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Throwing A Flag On Roger Goodell’S Heavy Hand: A Comparison Of Nfl And Fifa Discipline And Dispute Resolution Mechanisms, Sean W. Pie 2019 Penn State Law

Throwing A Flag On Roger Goodell’S Heavy Hand: A Comparison Of Nfl And Fifa Discipline And Dispute Resolution Mechanisms, Sean W. Pie

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

No abstract provided.


Wherever We Go, We Leave A Trail: Surveillance And Sousveillance In The United States And United Kingdom, Allison Amatuzzo 2019 Penn State Law

Wherever We Go, We Leave A Trail: Surveillance And Sousveillance In The United States And United Kingdom, Allison Amatuzzo

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

No abstract provided.


It’S Dark And Hell Is Hot: Third Party Complicity In Jus In Bello Detainee Abuse And Torture, Charles L. Deibel, II 2019 Penn State Law

It’S Dark And Hell Is Hot: Third Party Complicity In Jus In Bello Detainee Abuse And Torture, Charles L. Deibel, Ii

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

“‘Do not try to do too much with your own hands.’”


Obtaining Relief Under The Convention Against Torture: On The Issue Of Volition, Thomas F. Brier, Jr., Esq. 2019 Penn State Law

Obtaining Relief Under The Convention Against Torture: On The Issue Of Volition, Thomas F. Brier, Jr., Esq.

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

No abstract provided.


“Foreign Agents,” Sovereignty, And Political Pluralism: How The Russian Foreign Agents Law Is Shaping Civil Society, Alexandra V. Orlova 2019 Penn State Law

“Foreign Agents,” Sovereignty, And Political Pluralism: How The Russian Foreign Agents Law Is Shaping Civil Society, Alexandra V. Orlova

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

During the 1990s, many Russian non-governmental organizations (“NGOs”) secured foreign funding and participated in transnational advocacy networks. However, in the early 2000s, Russian authorities attempted to regain control over foreign-funded NGOs’ activities, presenting these NGOs as national security threats. The 2012 Russian Foreign Agents Law and the resulting 2018 challenge before the European Court of Human Rights reflect contemporary Russian political rhetoric that views Western governments and their agents, including NGOs, as threats to Russian sovereignty and national security. However, legal challenges also de-politicize the issues by forcing all parties into the framework of legal argument, reflecting the decline of ...


Legalization And Norm Internalization: An Empirical Study Of International Human Rights Commitments Eliciting Public Support For Compliance, Matthew D. Kim, Ph.D. 2019 Penn State Law

Legalization And Norm Internalization: An Empirical Study Of International Human Rights Commitments Eliciting Public Support For Compliance, Matthew D. Kim, Ph.D.

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

Past studies argue that states abide by international human rights laws because the ratification of human rights treaties elicits public demand for compliance. Yet, the extent to which human rights treaties affect public support for compliance is unclear. At times, legalization of norms seems to elicit substantial public support for compliance, but at other times, legalization seems to have little effect. This study incorporates the life cycle of norms to arrive at a deeper understanding of the conditions in which international legal commitments to human rights generate public support for compliance with human rights norms. Using a series of survey ...


Germany Vs. Europe: The Principle Of Democracy In German Constitutional Law And The Troubled Future Of European Integration, Russell A. Miller 2019 Washington and Lee University School of Law

Germany Vs. Europe: The Principle Of Democracy In German Constitutional Law And The Troubled Future Of European Integration, Russell A. Miller

Russell A. Miller

This Article introduces the Demokratieprinzip. In Part II, I begin by more fully documenting the Euro-skeptical turn in Germany's relationship with Europe, paying particular attention to the central role played by the Constitutional Court's interpretation of the Demokratieprinzip. Part III, in four subparts, provides a doctrinal introduction to the principle of democracy. First, I map the principle's bases in the text of the German Grundgesetz (Basic Law or Constitution). Second, I present the gloss the Constitutional Court has given the principle, making special reference to the Court's recent decisions involving challenges to Germany's participation in ...


What Fema Should Do After Puerto Rico: Toward Critical Administrative Constitutionalism, Yxta Maya Murray 2019 Loyola Law School, Los Angeles

What Fema Should Do After Puerto Rico: Toward Critical Administrative Constitutionalism, Yxta Maya Murray

Arkansas Law Review

The 200th anniversary of the 1819 Supreme Court decision McCulloch v. Maryland offers scholars a special opportunity to study the shortcomings of the federal The Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, as they were revealed by FEMA’s failures in Puerto Rico during and after Hurricane Maria. Under Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution, as it has been interpreted by McCulloch, a law passed by Congress must be necessary and proper for executing its powers. In light of the expansive capacities allotted for disaster relief under the Stafford Act, and the catastrophic failure of FEMA to ...


