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Defining 'Diversity' In Corporate Governance: A Global Survey, Askhaya Kamalnath 2018 Notre Dame Law School

Defining 'Diversity' In Corporate Governance: A Global Survey, Askhaya Kamalnath

Journal of Legislation

This Article explores the connotation of the term “diversity” in the corporate governance sphere and the utility of such a connotation. To explore what the term has come to mean, this Article conducts a comparative analysis of how the term is used in the corporate governance context in the U.S., U.K., Australia, Canada, India, and Malaysia. Based on this analysis, this Article argues that the push for “diversity” (in the way it has come to be understood) on company boards needs to be re-examined and recommends that the SEC needs to define the term in accordance with its ...


Against Populist Isolationism: New Asian Regionalism And Global South Powers In International Economic Law, Pasha L. HSIEH 2018 Singapore Management University

Against Populist Isolationism: New Asian Regionalism And Global South Powers In International Economic Law, Pasha L. Hsieh

Research Collection School Of Law

This article provides the most up-to-date examination of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), which is poised to become the world’s largest free trade agreement (FTA). It argues that the 16-country mega-FTA will galvanize the paradigm shift in Asian regionalism and build a normative foundation for the Global South in international economic law. Based on intertwined theoretical and substantive claims, this article opens an inquiry into the assertive legalism of developing nations in the new regional economic order. It further manifests the pivotal force of emerging economies against populist isolationism in the Trump era that undermines the neoliberal foundation ...


Arms And The Man: Strategic Trade Control Challenges Of 3d Printing, Arjun Banerjee 2018 University of Tennessee Knoxville

Arms And The Man: Strategic Trade Control Challenges Of 3d Printing, Arjun Banerjee

International Journal of Nuclear Security

3D printing is on the verge of confronting Customs and other security agencies with a whole new set of mind-boggling problems. With the tremendous reach of the Internet worldwide, virtual blueprints to weapon parts, components and accessories of drones, narcotic drugs and psychoactive substances, all strategic trade items, as well as other restricted items such as pornographic material, can be proliferated and printed out swiftly by any individual or organization with access to a 3D printer. Intellectual Property Rights are also endangered by these machines. Technology is forever outpacing fast antiquating legal institutions, and security systems, which require revamping to ...


Multilateral Economic Institutions And U.S. Foreign Policy: Hearing Before The Subcomm. On Multilateral Int'l Dev., Multilateral Insts., & Int'l Econ., Energy, & Envtl. Pol'y Of The S. Comm. On Foreign Relations, 115th Cong., Nov. 27, 2018 (Statement Of Jennifer A. Hillman), Jennifer A. Hillman 2018 Georgetown University Law Center

Multilateral Economic Institutions And U.S. Foreign Policy: Hearing Before The Subcomm. On Multilateral Int'l Dev., Multilateral Insts., & Int'l Econ., Energy, & Envtl. Pol'y Of The S. Comm. On Foreign Relations, 115th Cong., Nov. 27, 2018 (Statement Of Jennifer A. Hillman), Jennifer A. Hillman

Testimony Before Congress

Virtually every major international gathering of world leaders recently has ended in failure—or at least failure to reach enough agreement to issue a concluding statement or communique. These failures come at a time when many have been looking for signs that world leaders would come together to address the most pressing problems facing the world—including climate change, the breakdown in the rules of the international trading system, the need everywhere for good jobs that pay a living wage, and rapidly growing income inequality.

The failure of these meetings to produce formal agreements—or even specific paths to reaching ...


Should Investment Treaties Contain Public Policy Exceptions?, Caroline Henckels 2018 Monash University

Should Investment Treaties Contain Public Policy Exceptions?, Caroline Henckels

Boston College Law Review

The increasing inclusion of exceptions in newly concluded investment treaties, together with the divergent manner in which tribunals and annulment committees have approached these provisions, suggests that a greater understanding of their role and purpose is needed. In particular, the question whether exceptions operate as permissions or as defenses is a crucial but unaddressed issue that has significant implications for both litigation and practice and, in turn, implications for the stability of the regime. This Essay argues that as a starting point, exceptions should be understood as permissions that limit the scope of the substantive treaty obligations, and not as ...


(Re)Calibration, Standard-Setting And The Shaping Of Investment Law And Arbitration, Eric De Brabandere 2018 Leiden University

(Re)Calibration, Standard-Setting And The Shaping Of Investment Law And Arbitration, Eric De Brabandere

Boston College Law Review

Calibrating or (re)calibrating investment law and arbitration—depending on whether the exercise takes place for the first or a subsequent time—is different from rebalancing investment law and arbitration. A balancing exercise denotes a situation in which different elements are equal or in the correct proportions to maintain a sort of equilibrium. This Essay argues that investment law and arbitration are not necessarily about creating a situation in which all “elements” are in balance and that (re)calibrating is an interesting starting point for a discussion about the contemporary regime of investment law and arbitration, and especially to explore ...


