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Special Rules Of Attribution Of Conduct In International Law, Marko Milanovic 2020 University of Nottingham

Special Rules Of Attribution Of Conduct In International Law, Marko Milanovic

International Law Studies

Are there are any special rules of attribution in international law? Are there, in other words, imputational rules that are not recognized as such in general international law, but are specific to particular branches of international law? This is the first article to systematically analyze the notion of special rules of attribution in international law. In particular, it searches for such rules in international humanitarian law, the law on the use of force, and European human rights law.

The article argues that, to the extent special rules of attribution exist, they are rare and never uncontroversial. In most situations, putative ...


Table Of Contents, Seattle University Law Review 2020 Seattle University School of Law

Table Of Contents, Seattle University Law Review

Seattle University Law Review

Table of Contents


Lethal Autonomous Weapon Systems: Translating Geek Speak For Lawyers, Linell A. Letendre 2020 United States Air Force Academy

Lethal Autonomous Weapon Systems: Translating Geek Speak For Lawyers, Linell A. Letendre

International Law Studies

This article provides an overview of robotics and autonomous systems so that attorneys can better understand the systems and design principles of lethal autonomous weapon systems (LAWS) that may be used in an armed conflict. Using the lens of establishing a common language between engineers and attorneys, the article introduces the basics of robotics terminology, explores how autonomous systems work by explaining control systems and control architecture, and examines how autonomous systems learn and reason. It also suggests a number of questions attorneys should ask engineers during the design process in order to ensure autonomous systems are designed in a ...


Trafficking To The Rescue?, Julie Dahlstrom 2020 Boston University School of Law

Trafficking To The Rescue?, Julie Dahlstrom

Faculty Scholarship

Since before the dawn of the #MeToo Movement, civil litigators have been confronted with imperfect legal responses to gender-based harms. Some have sought to envision and develop innovative legal strategies. One new, increasingly successful tactic has been the deployment of federal anti-trafficking law in certain cases of domestic violence and sexual assault. In 2017, for example, victims of sexual assault filed federal civil suits under the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act (“TVPRA”) against Hollywood producer Harvey Weinstein. Plaintiffs argued that the alleged sexual assault conduct amounted to “commercial sex acts” and sex trafficking. Other plaintiffs’ lawyers have similarly invoked trafficking ...


Protecting The Flores And Hutto Settlements: A Look At The History Of Migrant Children Detention And Where Immigration Policies Are Headed, Megan Kauffman 2020 University of Cincinnati College of Law

Protecting The Flores And Hutto Settlements: A Look At The History Of Migrant Children Detention And Where Immigration Policies Are Headed, Megan Kauffman

Immigration and Human Rights Law Review

The Flores and Hutto settlement agreements established basic standards the government must meet when detaining minor children. This comment discusses the history and importance of the Flores and Hutto agreement and the current administration’s attempt to limit and circumvent both agreements.


Refugee Perspectives On Transitioning From Higher Education In The United States To Life Post-Graduation, Jessica S. Clarkson 2020 SIT Graduate Institute/SIT Study Abroad

Refugee Perspectives On Transitioning From Higher Education In The United States To Life Post-Graduation, Jessica S. Clarkson

Capstone Collection

In 2019, only 3% of refugees had access to higher education. Using qualitative research methods of surveys and semi-structured interviews, this study explores the perspectives of two student affairs professionals and six individuals with formal refugee status granted by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and in possession of a refugee travel document, who have not yet been resettled and are pursuing higher education in the United States. It focuses on the students’ preparation for and transition to life post-graduation, since UNHCR supposes that pursuing higher education abroad may be a viable ‘complementary pathway’ toward resettlement, self-reliance, and ...


Universal Masking In The United States: The Role Of Mandates, Health Education, And The Cdc, Lawrence O. Gostin, I. Glenn Cohen, Jeffrey P. Koplan 2020 Georgetown University - Law Center - O'Neill Institute for National and Global Health Law

Universal Masking In The United States: The Role Of Mandates, Health Education, And The Cdc, Lawrence O. Gostin, I. Glenn Cohen, Jeffrey P. Koplan

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends cloth face coverings in public settings to prevent spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Face coverings decrease the amount of infectious virus exhaled into the environment, reducing the risk an exposed person will become infected.1 Although many states and localities have ordered mask use, considerable variability and inconsistencies exist. Would a national mandate be an effective COVID-19 prevention strategy, and would it be lawful? Given the patchwork of state pandemic responses, should the CDC have enhanced funding and powers ...


