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Accountability Of International Ngos: Human Rights Violations In Healthcare Provision In Developing Countries And The Effectiveness Of Current Measures, Sharmeen Ahmed 2018 Golden Gate University School of Law

Accountability Of International Ngos: Human Rights Violations In Healthcare Provision In Developing Countries And The Effectiveness Of Current Measures, Sharmeen Ahmed

Annual Survey of International & Comparative Law

In recent years, the number of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) working in the international arena has vastly increased, generally making a positive impact. But, as this influence has deepened, governments in the developing world and scholars have scrutinized the work and accountability of NGOs given they are mostly independent and not subjected to international law. While NGOs must adhere to the domestic laws of the places within which they work, adherence is dependent upon the strength of enforcement of those laws. Proponents argue that this independence is essential for NGOs to effectively carry out their work. However, a review of healthcare ...


Responding To Homegrown Terrorism: The Case Of Boko Haram, Dr. Elimma C. Ezeani 2018 Robert Gordon University

Responding To Homegrown Terrorism: The Case Of Boko Haram, Dr. Elimma C. Ezeani

Annual Survey of International & Comparative Law

If terrorism as it is known from history is changing, should the response to it change as well? This paper reflects on the rise and activities of Boko Haram in Northern Nigeria and the hesitation of domestic, regional and international efforts in stemming its spread. It finds that the rise and impact of homegrown terrorist groups like Boko Haram deserve closer attention than they have previously received particularly with regard to legal responses by domestic governments and the international community. The activities of Boko Haram in Nigeria have brought to the fore challenges faced by law and governments in tackling ...


Table Of Contents, 2018 Golden Gate University School of Law

Table Of Contents

Annual Survey of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Acknowledgment, 2018 Golden Gate University School of Law

Acknowledgment

Annual Survey of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Editorial, Christian N. Okeke 2018 Golden Gate University School of Law

Editorial, Christian N. Okeke

Annual Survey of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Masthead And Front Matter, 2018 Golden Gate University School of Law

Masthead And Front Matter

Annual Survey of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


The Path Towards Defining “Investment” In Icsid Investor-State Arbitrations: The Open-Ended Approach, Melissa María Valdez García 2018 Pepperdine University

The Path Towards Defining “Investment” In Icsid Investor-State Arbitrations: The Open-Ended Approach, Melissa María Valdez García

Pepperdine Dispute Resolution Law Journal

Article 25 of the International Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes left the notion of “investment” intentionally undefined, thus leaving its interpretation in the hands of arbitration tribunals, which has led to inconsistencies, confusion and debate regarding the true essence of what may appear as a routine concept. This article tries to explain that the proper meaning of “investment” under the Convention must be clarified not only by discussing the drafting history of the Convention, but by also examining doctrinal tendencies, key aspects of corresponding arbitration awards and customary international law and argues that arbitration tribunals should show strong ...


The Supreme "Courts" Of The Roman Empire, C.G. Bateman 2018 University of British Columbia, Peter A. Allard School of Law

The Supreme "Courts" Of The Roman Empire, C.G. Bateman

C.G. Bateman

Question
Why and how did Constantine go further than merely tolerating Christianity, and put himself at the head of their affairs and legislate Christian bishops into the position of Roman judges whose decisions were not subject to appeal? What effect did the rescript of 333 have on the meaning of the earlier edict of 318, and why is this important?[1]
 
Constantine, the Roman Emperor from 315-337, was a law-giver who first put the Christian Church in the place of primacy in the organization of the state that it only lost as recently as the seventeenth century; as such, he ...


Utm, Atm, Stm… Slices Of The Sky?, Ruth E. Stilwell 2018 Norwich University

Utm, Atm, Stm… Slices Of The Sky?, Ruth E. Stilwell

Space Traffic Management Conference

UTM, ATM, STM… slices of the sky?