Property Rights As Human Rights In International Investment Arbitration: A Critical Approach, Enrique Boone Barrera 2018 Centre for International Governance Innovation

Property Rights As Human Rights In International Investment Arbitration: A Critical Approach, Enrique Boone Barrera

Boston College Law Review

The treaty-based regime of investment protection is said to protect the property rights of foreign investors. Arbitral tribunals are usually tasked with settling investment disputes using principles of international law, some of which refer to the doctrine of protection of aliens. These features have led some commentators to compare the protection of foreign investment with the protection of property rights by human rights instruments and courts. This Essay provides a critical perspective on the relationship between these two systems. The Essay re-examines the widespread assumptions that underlie efforts to find parallels between human rights and foreign investment protection. The analysis ...


Balancing Sustainability, The Right To Regulate, And The Need For Investor Protection: Lessons From The Trade Regime, Elizabeth Trujillo 2018 Texas A&M University Law School

Balancing Sustainability, The Right To Regulate, And The Need For Investor Protection: Lessons From The Trade Regime, Elizabeth Trujillo

Boston College Law Review

Recent initiatives for investment reform demonstrated by the 2016 United Nations Conference on Trade and Development and 2018 World Investment Reports have raised key issues for sustainable development in the context of investment in natural resources and energy. Where there has been increasing convergence between trade and environmental norms as trade regimes confront domestic regulatory measures for environmental protection and climate change mitigation, similarly investment regimes also have had to address such domestic measures but with little progress towards normative convergence. At the same time, there’s an increasing skepticism for the traditional models of globalization of the 1990s and ...


Legitimacy Concerns Of The Proposed Multilateral Investment Court: Is Democracy Possible?, José Manuel Alvarez Zárate 2018 Externado University of Colombia

Legitimacy Concerns Of The Proposed Multilateral Investment Court: Is Democracy Possible?, José Manuel Alvarez Zárate

Boston College Law Review

Growing concerns in Europe about international investment regimes and investor-state dispute settlement systems pushed the European Union into pursuing the creation of an investment court system and a multilateral investment court. The European Union started this reform through the Comprehensive Economic Trade Agreement, the Vietnam-EU Free Trade Agreement, and by direct persuasion of other countries to start negotiations at the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law. Visible reasons for the change include concerns over the perception of a lack of transparency, coherence, and arbitrators’ partiality, all of which diminish the legitimacy of the multilateral investment court. Other reasons might ...


Reforming International Investment Law: Opportunities, Challenges, Paradigms, Frank J. Garcia, Leo Gargne, Eric De Brabandere, Rachel Denae Thrasher, William Park 2018 Boston College Law School

Reforming International Investment Law: Opportunities, Challenges, Paradigms, Frank J. Garcia, Leo Gargne, Eric De Brabandere, Rachel Denae Thrasher, William Park

Boston College Law Review

Transcription of a panel discussion.


Avoiding The Planned Obsolescence Of Modern International Investment Agreements: Can General Exception Mechanisms Be Improved, And How?, Camille Martini 2018 Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton;

Avoiding The Planned Obsolescence Of Modern International Investment Agreements: Can General Exception Mechanisms Be Improved, And How?, Camille Martini

Boston College Law Review

In light of the increase in investor-state disputes brought by foreign investors under the arbitration clauses contained in international investment agreements (“IIAs”), treaty negotiators have started to develop safeguards in recent IIAs in an attempt to mitigate the impact of these agreements on their regulatory powers. General exception clauses modeled on Article XX of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade are part of these new treaty provisions. General exceptions clauses are, in their current form, a source of uncertainty rather than coherence. Recent arbitration cases have shed light on the unworkable enforceability requirements contained in general exceptions clauses, preventing ...


Third-Party Funding As Exploitation Of The Investment Treaty System, Frank J. Garcia 2018 Boston College Law School

Third-Party Funding As Exploitation Of The Investment Treaty System, Frank J. Garcia

Boston College Law Review

Third-party funding of international investment arbitration is on the rise. Through TPF funders will cover the legal fees of investors filing claims under investment treaties in exchange for a portion of the arbitral award. Proponents of third-party funding claim that it provides access to justice for parties that normally would not have the funds to arbitrate against state actors. Given that the international investment law that governs these claims is unbalanced, and that funding only flows towards investor-claimants, and at the expense of states and their taxpayers, allowing third-party funding in investment arbitration risks creating unjustifiable wealth transfers from the ...


Introduction: Investment Law For The Twenty-First Century, Frank J. Garcia, Sebastián López Escarcena 2018 Boston College Law School

Introduction: Investment Law For The Twenty-First Century, Frank J. Garcia, Sebastián López Escarcena

Boston College Law Review

No abstract provided.


Investment Treaties, Offshore Finance, And The Resource Curse, Karl M.F. Lockhart 2018 University of Virginia School of Law

Investment Treaties, Offshore Finance, And The Resource Curse, Karl M.F. Lockhart

Boston College Law Review

Questions of how best to understand offshore financial centers (“OFCs”)—countries that have low or zero tax rates, strong banking secrecy regulation, and easy-to-form legal entities—and what, if anything, the international community should do about them remain fixed on the agenda of national and international discourse. This Essay seeks to provide a new theoretical perspective on tax havens and applies this perspective to the cross-border legal regimes that govern international investment. This new analytical framework sees offshore financial centers as countries that are victims of the “resource curse,” as that term is described in economic development literature. Often physically ...


