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In Loco Aequitatis: The Dangers Of "Safe Harbor" Laws For Youth In The Sex Trades, Brendan M. Conner Esq. 2016 Streetwise and Safe

In Loco Aequitatis: The Dangers Of "Safe Harbor" Laws For Youth In The Sex Trades, Brendan M. Conner Esq.

Brendan M. Conner

The accompanying Article provides the first critical analysis of safe harbor laws, which rely on custodial arrests to prosecute or divert youth arrested for or charged with prostitution related offenses under criminal or juvenile codes to court supervision under state child welfare, foster care, or dependency statutes. This subject is a matter of intense debate nationwide, and on January 27, 2015 the House of Representatives passed legislation that would give preferential consideration for federal grants to states that have enacted a law that “discourages the charging or prosecution” of a trafficked minor and encourages court-ordered treatment and institutionalization. Nearly universally ...


Adjudicating Cases Involving Adolescents In Suffolk County Criminal Courts, Honorable Fernando Camacho 2015 Touro College Jacob D. Fuchsberg Law Center

Adjudicating Cases Involving Adolescents In Suffolk County Criminal Courts, Honorable Fernando Camacho

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Public School Funding And Mccleary V. State Of Washington—A Violation Of The Separation Of Powers Doctrine Or A Legitimate Exercise Of Judicial Autonomy?, Jessica R. Burns 2015 Seattle University School of Law

Public School Funding And Mccleary V. State Of Washington—A Violation Of The Separation Of Powers Doctrine Or A Legitimate Exercise Of Judicial Autonomy?, Jessica R. Burns

Seattle University Law Review

Public school funding has been contentiously litigated throughout the United States, and the Washington Supreme Court has addressed the inadequacy of public school funding in two pivotal cases: Seattle School District No. 1 v. State and McCleary v. State. In both decisions, the Washington Supreme Court held that the State failed to provide an adequate basic education for its public school students; however, in its attempt to remedy the situation, the court took drastically different approaches.


Succeeding In Manifestation Determination Reviews: A Step-By-Step Approach For Obtaining The Best Result For Your Client, Michelle Scavongelli, Marlies Spanjaard 2015 University of Massachusetts School of Law

Succeeding In Manifestation Determination Reviews: A Step-By-Step Approach For Obtaining The Best Result For Your Client, Michelle Scavongelli, Marlies Spanjaard

University of Massachusetts Law Review

Manifestation Determination Review (MDR) advocacy is difficult regardless of the role of the advocate —whether the advocate is a parent, an advocate, or an attorney. Because the MDR is conducted as an Individualized Education Program (IEP) Team meeting, if consensus cannot be reached, school personnel make the ultimate decision. Therefore, the advocate’s persuasiveness and preparedness at the MDR will be critical in arriving at a consensus. This Article goes beyond the basic legal framework for an MDR and focuses on practical suggestions and approaches to enhance an advocate’s efforts on behalf of a child or client. By employing ...


The 2014 Farm Bill: Farm Subsidies And Food Oppression, Andrea Freeman 2015 Seattle University School of Law

The 2014 Farm Bill: Farm Subsidies And Food Oppression, Andrea Freeman

Seattle University Law Review

The 2014 Farm Bill ushered in some significant and surprising changes. One of these was that it rendered the identity of all the recipients of farm subsidies secret. Representative Larry Combest, who is now a lobbyist for agribusiness, first introduced a secrecy provision into the bill in 2000. The provision, however, only applied to subsidies made in the form of crop insurance. Until 2014, the majority of subsidies were direct payments and the identity of the people who received them was public information. In fact, the Environmental Working Group’s release of the list of recipients led to a series ...


Babies Behind Bars: An Evaluation Of Prison Nurseries In American Female Prisons And Their Potential Constitutional Challenges, Seham Elmalak 2015 Pace University School of Law

Babies Behind Bars: An Evaluation Of Prison Nurseries In American Female Prisons And Their Potential Constitutional Challenges, Seham Elmalak

Pace Law Review

This note opens the prison doors and delves into the United States female prison system, primarily focusing on the positive and negative impact of nursery programs on mothers and children, along with potential constitutional claims that can be brought against these programs. Part I provides a general background about the American prison system, and briefly touches on the constitutional standards of prisoners’ rights. It also discusses the history and development of female prisons and illustrates the rapid increase of female incarceration. Part II focuses on the prevalence of mothers within the female population in prisons. Part III introduces prison nursery ...