Law As Scapegoat, Cary Coglianese 2020 University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School

Law As Scapegoat, Cary Coglianese

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Populist nationalist movements have been on the rise around the world in recent years. These movements have tapped into, and fueled, a deep anger among many members of the public. Especially in the face of stagnant or declining economic prospects—as well as expanding inequality—much anger has been directed at minorities and migrants. Politicians with authoritarian tendencies have sought to leverage such public anger by reinforcing tendencies to scapegoat others for their society’s problems. In this paper, I show that laws and regulations—like migrants—can be framed as “the other” too and made into scapegoats. With reference ...


Increasing Case Traffic: Expanding The International Criminal Court's Focus On Human Trafficking Cases, Nadia Alhadi 2020 University of Michigan Law School

Increasing Case Traffic: Expanding The International Criminal Court's Focus On Human Trafficking Cases, Nadia Alhadi

Michigan Journal of International Law

Human trafficking falls within the jurisdictional competence of the International Criminal Court (“ICC”) as one of the article 7 crimes against humanity, whether committed in an atmosphere of conflict or in times of relative peace. Despite the ICC’s jurisdiction, as well as the globally pervasive nature of peacetime trafficking in particular, the ICC has not yet heard a human trafficking case.

Accountability at the international level, however, is crucial, and the ICC’s oversight has the potential to fill gaps in the current anti-trafficking regime. This note explores this potential, and then examines whether the text of the Rome ...


Nazi-Confiscated Art: Eliminating Legal Barriers To Returning Stolen Treasures, Stephanie J. Beach 2020 Loyola Marymount University and Loyola Law School

Nazi-Confiscated Art: Eliminating Legal Barriers To Returning Stolen Treasures, Stephanie J. Beach

Loyola of Los Angeles Law Review

World War II ended over three-quarters of a century ago, but there still remain prisoners of war. Before and during the war, the Nazis confiscated approximately 650,000 works of art—an “art theft” orchestrated by Adolf Hitler to rid society of Jewish art and artists and to collect worthy works to build his own art capital. Seventy-five years later, looted Holocaust-era artworks are still either undiscovered or in the possession of museums across the globe without proper ownership attribution or payment to Holocaust survivors or their heirs. There are modern remedies, such as the 1998 Washington Conference on Holocaust ...


Consensus Statement From The Santa Cruz Summit On Solitary Confinement And Health, 2020 Northwestern Pritzker School of Law

Consensus Statement From The Santa Cruz Summit On Solitary Confinement And Health

Northwestern University Law Review

No abstract provided.


Refugees And Human Rights In French-Speaking Europe, Jacob Kang 2020 Ursinus College

Refugees And Human Rights In French-Speaking Europe, Jacob Kang

French Summer Fellows

This paper seeks to explain the manner in which French-speaking European States, namely France, Switzerland, and Belgium, treat asylum seekers. To do so, we will first examine, the philosophical underpinnings of European conceptions of the state, of personhood, and of human rights. In doing so, we move to understand cultural attitudes towards asylum seekers through European philosophers such as Rousseau and Kant. The second aspect, the legal aspect, will explain the manner through which the aforementioned philosophies are reflected through governance in each of the states. Finally, we will examine the demographic profiles of the refugees and perform an outcomes ...


Human Supremacy As Posthuman Risk, Daniel Estrada 2020 New Jersey Institute of Technology

Human Supremacy As Posthuman Risk, Daniel Estrada

The Journal of Sociotechnical Critique

Human supremacy is the widely held view that human interests ought to be privileged over other interests as a matter of ethics and public policy. Posthumanism is the historical situation characterized by a critical reevaluation of anthropocentrist theory and practice. This paper draws on animal studies, critical posthumanism, and the critique of ideal theory in Charles Mills and Serene Khader to address the appeal to human supremacist rhetoric in AI ethics and policy discussions, particularly in the work of Joanna Bryson. This analysis identifies a specific risk posed by human supremacist policy in a posthuman context, namely the classification of ...


Complicity In The Perversion Of Justice: The Role Of Lawyers In Eroding The Rule Of Law In The Third Reich, Cynthia Fountaine 2020 Southern Illinois University

Complicity In The Perversion Of Justice: The Role Of Lawyers In Eroding The Rule Of Law In The Third Reich, Cynthia Fountaine

St. Mary's Journal on Legal Malpractice & Ethics

A fundamental tenet of the legal profession is that lawyers and judges are uniquely responsible—individually and collectively—for protecting the Rule of Law. This Article considers the failings of the legal profession in living up to that responsibility during Germany’s Third Reich. The incremental steps used by the Nazis to gain control of the German legal system—beginning as early as 1920 when the Nazi Party adopted a party platform that included a plan for a new legal system—turned the legal system on its head and destroyed the Rule of Law. By failing to uphold the integrity ...


