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Minimum Virtual Contacts: A Framework For Specific Jurisdiction In Cyberspace, Adam R. Kleven 2018 University of Michigan Law School

Minimum Virtual Contacts: A Framework For Specific Jurisdiction In Cyberspace, Adam R. Kleven

Michigan Law Review

As the ubiquity and importance of the internet continue to grow, courts will address more cases involving online activity. In doing so, courts will confront the threshold issue of whether a defendant can be subject to specific personal jurisdiction. The Supreme Court, however, has yet to speak to this internet-jurisdiction issue. Current precedent, when strictly applied to the internet, yields fundamentally unfair results when addressing specific jurisdiction. To better achieve the fairness aim of due process, this must change. This Note argues that, in internet tort cases, the “express aiming” requirement should be discarded from the jurisdictional analysis and that ...


Commodifying Consumer Data In The Era Of The Internet Of Things, Stacy-Ann Elvy 2018 New York Law School

Commodifying Consumer Data In The Era Of The Internet Of Things, Stacy-Ann Elvy

Boston College Law Review

Internet of Things (“IoT”) products generate a wealth of data about consumers that was never before widely and easily accessible to companies. Examples include biometric and health-related data, such as fingerprint patterns, heart rates, and calories burned. This Article explores the connection between the types of data generated by the IoT and the financial frameworks of Article 9 of the Uniform Commercial Code and the Bankruptcy Code. It critiques these regimes, which enable the commodification of consumer data, as well as laws aimed at protecting consumer data, such as the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act, various state biometric ...


Fair Use And Social Media, John Dettinger 2018 Gettysburg College

Fair Use And Social Media, John Dettinger

Musselman Library Staff Publications

This poster was created in a collaborative effort by Musselman Library’s Copyright Committee as part of a display for Fair Use Week 2018. The poster was intended to get viewers to think about the 4 factors of fair use in the context of two art projects that used social media photos: Yolocaust by Shahak Shapira and New Portraits by Richard Prince. It was also intended to get viewers thinking about the ways their social media content might get used beyond the original intention.


By Reading This Title, You Have Agreed To Our Terms Of Service, Brian Larson 2018 Texas A&M University School of Law

By Reading This Title, You Have Agreed To Our Terms Of Service, Brian Larson

Brian Larson

By June of 2017, Facebook had two billion (that’s billion, with a ‘b’) users accessing it per month (Balakrishnan 2017). Facebook believes that each of those consumer end-users is bound by its end-user license agreement (EULA), which Facebook calls a “Statement of Rights and Responsibilities,” available to end-users from a small link in light gray text called “Terms” on every Facebook page. EULAs like this, associated with websites, mobile apps, and consumer goods with embedded software, and styled “terms of service,” “terms of use,” etc., may purport to impose a wide variety of contractual obligations on consumers, for example ...


Not So Good: The Classification Of “Smart Goods” Under Ucc Article 2, Chadwick L. Williams 2018 Georgia State University College of Law

Not So Good: The Classification Of “Smart Goods” Under Ucc Article 2, Chadwick L. Williams

Georgia State University Law Review

Refrigerators can now tweet. Today, almost sixty years after the states widely adopted the Uniform Commercial Code (UCC), the line between goods and services is more blurred than ever. When the UCC was drafted, a good was the simple opposite of a service. A good was something “movable” and tangible, and a service was not. Article 2 of the UCC, which governs sales, limits its scope to goods.

However, because Article 2 was drafted long before the proliferation of so-called “smart goods,” courts continuously struggle to determine when a smart good falls within Article 2’s scope. Courts have developed ...


Tax Compliance In A Decentralizing Economy, Manoj Viswanathan 2018 University of California Hastings College of Law

Tax Compliance In A Decentralizing Economy, Manoj Viswanathan

Georgia State University Law Review

Tax compliance in the United States has long relied on information from centralized intermediaries—the financial institutions,employers, and brokers that help ensure income is reported and taxes are paid. Yet while the IRS remains tied to these centralized entities,consumers and businesses are not. New technologies, such as sharing economy platforms (companies such as Airbnb, Uber, and Instacart)and the blockchain (the platform on which various cryptocurrencies are based) are providing new, decentralized options for exchanging goods and services.

Without legislative and agency intervention, these technologies pose a critical threat to the reporting system underlying domestic and international tax ...