Criminal Mind Or Inculpable Adolescence? A Glimpse At The History, Failures, And Required Changes Of The American Juvenile Correction System, Christopher J. Menihan 2015 Pace University School of Law

Criminal Mind Or Inculpable Adolescence? A Glimpse At The History, Failures, And Required Changes Of The American Juvenile Correction System, Christopher J. Menihan

Pace Law Review

This Comment provides an historical analysis of the principles, understandings and laws that have formed and altered the American juvenile correction system. Part I offers an historical synopsis of the societal understanding that juvenile offenders are less culpable than their adult counterparts and explains the process by which this concept came to permeate early American common law. By discussing the early nineteenth-century juvenile correction reformation movement and the cases that followed, Part I also illustrates the development and early failures of the American juvenile correction system. Part II explains the history of juvenile waiver laws, from their early presence in ...


Cruel And Unusual Before And After 2012: Miller V. Alabama Must Apply Retroactively, Tracy A. Rhodes 2015 University of Maryland Francis King Carey School of Law

Cruel And Unusual Before And After 2012: Miller V. Alabama Must Apply Retroactively, Tracy A. Rhodes

Maryland Law Review

No abstract provided.


Rethinking Special Education's "Least Restrictive Environment" Requirement, Cari Carson 2015 University of Michigan Law School

Rethinking Special Education's "Least Restrictive Environment" Requirement, Cari Carson

Michigan Law Review

The federal Individuals with Disabilities Education Act promotes the education of students with disabilities together with their nondisabled peers, requiring education in the “least restrictive environment” (“LRE”). This requirement has long been subject to competing interpretations. This Note contends that the dominant interpretation—requiring education in the least restrictive environment available—is deficient and allows students to be placed in unnecessarily restrictive settings. Drawing from child mental health law, this Note proposes an alternative LRE approach that requires education in the least restrictive environment needed and argues that this alternative approach is a better reading of the law.


Behind The Venire: Rationale, Rewards And Ramifications Of Heightened Scrutiny And The Ninth Circuit’S Extension Of Equal Protection To Gays And Lesbians During Jury Selection In Smithkline V. Abbott, James Lobo 2015 Boston College Law School

Behind The Venire: Rationale, Rewards And Ramifications Of Heightened Scrutiny And The Ninth Circuit’S Extension Of Equal Protection To Gays And Lesbians During Jury Selection In Smithkline V. Abbott, James Lobo

Boston College Law Review

On January 21, 2014, in SmithKline v. Abbott, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit held that heightened scrutiny applies to classifications based on sexual orientation, and equal protection forbids striking jurors because they are gay or lesbian. The Ninth Circuit interpreted the Supreme Court’s recent analysis in United States v. Windsor as applying heightened scrutiny, rather than rational basis review that has historically been used to assess issues surrounding sexual orientation. The Ninth Circuit also reasoned that given the historical exclusion and pervasive discrimination of gays and lesbians, this group requires equal protection. This Comment ...


The "Once An Adult, Always An Adult" Doctrine: More Harm Than Good, Kaitlin Pegg 2015 Maurer School of Law: Indiana University

The "Once An Adult, Always An Adult" Doctrine: More Harm Than Good, Kaitlin Pegg

Indiana Journal of Law and Social Equality

This Note focuses on the negative effects of the “once an adult, always an adult” doctrine, one mechanism through which juveniles convicted of a crime can be transferred to adult court. The doctrine, enacted in a majority of states, provides that children who have been previously transferred to adult court by a judge or prosecutor, or because of statutory exclusion of certain crimes from juvenile jurisdiction, will be transferred for all subsequent crimes, regardless of severity.

When juveniles convicted of crimes are transferred to the adult court system, they are subject to a wide array of harsh punishments unavailable in ...


Do Not Pass Go And Do Not Collect $200: Denying Medical Insurance To Parents Who Register Themselves Before Registering Their Children, Amanda Hamm 2015 College of William & Mary Law School

Do Not Pass Go And Do Not Collect $200: Denying Medical Insurance To Parents Who Register Themselves Before Registering Their Children, Amanda Hamm

William & Mary Journal of Women and the Law

No abstract provided.


Did They Ever Stand A Chance? Understanding Police Interrogations Of Juveniles, Brian Werner 2015 San Jose State University

Did They Ever Stand A Chance? Understanding Police Interrogations Of Juveniles, Brian Werner

Themis: Research Journal of Justice Studies and Forensic Science

The Miranda v. Arizona (1966) decision was a pivotal case in the United States. It afforded rights to suspects and defendants against self-incrimination and representation during police interrogations. Miranda ensured police read individuals in custody their rights before interrogations. However, what happens when individuals being read their rights do not fully comprehend the significance of what the police are telling them, whether it is because of lack of comprehension due to brain development, or susceptibility to the influence of those questioning them? The courts have examined these direct issues when it comes to “voluntary” confessions made by juveniles. Several cases ...


