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Losing Control: The 20-Year Decline In Loan Covenant Restrictions, David Smith 2019 McIntire School of Commerce, University of Virginia

Losing Control: The 20-Year Decline In Loan Covenant Restrictions, David Smith

Law, Economics, & Business Workshop

Over the last twenty years, financial covenants in syndicated loan agreements have steadily become looser. The result is that the fraction of U.S. public companies reporting a violation of a loan covenant during a given year decreased from over 12% in 1997 to less than 5% in 2016. Although the decline accelerates in recent years, the trend is present prior to the recent financial crisis. The trend cannot be explained by changes in the composition of public firms, a decrease in the usage of debt, or a long series of positive ex-post outcomes for firms. Nor does the rise ...


Network Effects In Corporate Governance, Sarath Sanga 2019 Northwestern University

Network Effects In Corporate Governance, Sarath Sanga

Law, Economics, & Business Workshop

Most public companies incorporate in Delaware. Is this because they prefer its legal system or are they simply following a trend? Using the incorporation histories of over 22,000 public companies from 1930 to 2010, I show that firms are more influenced by changes in each other’s decisions than by changes in the law. The analysis exploits an unexpected legal shock that increased Delaware’s long-run share from 30 to 74 percent. I attribute most of this change to a cascading effect in which the decisions of past firms successively influence future cohorts. These decisions are also highly path ...


A Tale Of Two Markets: Regulation And Innovation In Post-Crisis Mortgage And Structured Finance Markets, William W. Bratton, Adam J. Levitin 2019 University of Pennsylvania Law School

A Tale Of Two Markets: Regulation And Innovation In Post-Crisis Mortgage And Structured Finance Markets, William W. Bratton, Adam J. Levitin

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This Article takes the occasion of the tenth anniversary of the financial crisis to review recent developments in the structured products market, connecting the emergent pattern to post-crisis regulation.

The Article tells a tale of two markets. The financial crisis stemmed from excessive risk-taking and shabby practice in the subprime home mortgage market, a market that owed its existence to the private-label, originate to securitize model. But the pre-crisis boom in private label subprime mortgage-backed securities could never have happened absent back up financing from an array of structured products and vehicles created in the capital markets—the CDOs that ...


Law Matters -- Less Than We Thought, Daniel M. Klerman, Holger Spamann 2019 USC Law School

Law Matters -- Less Than We Thought, Daniel M. Klerman, Holger Spamann

University of Southern California Legal Studies Working Paper Series

In a pre-registered 2×2×2 factorial between-subject randomized lab experiment with 61 federal judges, we test if the law influences judicial decisions, if it does so more under a rule than under a standard, and how its influence compares to that of legally irrelevant sympathies. The judges were given realistic materials and a relatively long period of time (50 minutes) to decide a run-of-the-mill auto accident case. We find weak evidence for the law effect, stronger evidence that rules constrain more than standards, and no evidence of a sympathy effect. Unexpectedly, we find that judges were more likely to ...


Measuring Regulation: A Labor Task-Based Approach, Michael Simkovic, Miao Ben Zhang 2019 USC Gould School of Law

Measuring Regulation: A Labor Task-Based Approach, Michael Simkovic, Miao Ben Zhang

University of Southern California Legal Studies Working Paper Series

This paper uses occupational employment and wage data for over 270 industries from 1990 to 2017 to estimate the percentage of an industry's annual labor spending on performing regulation-related tasks. We hypothesize that this measure reflects the intensity of regulations that incentivize firm spending on compliance to avoid legal liability or regulatory sanctions. We study the sensitivity of this measure to shocks that change regulatory intensity in the finance and energy sectors. Compared to supply-side measures that count words in regulations, our response-based measure, Regulation Index, reflects broader sources of regulation, can better detect the impact of regulations, and ...


Toward A Mission Statement For Mutual Funds In Shareholder Litigation, Sean J. Griffith, Dorothy S. Lund 2019 Fordham University School of Law

Toward A Mission Statement For Mutual Funds In Shareholder Litigation, Sean J. Griffith, Dorothy S. Lund

University of Southern California Legal Studies Working Paper Series

This paper analyzes the conduct of mutual funds in shareholder litigation. We begin by reviewing the basic forms of shareholder litigation and the benefits such claims might offer mutual fund investors. We then investigate, though an in-depth docket review, whether and how the ten largest mutual funds participate in shareholder litigation. We find that although shareholder suits offer potential benefits, the largest mutual funds have essentially forfeited their use of litigation. This finding is particularly striking given that index funds and other long-term oriented mutual funds generally cannot sell their shares when they are dissatisfied with company performance, leaving them ...