Defying Mcculloch? Jackson’S Bank Veto Reconsidered, David S. Schwartz 2019 University of Wisconsin, Madison

Defying Mcculloch? Jackson’S Bank Veto Reconsidered, David S. Schwartz

Arkansas Law Review

On July 10, 1832, President Andrew Jackson issued the most famous and controversial veto in United States history. The bill in question was “to modify and continue” the 1816 “act to incorporate the subscribers to the Bank of the United States. This was to recharter of the Second Bank of the United States whose constitutionality was famously upheld in McCulloch v. Maryland. The bill was passed by Congress and presented to Jackson on July 4. Six days later, Jackson vetoed the bill. Jackson’s veto mortally wounded the Second Bank, which would forever close its doors four years later at ...


M'Culloch In Context, Mark R. Killenbeck 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

M'Culloch In Context, Mark R. Killenbeck

Arkansas Law Review

M’Culloch v. Maryland is rightly regarded as a landmark opinion, one that affirmed the ability of Congress to exercise implied powers, articulated a rule of deference to Congressional judgments about whether given legislative actions were in fact “necessary,” and limited the ability of the states to impair or restrict the operations of the federal government. Most scholarly discussions of the case and its legacy emphasize these aspects of the decision. Less common are attempts to place M’Culloch within the ebb and flow of the Marshall Court and the political and social realities of the time. So, for example ...


The Confusing Language Of Mcculloch V. Maryland: Did Marshall Really Know What He Was Doing (Or Meant)?, Sanford Levinson 2019 University of Texas, Austin

The Confusing Language Of Mcculloch V. Maryland: Did Marshall Really Know What He Was Doing (Or Meant)?, Sanford Levinson

Arkansas Law Review

All legal “interpretation” involves confrontation with inherently indeterminate language. I have distinguished in my own work between what I call the Constitution of Settlement and the Constitution of Conversation. The former includes those aspects of the Constitution that do indeed seem devoid of interpretive challenge, such as the unfortunate assignment of two senators to each state or the specification of the terms of office of representatives, senators, and presidents. I am quite happy to concede that “two,” “four,” and “six” have determinate meaning, though my concession is not based on a fancy theory of linguistics. It is, rather, a recognition ...


Mcculloch At 200, David S. Schwartz 2019 University of Wisconsin, Madison

Mcculloch At 200, David S. Schwartz

Arkansas Law Review

March 6, 2019 marked the 200th anniversary of the Supreme Court’s issuance of its decision in McCulloch v. Maryland, upholding the constitutionality of the Second Bank of the United States, the successor to Alexander Hamilton’s national bank. McCulloch v. Maryland involved a constitutional challenge by the Second Bank of the United States to a Maryland tax on the banknotes issued by the Bank’s Baltimore branch. The tax was probably designed to raise the Second Bank’s cost of issuing loans and thereby disadvantage it relative to Maryland’s own state-chartered banks. Marshall’s opinion famously rejected the ...


The Legality Of President Trump's Missile Strike On Al-Shayrat Air Force Base In Syria, Jacob Behmer 2019 University of St. Thomas, Minnesota

The Legality Of President Trump's Missile Strike On Al-Shayrat Air Force Base In Syria, Jacob Behmer

University of St. Thomas Journal of Law and Public Policy

No abstract provided.


Grinding Down The Edges Of The Free Expression Right In Hong Kong, Stuart Hargreaves 2019 Brooklyn Law School

Grinding Down The Edges Of The Free Expression Right In Hong Kong, Stuart Hargreaves

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

In the liberal-democratic tradition limits on speech must be clear, precise, and subject to justification within the particular constitutional framework of a given jurisdiction. In the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR), the Court of Final Appeal has developed a line of jurisprudence that explains under which circumstances the Government of Hong Kong (Government) may seek to limit the free speech provisions contained within the Basic Law, Hong Kong's quasi-constitution. In its fight against ‘localists,’ however, rather than legislating a clear speech restriction that is consistent with this jurisprudence, the Government has instead attempted to suppress unwelcome political speech ...