Access To Adjudication Materials On Federal Agency Websites, Daniel J. Sheffner 2018 The University of Akron

Access To Adjudication Materials On Federal Agency Websites, Daniel J. Sheffner

Akron Law Review

This Article offers recommendations and best practices for federal administrative agencies interested in improving the accessibility of orders, opinions, briefs, and other materials filed or issued in administrative adjudication proceedings on their websites and in maintaining more comprehensive online collections of such adjudication materials. Part I provides an overview of federal administrative adjudication and the laws and policies relevant to the online disclosure of adjudication materials. Part II summarizes a survey the author conducted of 24 federal agency websites and presents its results. Part III analyzes the survey’s findings, dividing the analysis into two sections. The first section discusses ...


Hacking The Internet Of Things: Vulnerabilities, Dangers, And Legal Responses, Sara Sun Beale, Peter Berris 2018 Duke Law School

Hacking The Internet Of Things: Vulnerabilities, Dangers, And Legal Responses, Sara Sun Beale, Peter Berris

Duke Law & Technology Review

The Internet of Things (IoT) is here and growing rapidly as consumers eagerly adopt internet-enabled devices for their utility, features, and convenience. But this dramatic expansion also exacerbates two underlying dangers in the IoT. First, hackers in the IoT may attempt to gain control of internet-enabled devices, causing negative consequences in the physical world. Given that objects with internet connectivity range from household appliances and automobiles to major infrastructure components, this danger is potentially severe. Indeed, in the last few years, hackers have gained control of cars, trains, and dams, and some experts think that even commercial airplanes could be ...


A Feminist Framing Of Non-Consensual Pornography, Claire P. Donohue 2018 Boston College Law School

A Feminist Framing Of Non-Consensual Pornography, Claire P. Donohue

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

No abstract provided.


Personal Jurisdiction And The Web, Joseph S. Burns, Richard A. Bales 2018 University of Maine School of Law

Personal Jurisdiction And The Web, Joseph S. Burns, Richard A. Bales

Maine Law Review

Courts have struggled in determining precisely when a defendant should be subject to suit in a particular forum based on his or her Web activity. Although most jurisdictions have applied some form of the “minimum contacts” test, the test has been applied inconsistently. A new standard is needed to resolve personal jurisdiction disputes arising out of Web activity. This Article examines the ways in which modern courts have attempted to resolve personal jurisdiction issues based on Web activity, as well as the inconsistencies that have resulted from the inherent difficulty in conceptualizing the Web.


Valuation Of Intellectual Property: Placing A Dollar Value On Technology (Or, Are Real-Options Real?), Gordon V. Smith 2018 University of Maine School of Law

Valuation Of Intellectual Property: Placing A Dollar Value On Technology (Or, Are Real-Options Real?), Gordon V. Smith

Maine Law Review

Valuation professionals have for a long time been appraising business enterprises and their underlying assets. The “dot-com” New Economy has dramatically changed how businesses can do business and has introduced us to some new forms of intellectual property rights. Have these changes altered our valuation methodologies? Prior to the 1960s, when valuation professionals were faced with a situation in which the value of a business enterprise appeared to exceed the value of its underlying assets, the difference was ascribed to “goodwill” or “blue sky.” No real effort was made to identify the constituents of this catch-all category, it was simply ...


The Perfection And Priority Rules For Security Interests In Copyrights, Patents, And Trademarks: The Current Structural Dissonance And Proposed Legislative Cures, Thomas M. Ward 2018 University of Maine School of Law

The Perfection And Priority Rules For Security Interests In Copyrights, Patents, And Trademarks: The Current Structural Dissonance And Proposed Legislative Cures, Thomas M. Ward

Maine Law Review

The structural legal dissonance that undermines the effective financing of federal intellectual property rights (patents, trademarks registrations, copyrights, and maskworks) is rooted in the prominence of title in both the early conceptual history of personal property financing and in the language of the federal tract recording acts. While genuine ownership transfers have always represented the prototype under the federal intellectual property recording statutes, transfers intended for security were also originally included because of the early judicial thinking about the importance of title to the validity (against third parties) of a “mortgage” right in intangible personal property. As products of their ...


Revised Article 9 And Intellectual Property Asset Financing, Raymond T. Nimmer 2018 University of Maine School of Law

Revised Article 9 And Intellectual Property Asset Financing, Raymond T. Nimmer

Maine Law Review

Commercial asset value today often resides primarily in information assets, rather than in the physical assets that dominated the industrial age (goods and real estate). While tangible assets continue to have value, of course, the shift toward intangibles as value is significant and has been occurring for some time. We have not yet seen its end. More important, we have not yet come to grips with its meaning, either for commercial contract law or for commercial asset-based financing. Attitudes and approaches from the commercial world before intangible assets took center stage continue to influence how modern law treats information assets ...