Catalyzing Privacy Law, Anupam Chander, Margot E. Kaminski, William McGeveran 2019 Georgetown University Law Center

Catalyzing Privacy Law, Anupam Chander, Margot E. Kaminski, William Mcgeveran

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The United States famously lacks a comprehensive federal data privacy law. In the past year, however, nearly half of state legislatures have proposed or enacted broad privacy bills or have established privacy legislation task forces, while Congress has scrambled to hold hearings on multiple such proposals. What is catalyzing this legislative momentum? Some believe that Europe’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which came into force in 2018, is the driving factor. But with the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) scheduled to take effect in January 2020, California has emerged as an alternate contender in the race to set the ...


A Better Hope For Campaign Finance Reform, Edward J. McCaffery 2019 University of Southern California;California Institute of Tecnology

A Better Hope For Campaign Finance Reform, Edward J. Mccaffery

University of Southern California Legal Studies Working Paper Series

There is too much money in American politics, and too much of it comes from too few citizens. Mega-donors like Sheldon Adelson or Tom Steyer make $100 million political expenditures every election cycle. Attempts to limit such large political contributions have failed at every level: judicially, legislatively, and administratively. Much of the academic literature has joined the real world’s sense of despair. This Article takes a new tack. By changing our tax system from an income to a consistent progressive spending tax, the true cost of political expenditures by mega-donors could increase tenfold. By using a strategy of taxing ...


Does The Decriminalization Of Prostitution Reduce Rape And Sexually Transmitted Disease? A Review Of Cunningham And Shah Findings, Lily Lachapelle, Clare Schneider, Melanie Shapiro, Donna M. Hughes 2019 University of Rhode Island

Does The Decriminalization Of Prostitution Reduce Rape And Sexually Transmitted Disease? A Review Of Cunningham And Shah Findings, Lily Lachapelle, Clare Schneider, Melanie Shapiro, Donna M. Hughes

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

In 2013, research findings by Cunningham and Shah claimed that rape and sexually transmitted diseases were reduced by decriminalized prostitution in Rhode Island. The original unpublished claims have received wide media coverage which have gone unexamined. This review finds errors in their analyses. One error is the date when prostitution was decriminalized in Rhode Island. Cunningham and Shah claim that prostitution was decriminalized in 2003. Our analysis finds the date of decriminalization of prostitution was 1980. The change in the start date of decriminalization significantly alters the analysis and the findings. Another error results from Cunningham and Shah using an ...


The Oppressive Pressures Of Globalization And Neoliberalism On Mexican Maquiladora Garment Workers, Jenna Demeter 2019 The University of Tennessee, Knoxville

The Oppressive Pressures Of Globalization And Neoliberalism On Mexican Maquiladora Garment Workers, Jenna Demeter

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee

The international economic trends of globalization and neoliberalism have exposed and enabled the exploitation of Mexican workers, especially women in the maquiladora garment industry. During the 1950s, globalization gave rise to the new international division of labor and transnational corporations (TNCs) that have offshored labor-intensive phases of production to developing countries, many of which have pursued export-led industrialization. Export processing in Mexico was encouraged in the 1960s by Item 807 of the U.S. Tariff Code and Mexico’s Border Industrialization Program. Especially following the Latin American debt crisis of the 1980s, advanced capitalist countries and International Financial Institutions foisted ...


Money Norms, Julia Y. Lee 2019 Penn State Law

Money Norms, Julia Y. Lee

Julia Lee

Money norms present a fundamental contradiction. Norms embody the social sphere, a system of internalized values, unwritten rules, and shared expectations that informally govern human behavior. Money, on the other hand, evokes the economic sphere of markets, prices, and incentives. Existing legal scholarship keeps the two spheres distinct. Money is assumed to operate as a medium of exchange or as a tool for altering the payoffs of different actions. When used to make good behavior less costly and undesirable behavior more costly, money functions to incentivize, sanction, and deter. Although a rich literature on the expressive function of law exists ...


Stabilizing “Pillar One”: Corporate Profit Reallocation In An Uncertain Environment, Itai Grinberg 2019 Georgetown University Law Center

Stabilizing “Pillar One”: Corporate Profit Reallocation In An Uncertain Environment, Itai Grinberg

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

This paper is about how the world reestablishes international tax order.

The paper focuses on the OECD’s work on profit reallocation and asks whether this multilateral effort can be successful in stabilizing the international tax system. The analysis centers on the current leading concepts for reallocating profit among jurisdictions under what is known as “Pillar One” of the OECD work programme. To analyze whether any Pillar One concept can be turned into a stable multilateral regime, it is necessary to specify certain elements of what a proposal to reallocate profits might entail. Accordingly, this paper sets out two strawman ...