Forging Taiwan’S Legal Identity, Margaret K. Lewis 2019 Brooklyn Law School

Forging Taiwan’S Legal Identity, Margaret K. Lewis

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

The legal system in Taiwan is undergoing a transformation. Over a hundred years since the founding of the Republic of China and over thirty years since the end of martial law on Taiwan, a new legal identity is being forged. Public criticism of “dinosaur” judges and esoteric debates among law-trained elites have galvanized efforts to create a more inclusive discussion surrounding legal reforms. Taiwan is facing the challenge of moving from dinosaurs to dynamism. This Article argues that transparency, clarity, and participation both are animating principles of the current reform debate and are beginning to emerge as characteristics of Taiwan ...


Roots Of Revolution: The African National Congress And Gay Liberation In South Africa, Joseph S. Jackson 2019 Brooklyn Law School

Roots Of Revolution: The African National Congress And Gay Liberation In South Africa, Joseph S. Jackson

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

South Africa’s post-apartheid constitutions were the first in the world to contain an explicit prohibition of discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation, and that prohibition established the foundation for marriage equality and broad judicial and legislative protection of gay rights in South Africa. The source of this gay rights clause in the South African Constitution can be found in the African National Congress’s decision to include such a clause in the ANC’s A Bill of Rights for a New South Africa, published when the apartheid government of South Africa was still in power. This article traces the ...


Safeguarding Democracy In Europe: A Bulwark Against Hungary’S Subversion Of Civil Society, Hannah J. Sarokin 2019 Brooklyn Law School

Safeguarding Democracy In Europe: A Bulwark Against Hungary’S Subversion Of Civil Society, Hannah J. Sarokin

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

Spurred in large part by a mounting humanitarian crisis in Syria, the 2015 migrant crisis exposed deeply rooted fractures within the European Union regarding refugee resettlement. While the European Union worked to develop a synchronized response to the influx of refugees and asylees, Hungary defiantly sought to close its borders. In doing so, the Hungarian government targeted not only those seeking refuge, but its own civil society. In a series of opaque and overtly punitive legislative acts passed in the summer of 2018, Hungary criminalized any civil society activities that facilitate or assist with immigration. This Note will analyze the ...


The Need For A Shared Responsibility Regime Between State And Non-State Actors To Prevent Human Rights Violations Caused By Cyber-Surveillance Spyware, Anna W. Chan 2019 Brooklyn Law School

The Need For A Shared Responsibility Regime Between State And Non-State Actors To Prevent Human Rights Violations Caused By Cyber-Surveillance Spyware, Anna W. Chan

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

Technology has undoubtedly contributed to the field of human rights. Internet connection and a smartphone has enabled activists to call out political leaders, shine light on human atrocities and organize mass protests through social media platforms. This has resulted in many authoritarian governments spending large amounts of their resources to purchase cyber-surveillance spyware systems from multi-national corporations to closely monitor and track their citizens for any signs of dissidence. Such technology has enabled authoritarian regimes to commit human right violations ranging from invasion of privacy, arbitrary arrest, arbitrary detention, torture and even murder. Despite the uncovering of such questionable transactions ...


The Plight Of Georgia: Russian Occupation And The Energy Charter Treaty, Jennessa M. Lever 2019 Brooklyn Law School

The Plight Of Georgia: Russian Occupation And The Energy Charter Treaty, Jennessa M. Lever

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

After the Five-Day Russo-Georgian War, Russia usurped Georgian separatist territories, including a stretch of the Baku-Supsa Pipeline which provides gas to Europe. The continued occupation by Russia endangers Georgian sovereignty, natural resources, and economic security and puts Europe’s gas security at risk. The Energy Charter Treaty (ECT), through provisional application, provides a unique opportunity to assist Georgia’s battle for territorial integrity. This Note will examine the ECT’s ability to provide a pathway for Georgian economic and energy security by holding Russia accountable for violations of the ECT and removing Russia’s stronghold on the region.


Comparative Analysis Of The Eu’S Gdpr And Brazil’S Lgpd: Enforcement Challenges With The Lgpd, Abigayle Erickson 2019 Brooklyn Law School

Comparative Analysis Of The Eu’S Gdpr And Brazil’S Lgpd: Enforcement Challenges With The Lgpd, Abigayle Erickson

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

In the wake of the adoption of the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) in May 2018, other countries and jurisdictions have contemplated personal data privacy legislation. In August 2018, the former president of Brazil, Michel Temer, signed the country’s comprehensive data privacy regulation, Lei Geral de Proteção de Dados Pessoais (LGPD), into law. Temer, however, vetoed many of the enforcement provisions. Shortly before leaving office, Temer signed an executive order creating a regulatory agency as the bill initially called for, but situated the agency under executive control instead of creating a wholly independent agency. This Note ...


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