in how the literature on implicit bias helps explain illegal discrimination. However, these scholars have not yet mined all of the insights that science on the social brain can offer antidiscrimination law. That science, which researchers refer to as social neuroscience, involves a broadly interdisciplinary approach anchored in experimental natural science methodologies. Social neuroscience shows that the brain tends to evaluate others by distinguishing between “us” versus “them” on the basis of often insignificant characteristics, such as how people dress, sing, joke, or otherwise behave. Subtle behavioral markers signal social identity and group membership ...


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