Cross-Racial Misidentification: A Call To Action In Washington State And Beyond, Taki V, Flevaris, Ellie F. Chapman 2015 Seattle University School of Law

Cross-Racial Misidentification: A Call To Action In Washington State And Beyond, Taki V, Flevaris, Ellie F. Chapman

Seattle University Law Review

Research indicates eyewitness identifications are incorrect approximately one-third of the time in criminal investigations. For years, this phenomenon has significantly contributed to wrongful convictions all over the country, including in Washington State. But jurors, attorneys, and police remain unaware of the nature and extent of the problem and continue to give undue weight to eyewitness evidence. Experts have estimated that approximately 5,000–10,000 felony convictions in the United States each year are wrongful, and research suggests that approximately 75% of wrongful convictions involve eyewitness misidentification. The phenomenon of eyewitness misidentification is also amplified and most troublesome in the ...


A Presumption Of Disclosure: Towards Greater Transparency In Asylum Proceedings, Rose Linton 2015 Seattle University School of Law

A Presumption Of Disclosure: Towards Greater Transparency In Asylum Proceedings, Rose Linton

Seattle University Law Review

Every day, Asylum Officers (AOs) and Immigration Judges (IJs) hear cases to determine if the asylum seeker has a genuine claim to protection under the Refugee Act, which prohibits returning a refugee to a country where her life or freedom is threatened due to race, religion, political opinion, nationality, or membership in a particular social group. AOs and IJs are aware that their decision may mean life or death for an asylum seeker. They are also aware that false claims are “distressingly common,” that unscrupulous attorneys and unauthorized practitioners of immigration law have perpetrated fraudulent asylum schemes, and that granting ...


Exhibits To Accompany Testimony & Statement Of Dean Hill Rivkin Before The Senate Judiciary Committee (21 April 2015), Dean H. Rivkin 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Exhibits To Accompany Testimony & Statement Of Dean Hill Rivkin Before The Senate Judiciary Committee (21 April 2015), Dean H. Rivkin

College of Law Faculty Scholarship

Exhibits to accompany testimony and statement-of-record of Professor Dean Hill Rivkin (The University of Tennessee College of Law), as submitted on April 21, 2015, before a hearing convened by the U.S. Senate Committee on the Judiciary: “Improving Accountability and Oversight of Juvenile Justice Grants.”


Chief Justice O'Connor's Juvenile Justice Jurisprudence: A Consistent Approach To Inconsistent Interests, Yvette McGee-Brown, Kimberly Jolson 2015 University of Akron

Chief Justice O'Connor's Juvenile Justice Jurisprudence: A Consistent Approach To Inconsistent Interests, Yvette Mcgee-Brown, Kimberly Jolson

Akron Law Review

No abstract provided.


Defining The Role Of Law Guardian In New York State By Statute, Standards And Case Law, Diane Somberg 2015 Touro College Jacob D. Fuchsberg Law Center

Defining The Role Of Law Guardian In New York State By Statute, Standards And Case Law, Diane Somberg

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


R V Fearon Case Commentary, Western Journal of Legal Studies Editorial Board 2015 Western University

R V Fearon Case Commentary, Western Journal Of Legal Studies Editorial Board

Western Journal of Legal Studies

The widespread use of smart phones and similar devices for data management has created significant constitutional and criminal law issues. This is evident in the context of protection by the Charter with respect to unreasonable search and seizure. When an individual’s section 8 rights are breached, an assessment of the admissibility of evidence under section 24(2) of the Charter is required. In R v Fearon, the Supreme Court of Canada established new limits on the police power to search cell phones and similar devices incident to arrest. Cromwell J stated that these measures do not “represent the only ...


Afghan Juvenile Code In Practice: Assessing Against International Juvenile Law, Christopher W. Carlson Jr. 2015 George Washington University Law School

Afghan Juvenile Code In Practice: Assessing Against International Juvenile Law, Christopher W. Carlson Jr.

Christopher W. Carlson Jr.

This Article assesses and compares Afghanistan’s juvenile procedures with the systems and norms advocated by the United Nations (“UN”). The Afghan Juvenile Code of 2005 is compared with the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child’s four key guidelines. The four guidelines include: (1) imprisonment of juveniles “shall be used only as a measure of last resort”; (2) any such imprisonment shall be “for the shortest appropriate period of time”; (3) juveniles who are in prison shall be “separated from adults”; and (4) they shall have the right to maintain “family contact.” These guidelines serve as a ...


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