Pirate Tales From The Deep [Web]: An Exploration Of Online Copyright Infringement In The Digital Age, Nicholas C. Butland, Justin J. Sullivan 2018 University of Massachusetts School of Law

Pirate Tales From The Deep [Web]: An Exploration Of Online Copyright Infringement In The Digital Age, Nicholas C. Butland, Justin J. Sullivan

University of Massachusetts Law Review

Technology has seen a boom over the last few decades, making innovative leaps that border on science fiction. With the most recent technological leap came a new frontier of intellectual property and birthed a new class of criminal: the cyber-pirate. This Article discusses cyber-piracy and its interactions and implications for modern United States copyright law. The Article explains how copyright law, unprepared for the boom, struggled to adapt as courts reconciled the widely physical perceptions of copyright with the digital information being transferred between billions of users instantaneously. The Article also explores how cyber-piracy has made, and continues to make ...


Cybersecurity And Tax Information: A Vicious Cycle?, Diane Ring 2018 Boston College Law School

Cybersecurity And Tax Information: A Vicious Cycle?, Diane Ring

Diane M. Ring

A review of Michael Hatfield, Cybersecurity and Tax Reform, 93 Ind. L.J., scheduled to be published in Spring 2018.


Privacy In The Age Of The Hacker: Balancing Global Privacy And Data Security Law, Cunningham, Mckay, McKay Cunningham 2018 Concordia University School of Law

Privacy In The Age Of The Hacker: Balancing Global Privacy And Data Security Law, Cunningham, Mckay, Mckay Cunningham

McKay Cunningham

The twin goals of privacy and data security share a fascinating symbiotic relationship: too much of one undermines the other. The international regulatory climate, embodied principally by the European Union’s 1995 Directive, increasingly promotes privacy. In the last two decades, fifty-three countries enacted national legislation largely patterned after the E.U. Directive. These laws, by and large, protect privacy by restricting data processing and data transfers.

At the same time, hacking, malware, and other cyber-threats continue to grow in frequency and sophistication. In 2010, one security firm recorded 286 million variants of malware and reported that 232.4 million ...


Online And “As Is”, Colin P. Marks 2018 Pepperdine University

Online And “As Is”, Colin P. Marks

Pepperdine Law Review

Online retail is a multi-billion-dollar industry in the United States. Consumers enjoy the ease with which they can browse, click, and order goods from the comfort of their own homes. Though it may come as no surprise to most lawyers, retailers are taking advantage of online transactions by attaching additional terms and conditions that one would not normally find in-store. Some of these conditions are logical limitations on the use of the retailers’ websites, but others go much further, limiting consumers’ rights in ways that would surprise many shoppers. In particular, many online retailers use these terms to limit implied ...


Weird Science! It’S My Creation . . . Is It Really? Or: Crafting A New Universal Trademark Standard For User-Created Avatars, Ryan Esparza 2018 Pace University

Weird Science! It’S My Creation . . . Is It Really? Or: Crafting A New Universal Trademark Standard For User-Created Avatars, Ryan Esparza

Pace Intellectual Property, Sports & Entertainment Law Forum

In modern trademark law the process of registering a valid trademark is straightforward. In the United States the Lanham Act is the ruling law of trademark law. The Lanham Act grants protection to the owner of a registered mark which is distinctive and used in commerce. Assuming all the requirements are met, the owner of a mark can use the mark within its discretion and enjoy the protection under the Lanham Act. As trademark law has continued to evolve, the law has expanded to protect previously unforeseen categories. The two most obvious examples which demonstrate the evolution of protection under ...


Civil Society And Cybersurveillance, Andrew McCanse Wright 2018 Savannah Law School

Civil Society And Cybersurveillance, Andrew Mccanse Wright

Arkansas Law Review

There is no such thing as benign surveillance. It always comes with costs because of the chill it visits upon conduct, education, associations, and expression. Government surveillance has been magnified by cybersurveillance in the Digital Age to a degree unimaginable by the Founders of the United States of America.


Say What You Want: How Unfettered Freedom Of Speech On The Internet Creates No Recourse For Those Victimized, Wes Gerrie 2018 Syracuse University College of Law

Say What You Want: How Unfettered Freedom Of Speech On The Internet Creates No Recourse For Those Victimized, Wes Gerrie

Catholic University Journal of Law and Technology

In today’s society, virtually everyone relies on online posts in order to make decisions—from what products to purchase to what restaurants to visit. The introduction and increase of online communication has made posting reviews online a simpler, easier, and more efficient process. However, the increase of online communication has threatened the delicate balance between free speech and harmful speech.

A tangled web of recent case law and federal law exists which aggressively protects the free speech of online reviewers. The law has carved out immunity for the website operators that host an online reviewer’s comments, which in ...


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