Investment Disputes Oltre Lo Stato: On Global Administrative Law, And Fair And Equitable Treatment, Sebastián López Escarcena 2018 Pontifical Catholic University of Chile

Investment Disputes Oltre Lo Stato: On Global Administrative Law, And Fair And Equitable Treatment, Sebastián López Escarcena

Boston College Law Review

Global Administrative Law is an academic project that attempts to describe the emergence of a regulatory space beyond the state and to prescribe solutions to the problems it diagnoses through certain normative principles like participation, transparency, reasoned decision-making, judicial review, accountability, proportionality, and legitimate expectations. In the case of investment treaty arbitration, the principles advanced by Global Administrative Law are akin to the constitutive elements of the fair and equitable treatment that international arbitral tribunals have identified in investor-state disputes. As classified by international law scholars, these constitutive elements of fair and equitable treatment include due process, arbitrariness, non-discrimination, vigilance ...


Greening Investor-State Dispute Settlement, Daniel B. Magraw, Sergio Puig 2018 Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies

Greening Investor-State Dispute Settlement, Daniel B. Magraw, Sergio Puig

Boston College Law Review

Climate change poses serious threats to human society. Climate change is already affecting our environment and thus, many aspects of human and economic activity. Among the challenges ahead, governments will need to more actively adopt regulatory policies given the international obligations in this area, such as the Paris Agreement, as well as promote green private investment as a means toward unlocking sustainable growth. How can international investment law be adapted and modernized to respond to these challenges? In this Essay, we summarize a comprehensive set of innovations that could be included in International Investment Agreements to address international obligations regarding ...


Justice For All? Protecting The Public Interest In Investment Treaties, Alessandra Arcuri, Francesco Montanaro 2018 Erasmus School of Law

Justice For All? Protecting The Public Interest In Investment Treaties, Alessandra Arcuri, Francesco Montanaro

Boston College Law Review

Investment arbitration has come increasingly under fire because of its design flaws. There is an emerging consensus that investment treaty arbitration not only falls short of ensuring a sufficient degree of transparency of arbitral proceedings and impartiality of arbitrators, but also that its institutional architecture is unjustifiably asymmetric, entrusting foreign investors with significant rights while no protection is afforded to the host states’ constituencies. In response to these criticisms, several states have attempted in recent years to reform the rules governing investor-state arbitration. A perusal of recently concluded international investment agreements, however, reveals that the reform efforts so far have ...


Making Investment Arbitration Work For All: Addressing The Deficits In Access To Remedy For Wronged Host State Citizens Through Investment Arbitration, Emmanuel T. Laryea 2018 Monash University

Making Investment Arbitration Work For All: Addressing The Deficits In Access To Remedy For Wronged Host State Citizens Through Investment Arbitration, Emmanuel T. Laryea

Boston College Law Review

The current dominant system for resolving international investment disputes is the Investor-State Dispute Settlement system or, more precisely, the Investor-State Arbitration system (ISA). The ISA system has proved to be an effective avenue for remedy for foreign investors whose investments are wrongfully impaired by host states. However, the system is not accessible to Host State Citizens (HSCs) whose interests may be harmed by investors. Wronged HSCs can seek redress in domestic fora only. The domestic fora in many jurisdictions leave many wronged HSCs without remedy, a problem that has long been acknowledged. This Essay proposes a solution. It proposes that ...


Expansive Disclosure: Regulating Third-Party Funding For Future Analysis And Reform, Rachel Denae Thrasher 2018 Boston University

Expansive Disclosure: Regulating Third-Party Funding For Future Analysis And Reform, Rachel Denae Thrasher

Boston College Law Review

Third-party funding (TPF) is a relatively new phenomenon in the field of international investment arbitration. TPF takes place when a non-party to a dispute provides funding to one of the parties (usually the claimant) in return for a percentage of the amount recovered. International investment arbitration is a unique context, however, because investor-states dispute settlement puts States always in the role of respondent and private investors in the role of claimants. Despite this apparent imbalance, TPF proponents argue, among other things, that it provides much needed access to justice for poorer clients and adds value to the system by providing ...


Three Questions That Will Make You Rethink The U.S.-China Intellectual Property Debate, 7 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 412 (2008), Peter K. Yu 2018 Selected Works

Three Questions That Will Make You Rethink The U.S.-China Intellectual Property Debate, 7 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 412 (2008), Peter K. Yu

Peter K. Yu

Commentators have attributed China’s piracy and counterfeiting problems to the lack of political will on the part of Chinese authorities. They have also cited the many political, social, economic, cultural, judicial, and technological problems that have arisen as a result of the country’s rapid economic transformation and accession to the WTO. This provocative essay advances a third explanation. It argues that the failure to resolve piracy and counterfeiting problems in China can be partly attributed to the lack of political will on the part of U.S. policymakers and the American public to put intellectual property protection at ...


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