In Loco Aequitatis: The Dangers Of "Safe Harbor" Laws For Youth In The Sex Trades, 2016 Streetwise and Safe
In Loco Aequitatis: The Dangers Of "Safe Harbor" Laws For Youth In The Sex Trades, Brendan M. Conner Esq.
Brendan M. Conner
The accompanying Article provides the first critical analysis of safe harbor laws, which rely on custodial arrests to prosecute or divert youth arrested for or charged with prostitution related offenses under criminal or juvenile codes to court supervision under state child welfare, foster care, or dependency statutes. This subject is a matter of intense debate nationwide, and on January 27, 2015 the House of Representatives passed legislation that would give preferential consideration for federal grants to states that have enacted a law that “discourages the charging or prosecution” of a trafficked minor and encourages court-ordered treatment and institutionalization. Nearly universally ...
Public School Funding And Mccleary V. State Of Washington—A Violation Of The Separation Of Powers Doctrine Or A Legitimate Exercise Of Judicial Autonomy?, 2015 Seattle University School of Law
Public School Funding And Mccleary V. State Of Washington—A Violation Of The Separation Of Powers Doctrine Or A Legitimate Exercise Of Judicial Autonomy?, Jessica R. Burns
Seattle University Law Review
Public school funding has been contentiously litigated throughout the United States, and the Washington Supreme Court has addressed the inadequacy of public school funding in two pivotal cases: Seattle School District No. 1 v. State and McCleary v. State. In both decisions, the Washington Supreme Court held that the State failed to provide an adequate basic education for its public school students; however, in its attempt to remedy the situation, the court took drastically different approaches.
Succeeding In Manifestation Determination Reviews: A Step-By-Step Approach For Obtaining The Best Result For Your Client, 2015 University of Massachusetts School of Law
Succeeding In Manifestation Determination Reviews: A Step-By-Step Approach For Obtaining The Best Result For Your Client, Michelle Scavongelli, Marlies Spanjaard
University of Massachusetts Law Review
Manifestation Determination Review (MDR) advocacy is difficult regardless of the role of the advocate —whether the advocate is a parent, an advocate, or an attorney. Because the MDR is conducted as an Individualized Education Program (IEP) Team meeting, if consensus cannot be reached, school personnel make the ultimate decision. Therefore, the advocate’s persuasiveness and preparedness at the MDR will be critical in arriving at a consensus. This Article goes beyond the basic legal framework for an MDR and focuses on practical suggestions and approaches to enhance an advocate’s efforts on behalf of a child or client. By employing ...
The 2014 Farm Bill: Farm Subsidies And Food Oppression, 2015 Seattle University School of Law
The 2014 Farm Bill: Farm Subsidies And Food Oppression, Andrea Freeman
Seattle University Law Review
The 2014 Farm Bill ushered in some significant and surprising changes. One of these was that it rendered the identity of all the recipients of farm subsidies secret. Representative Larry Combest, who is now a lobbyist for agribusiness, first introduced a secrecy provision into the bill in 2000. The provision, however, only applied to subsidies made in the form of crop insurance. Until 2014, the majority of subsidies were direct payments and the identity of the people who received them was public information. In fact, the Environmental Working Group’s release of the list of recipients led to a series ...
Babies Behind Bars: An Evaluation Of Prison Nurseries In American Female Prisons And Their Potential Constitutional Challenges, 2015 Pace University School of Law
Babies Behind Bars: An Evaluation Of Prison Nurseries In American Female Prisons And Their Potential Constitutional Challenges, Seham Elmalak
Pace Law Review
This note opens the prison doors and delves into the United States female prison system, primarily focusing on the positive and negative impact of nursery programs on mothers and children, along with potential constitutional claims that can be brought against these programs. Part I provides a general background about the American prison system, and briefly touches on the constitutional standards of prisoners’ rights. It also discusses the history and development of female prisons and illustrates the rapid increase of female incarceration. Part II focuses on the prevalence of mothers within the female population in prisons. Part III introduces prison nursery ...
Criminal Mind Or Inculpable Adolescence? A Glimpse At The History, Failures, And Required Changes Of The American Juvenile Correction System, 2015 Pace University School of Law
Criminal Mind Or Inculpable Adolescence? A Glimpse At The History, Failures, And Required Changes Of The American Juvenile Correction System, Christopher J. Menihan
Pace Law Review
This Comment provides an historical analysis of the principles, understandings and laws that have formed and altered the American juvenile correction system. Part I offers an historical synopsis of the societal understanding that juvenile offenders are less culpable than their adult counterparts and explains the process by which this concept came to permeate early American common law. By discussing the early nineteenth-century juvenile correction reformation movement and the cases that followed, Part I also illustrates the development and early failures of the American juvenile correction system. Part II explains the history of juvenile waiver laws, from their early presence in ...