This paper will examine the functional differences between Unmanned Aircraft Traffic Management Systems, Air Traffic Management Systems, and Space Traffic Management. Understanding both the similarities between the systems and the different functional requirements of each concept is critical in the discussion and development of STM. While there are many commonalities in each area, it is important to understand how the different environments affect the ability to develop policies, procedure and technologies to manage the vehicles operating in the distinct environment. Both technical and legal frameworks will be discussed.

Building a conceptual framework for ...


Fulfilling U.S. Commitment To Refugee Resettlement: Protecting Refugees, Preserving National Security, & Building The U.S. Economy Through Refugee Admissions, Harvard Immigration and Refugee Clinical Program 2018 Texas A&M University School of Law

Fulfilling U.S. Commitment To Refugee Resettlement: Protecting Refugees, Preserving National Security, & Building The U.S. Economy Through Refugee Admissions, Harvard Immigration And Refugee Clinical Program

Texas A&M Law Review

At a time when the U.S. refugee admissions program is under serious threat and the world’s displaced population is at its highest, this Report sets forth extensive recommendations regarding the United States’ role in protecting vulnerable refugees and compliance with its commitments under domestic and international law that together safeguard people fleeing persecution and fearing return to torture. The Report also identifies key national security reasons for supporting and enhancing the refugee program in keeping with U.S. foreign policy priorities. Additionally, the Report provides an in-depth discussion of the robust, multistep security-assessment mechanisms already in place for ...


Combating The Anti-Trade Movement: Evaluating The Trans-Pacific Partnership’S Place In International Patent Law, William G. Adams 2018 University of Georgia School of Law

Combating The Anti-Trade Movement: Evaluating The Trans-Pacific Partnership’S Place In International Patent Law, William G. Adams

Journal of Intellectual Property Law

No abstract provided.


International Coalitions And Non-Militarily Contributing Member States: A Perspective From Panama’S Practice And The Law Of Neutrality, Alonso E. Illueca 2018 University of Miami Law School

International Coalitions And Non-Militarily Contributing Member States: A Perspective From Panama’S Practice And The Law Of Neutrality, Alonso E. Illueca

University of Miami Inter-American Law Review

The military actions of an International Coalition and the role of its non-military contributing member States is yet another fundamental example of international practice concerning conflation between jus ad bellum and jus in bello. Although International Law proscribes the use of force in international relations, membership in an International Coalition engaged in military operations does not come without a cost. Non-military contributing member States may be regarded as co-belligerents or neutral States violating the laws of neutrality. This article argues that mere membership in a coalition does not amount to co-belligerency. Nevertheless, it claims that membership could entail a violation ...


Digital Transformation And Jobs: Building A Cloud For Everyone, Robert Ivanschitz, Daniel Korn 2018 University of Miami Law School

Digital Transformation And Jobs: Building A Cloud For Everyone, Robert Ivanschitz, Daniel Korn

University of Miami Inter-American Law Review

No abstract provided.


Comparative Law In A Time Of Nativism, Margaret Woo 2018 University of California, Hastings College of the Law

Comparative Law In A Time Of Nativism, Margaret Woo

Hastings International and Comparative Law Review

Pressures of globalization have strained population movements, restructured markets have led to widening economic divides, and terrorism has redefined national borders and identity. What we have seen in response is a rise in nationalism, nativism and in the extreme cases, isolationism. This inward turn seems to be true at least in the U.S. and in China. This turning inward presents a challenge to those of us who work in and champion the cause of comparative law, since comparative studies by its nature urges us to turn our gaze outward. This article examines what the turn to nativism means for ...