The Cost Of Legal Restrictions On Experience Rating, Levon Barseghyan, Francesca Molinari, Darcy Steeg Morris, Joshua C. Teitelbaum 2019 Cornell University

The Cost Of Legal Restrictions On Experience Rating, Levon Barseghyan, Francesca Molinari, Darcy Steeg Morris, Joshua C. Teitelbaum

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

We investigate the cost of legal restrictions on experience rating in auto and home insurance. The cost is an opportunity cost as experience rating can mitigate the problems associated with unobserved heterogeneity in claim risk, including mispriced coverage and resulting demand distortions. We assess this cost through a counterfactual analysis in which we explore how risk predictions, premiums, and demand in home insurance and two lines of auto insurance would respond to unrestricted multiline experience rating. Using claims data from a large sample of households, we first estimate the variance-covariance matrix of unobserved heterogeneity in claim risk. We then show ...


Just Prices, Robert C. Hockett, Roy Kreitner 2019 Cornell Law School

Just Prices, Robert C. Hockett, Roy Kreitner

Robert C. Hockett

In what sense do market prices represent or convey value? At first glance, such prices might look like the upshot of spontaneous social aggregation without exogenously imposed order: uncoordinated individual trading decisions yield "price information" that is said both to induce socially efficient productive decisions and to set a framework that facilitates coherent and welfare-enhancing consumer choice. But while some trading decisions might well be uncoordinated,far from all of them are; and the rules within which trade is conducted are in any event the product of social choice. When we recognize that these rules of trade and certain public ...


The Deserving Poor, The Undeserving Poor, And Class-Based Affirmative Action, Khiara M. Bridges 2019 Boston University School of Law

The Deserving Poor, The Undeserving Poor, And Class-Based Affirmative Action, Khiara M. Bridges

Khiara M Bridges

This Article is a critique of class-based affirmative action. It begins by observing that many professed politically conservative individuals have championed class-based affirmative action. However, it observes that political conservatism is not typically identified as an ideology that generally approves of improving the poor’s well-being through the means that class-based affirmative action employs — that is, through redistributing wealth by taking wealth from a wealthy individual and giving it directly to a poor person. This is precisely what class-based affirmative action does: it takes a seat in an incoming class (a species of wealth) from a wealthy individual and gives ...


The Concentration Of Commercial Hazardous Waste Facilities In The Western New York Community, R. Nils Olsen Jr. 2019 University at Buffalo School of Law

The Concentration Of Commercial Hazardous Waste Facilities In The Western New York Community, R. Nils Olsen Jr.

R. Nils Olsen, Jr.

No abstract provided.


Building A Community Base For Housing Development In The 1990s: A Modest Proposal For Buffalo, New York, George M. Hezel 2019 University at Buffalo School of Law

Building A Community Base For Housing Development In The 1990s: A Modest Proposal For Buffalo, New York, George M. Hezel

George Hezel

No abstract provided.


Solidarity Economy Lawyering, Renee Hatcher 2019 John Marshall Law School

Solidarity Economy Lawyering, Renee Hatcher

Renee Hatcher

This essay explores lawyering in the solidarity economy movement as an emergent approach to progressive transactional lawyering. The solidarity economy movement is a set of value-driven theories and practices that seeks to transform the global economy into a just economy that centers the needs of people and the planet. While the solidarity economy movement has been established for several decades in other parts of the world, the solidarity economy movement in the United States emerged in 2007. Over the last decade the movement has grown and gained significant momentum, with the rise of solidarity economy organizations and initiatives, as well ...


The Other Space Race: Some Law And Economics Of Celestial Resource Appropriation, Alexander W. Salter 2019 Rawls College of Business, Texas Tech University

The Other Space Race: Some Law And Economics Of Celestial Resource Appropriation, Alexander W. Salter

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Anticompetitive Mergers In Labor Markets, Ioana Marinescu, Herbert J. Hovenkamp 2019 University of Pennsylvania

Anticompetitive Mergers In Labor Markets, Ioana Marinescu, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Indiana Law Journal

Mergers of competitors are conventionally challenged under the federal antitrust laws when they threaten to lessen competition in some product or service market in which the merging firms sell. In many of these cases the threat is that in concentrated markets—those with only a few sellers—the merger increases the likelihood of collusion or collusion-like behavior. The result will be that the post-merger firm will reduce the volume of sales in the affected market and prices will rise.

Mergers can also injure competition in markets in which the firms purchase, however. Although that principle is widely recognized, very few ...


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