Rethinking Special Education's "Least Restrictive Environment" Requirement, 2015 University of Michigan Law School
Rethinking Special Education's "Least Restrictive Environment" Requirement, Cari Carson
Michigan Law Review
The federal Individuals with Disabilities Education Act promotes the education of students with disabilities together with their nondisabled peers, requiring education in the “least restrictive environment” (“LRE”). This requirement has long been subject to competing interpretations. This Note contends that the dominant interpretation—requiring education in the least restrictive environment available—is deficient and allows students to be placed in unnecessarily restrictive settings. Drawing from child mental health law, this Note proposes an alternative LRE approach that requires education in the least restrictive environment needed and argues that this alternative approach is a better reading of the law.
Behind The Venire: Rationale, Rewards And Ramifications Of Heightened Scrutiny And The Ninth Circuit’S Extension Of Equal Protection To Gays And Lesbians During Jury Selection In Smithkline V. Abbott, 2015 Boston College Law School
Behind The Venire: Rationale, Rewards And Ramifications Of Heightened Scrutiny And The Ninth Circuit’S Extension Of Equal Protection To Gays And Lesbians During Jury Selection In Smithkline V. Abbott, James Lobo
Boston College Law Review
On January 21, 2014, in SmithKline v. Abbott, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit held that heightened scrutiny applies to classifications based on sexual orientation, and equal protection forbids striking jurors because they are gay or lesbian. The Ninth Circuit interpreted the Supreme Court’s recent analysis in United States v. Windsor as applying heightened scrutiny, rather than rational basis review that has historically been used to assess issues surrounding sexual orientation. The Ninth Circuit also reasoned that given the historical exclusion and pervasive discrimination of gays and lesbians, this group requires equal protection. This Comment ...
The "Once An Adult, Always An Adult" Doctrine: More Harm Than Good, 2015 Maurer School of Law: Indiana University
The "Once An Adult, Always An Adult" Doctrine: More Harm Than Good, Kaitlin Pegg
Indiana Journal of Law and Social Equality
This Note focuses on the negative effects of the “once an adult, always an adult” doctrine, one mechanism through which juveniles convicted of a crime can be transferred to adult court. The doctrine, enacted in a majority of states, provides that children who have been previously transferred to adult court by a judge or prosecutor, or because of statutory exclusion of certain crimes from juvenile jurisdiction, will be transferred for all subsequent crimes, regardless of severity.
When juveniles convicted of crimes are transferred to the adult court system, they are subject to a wide array of harsh punishments unavailable in ...
Do Not Pass Go And Do Not Collect $200: Denying Medical Insurance To Parents Who Register Themselves Before Registering Their Children, 2015 College of William & Mary Law School
Do Not Pass Go And Do Not Collect $200: Denying Medical Insurance To Parents Who Register Themselves Before Registering Their Children, Amanda Hamm
William & Mary Journal of Women and the Law
No abstract provided.
Did They Ever Stand A Chance? Understanding Police Interrogations Of Juveniles, 2015 San Jose State University
Did They Ever Stand A Chance? Understanding Police Interrogations Of Juveniles, Brian Werner
Themis: Research Journal of Justice Studies and Forensic Science
The Miranda v. Arizona (1966) decision was a pivotal case in the United States. It afforded rights to suspects and defendants against self-incrimination and representation during police interrogations. Miranda ensured police read individuals in custody their rights before interrogations. However, what happens when individuals being read their rights do not fully comprehend the significance of what the police are telling them, whether it is because of lack of comprehension due to brain development, or susceptibility to the influence of those questioning them? The courts have examined these direct issues when it comes to “voluntary” confessions made by juveniles. Several cases ...
Cross-Racial Misidentification: A Call To Action In Washington State And Beyond, 2015 Seattle University School of Law
Cross-Racial Misidentification: A Call To Action In Washington State And Beyond, Taki V, Flevaris, Ellie F. Chapman
Seattle University Law Review
Research indicates eyewitness identifications are incorrect approximately one-third of the time in criminal investigations. For years, this phenomenon has significantly contributed to wrongful convictions all over the country, including in Washington State. But jurors, attorneys, and police remain unaware of the nature and extent of the problem and continue to give undue weight to eyewitness evidence. Experts have estimated that approximately 5,000–10,000 felony convictions in the United States each year are wrongful, and research suggests that approximately 75% of wrongful convictions involve eyewitness misidentification. The phenomenon of eyewitness misidentification is also amplified and most troublesome in the ...