Looking Beyond The Positive-Negative Rights Distinction: Analyzing Constitutional Rights According To Their Nature, Effect, And Reach, Jorge M. Farinacci-Fernós 2018 University of California, Hastings College of the Law

Looking Beyond The Positive-Negative Rights Distinction: Analyzing Constitutional Rights According To Their Nature, Effect, And Reach, Jorge M. Farinacci-Fernós

Hastings International and Comparative Law Review

The relatively short catalogue of rights recognized by the Constitution of the United States, coupled with their near exclusive articulation as political and civil rights of a negative character opposable only to state action, has substantially narrowed the scope of analysis as to the different features and manifestations of constitutional rights in general. This has led the debate amongst U.S. scholars to focus their attention to rights as a sometimes simplistic dichotomy between negative political rights on the one hand, and positive socioeconomic rights on the other, which are more typically found in modern, teleological constitutions. In this brief ...


Three Arguments Of The “Right To Secession” In The Civil War: International Perspectives, Han Liu 2018 University of California, Hastings College of the Law

Three Arguments Of The “Right To Secession” In The Civil War: International Perspectives, Han Liu

Hastings International and Comparative Law Review

Secession becomes a source of controversies again both within and outside the United States. In both political discourse and public imagination, the image of secession of the South in the mid-nineteenth century, as well as the Civil War it triggered, occupies an important position. Conducted in blood, the end of the Civil War is usually thought to establish a constitutional rule that no state shall secede from the Union. Challenging the conventional understanding, recent legal scholarship has shown that the legality/constitutionality of secession did not receive a definitive, legal answer at Appomattox. But the question remains: Why so? Explaining ...


U.N. Security Council Resolution 1540: An Exemplary Model For A Framework To Safeguard Dangerous Dams Against Sabotage By Nonstate Actors, Ian Andrew Barber 2018 University of California, Hastings College of the Law

U.N. Security Council Resolution 1540: An Exemplary Model For A Framework To Safeguard Dangerous Dams Against Sabotage By Nonstate Actors, Ian Andrew Barber

Hastings International and Comparative Law Review

The purpose of this research is to explore how an international framework could be developed in order to safeguard large dams against sabotage by nonstate actors, such as terrorist organizations or hostile civilians. The necessity of an international security agreement to manage dams as a global security threat will be clearly substantiated via an analysis of three determinants: the possible magnitude of dam failure, the inadequacies of international law to regulate asymmetric warfare, and the evolving threat of dam sabotage in the developing world. Subsequently, various legal components and regulatory mechanisms from an existing international agreement will be considered with ...


Book Review: Surrogacy: A Human Rights Violation By Renate Klein, Kate Rose 2018 Dare To Tell

Book Review: Surrogacy: A Human Rights Violation By Renate Klein, Kate Rose

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

No abstract provided.


Puerto Rico And The Right Of Accession, Joseph Blocher, Mitu Gulati 2018 Duke Law School

Puerto Rico And The Right Of Accession, Joseph Blocher, Mitu Gulati

Faculty Scholarship

On June 11, 2017, Puerto Rico held a referendum on its legal status. Although turnout was low, 97% of ballots favored statehood, rather than independence or the status quo. The federal government, however, has financial and political reasons to resist this preference: Puerto Rico would bring with it a massive, unpayable debt, and the potential to swing the current balance of power in Congress.

The tension between Puerto Rico’s possible desire to pull closer to the mainland and Congress’s presumptive desire to hold it at arm’s length raises at least two important legal questions. Could Congress expel ...


Treaty Exit And Intra-Branch Conflict At The Interface Of International And Domestic Law, Laurence R. Helfer 2018 Duke Law School

Treaty Exit And Intra-Branch Conflict At The Interface Of International And Domestic Law, Laurence R. Helfer

Faculty Scholarship

This chapter, forthcoming in the Oxford Handbook of Comparative Foreign Relations Law, considers two important and unresolved issues raised by unilateral withdrawal from or denunciation of treaties. The first issue concerns whether treaty obligations end in both international and domestic law after a state leaves a treaty. Exit often produces the same effects in both legal systems, but some withdrawals bifurcate a treaty’s status, ending its obligations in domestic law but continuing to bind the state internationally, or vice versa. The second issue concerns denunciations initiated by different branches of government. The decision to withdraw from a treaty is ...


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