A Presumption Of Disclosure: Towards Greater Transparency In Asylum Proceedings, 2015 Seattle University School of Law
A Presumption Of Disclosure: Towards Greater Transparency In Asylum Proceedings, Rose Linton
Seattle University Law Review
Every day, Asylum Officers (AOs) and Immigration Judges (IJs) hear cases to determine if the asylum seeker has a genuine claim to protection under the Refugee Act, which prohibits returning a refugee to a country where her life or freedom is threatened due to race, religion, political opinion, nationality, or membership in a particular social group. AOs and IJs are aware that their decision may mean life or death for an asylum seeker. They are also aware that false claims are “distressingly common,” that unscrupulous attorneys and unauthorized practitioners of immigration law have perpetrated fraudulent asylum schemes, and that granting ...
Exhibits To Accompany Testimony & Statement Of Dean Hill Rivkin Before The Senate Judiciary Committee (21 April 2015), 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville
Exhibits To Accompany Testimony & Statement Of Dean Hill Rivkin Before The Senate Judiciary Committee (21 April 2015), Dean H. Rivkin
College of Law Faculty Scholarship
Exhibits to accompany testimony and statement-of-record of Professor Dean Hill Rivkin (The University of Tennessee College of Law), as submitted on April 21, 2015, before a hearing convened by the U.S. Senate Committee on the Judiciary: “Improving Accountability and Oversight of Juvenile Justice Grants.”
Chief Justice O'Connor's Juvenile Justice Jurisprudence: A Consistent Approach To Inconsistent Interests, 2015 University of Akron
Chief Justice O'Connor's Juvenile Justice Jurisprudence: A Consistent Approach To Inconsistent Interests, Yvette Mcgee-Brown, Kimberly Jolson
Akron Law Review
No abstract provided.
Defining The Role Of Law Guardian In New York State By Statute, Standards And Case Law, 2015 Touro College Jacob D. Fuchsberg Law Center
Defining The Role Of Law Guardian In New York State By Statute, Standards And Case Law, Diane Somberg
Touro Law Review
No abstract provided.
R V Fearon Case Commentary, 2015 Western University
R V Fearon Case Commentary, Western Journal Of Legal Studies Editorial Board
Western Journal of Legal Studies
The widespread use of smart phones and similar devices for data management has created significant constitutional and criminal law issues. This is evident in the context of protection by the Charter with respect to unreasonable search and seizure. When an individual’s section 8 rights are breached, an assessment of the admissibility of evidence under section 24(2) of the Charter is required. In R v Fearon, the Supreme Court of Canada established new limits on the police power to search cell phones and similar devices incident to arrest. Cromwell J stated that these measures do not “represent the only ...
Afghan Juvenile Code In Practice: Assessing Against International Juvenile Law, 2015 George Washington University Law School
Afghan Juvenile Code In Practice: Assessing Against International Juvenile Law, Christopher W. Carlson Jr.
Christopher W. Carlson Jr.
This Article assesses and compares Afghanistan’s juvenile procedures with the systems and norms advocated by the United Nations (“UN”). The Afghan Juvenile Code of 2005 is compared with the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child’s four key guidelines. The four guidelines include: (1) imprisonment of juveniles “shall be used only as a measure of last resort”; (2) any such imprisonment shall be “for the shortest appropriate period of time”; (3) juveniles who are in prison shall be “separated from adults”; and (4) they shall have the right to maintain “family contact.” These guidelines serve as a ...
Abandoning The Status Quo: Towards Uniform Application Of Special Immigrant Juvenile Status, 2015 University of San Diego School of Law
Abandoning The Status Quo: Towards Uniform Application Of Special Immigrant Juvenile Status, Gregory Catangay
The accompanying Article identifies and analyzes the causes of unequal application of the Special Immigrant Juvenile Status (SIJS) program and argues for a federal takeover of the program. The Article highlights the current immigration crisis and the plight of unaccompanied minors seeking a better life in the United States. These minors may be eligible for permanent legal status in the United States through the SIJS program. Although SIJS is a federal remedy, variations in state law and interpretation of SIJS requirements exclude eligible minors.
In order to be eligible for the SIJS program, a state trial court must find that ...
Big Brother As Parent: Using Surveillance To Patrol Students’ Internet Speech, 2015 Boston College Law School
Big Brother As Parent: Using Surveillance To Patrol Students’ Internet Speech, Catherine E. Mendola
Boston College Journal of Law & Social Justice
With the pervasiveness of the Internet in students’ lives, schools are frequently disrupted by their students’ online speech, whether through threats of violence, cyberbullying, or discussion of self-harm. To combat and minimize these disturbances, some schools are turning to third-party surveillance companies to monitor students’ Internet posts for potentially harmful speech. The U.S. Supreme Court has never addressed a school’s relationship to its students’ Internet postings. In the absence of Supreme Court guidance, lower courts rely primarily on a 1969 free speech ruling from Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District, which asks whether a student’s ...