The Changing Face Of Terrorism And The Designation Of Foreign Terrorist Organizations, Patrick J. Keenan 2020 University of Illinois College of Law

The Changing Face Of Terrorism And The Designation Of Foreign Terrorist Organizations, Patrick J. Keenan

Indiana Law Journal

In this Article, I take up one slice of what should be a broad re-examination of

U.S. law and policy. I argue that the new attacks have been undertaken by entities

that can and should be designated as foreign terrorist organizations. Doing this would

permit prosecutors to target those who support these entities with tools that are not

currently available. This Article is both a doctrinal argument that directly addresses

the many legal hurdles that make designating groups, such as foreign hackers and

troll farms, terrorist organizations a complicated endeavor, and a policy argument

about how U.S. law ...


Submission To Bonsucro Re Production Standard V5 (2019-21), Nami Patel, Sam Szoke-Burke 2020 Columbia Law School, Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment

Submission To Bonsucro Re Production Standard V5 (2019-21), Nami Patel, Sam Szoke-Burke

Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment Staff Publications

In July 2020, CCSI made a formal submission to Bonsucro, an international multi-stakeholder initiative and certification scheme concerned with promoting sustainable sugar cane production. The submission formed part of consultations for Bonsucro’s draft Production Standard version 5. CCSI’s submission focused on challenges associated with implementing, and auditing for compliance with, three aspects of Bonsucro’s draft standard, namely:

  • Obtaining the free, prior and informed consent (FPIC) of Indigenous and traditional communities when establishing or expanding sugar production operations
  • Implementing transparent and participatory processes to assess, monitor, and evaluate the environmental and social impacts of new and existing projects ...


Beyond Human Shielding: Civilian Risk Exploitation And Indirect Civilian Targeting, Geoffrey S. Corn 2020 South Texas College of Law Houston

Beyond Human Shielding: Civilian Risk Exploitation And Indirect Civilian Targeting, Geoffrey S. Corn

International Law Studies

Few violations of the law of armed conflict (LOAC) are as pernicious as using civilians to shield military objectives from attack. This unlawful tactic unfortunately seems to be an all too common practice of organized armed groups, especially in conflicts against tactically superior conventional state armed forces. The very term "human shielding" presupposes, however, the ultimate objective is to prevent an opponent from attacking the shielded military objective or, in the alternative, substantially complicate that attack decision. But is a shielding effect always the ultimate objective of such civilian exploitation? This article argues that the answer is no; that there ...


Strategic Proportionality: Limitations On The Use Of Force In Modern Armed Conflicts, Noam Lubell, Amichai Cohen 2020 University of Essex

Strategic Proportionality: Limitations On The Use Of Force In Modern Armed Conflicts, Noam Lubell, Amichai Cohen

International Law Studies

The nature of modern armed conflicts, combined with traditional interpretations of proportionality, poses serious challenges to the jus ad bellum goal of limiting and controlling wars. In between the jus ad bellum focus on decisions to use force, and the international humanitarian law (IHL) regulation of specific attacks, there is a far-reaching space in which the regulatory role of international law is bereft of much needed clarity. Perhaps the most striking example is in relation to overall casualties of war. If the jus ad bellum is understood as applying to the opening moments of the conflict, then it cannot provide ...


An Analysis Of International Health Regulations Emergency Committees And Public Health Emergency Of International Concern Designations, Lucia Mullen, Christina Potter, Lawrence O. Gostin, Anita Cicero, Jennifer B. Nuzzo 2020 Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security

An Analysis Of International Health Regulations Emergency Committees And Public Health Emergency Of International Concern Designations, Lucia Mullen, Christina Potter, Lawrence O. Gostin, Anita Cicero, Jennifer B. Nuzzo

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Nine public health events have been assessed for the potential declaration of a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). According to the World Health Organization (WHO) International Health Regulations (IHR), a PHEIC is defined as an extraordinary event that constitutes a public health risk to other states through international spread and requires a coordinated international response. The WHO Director-General convenes Emergency Committees (ECs) to provide their advice on whether an event constitutes a PHEIC. The EC rationales have been continuously criticised for being non-transparent and contradictory to the IHR. This first comprehensive analysis of EC rationale provides recommendations to ...


Imagining Global Health With Justice: Transformative Ideas For Health And Wellbeing While Leaving No One Behind, Lawrence O. Gostin, Eric A. Friedman 2020 Georgetown University - Law Center - O'Neill Institute for National and Global Health Law

Imagining Global Health With Justice: Transformative Ideas For Health And Wellbeing While Leaving No One Behind, Lawrence O. Gostin, Eric A. Friedman

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The disproportionate impact of COVID-19 on communities of color in the United States and immense vulnerabilities in lower-income countries has revealed a global health reality that is often overshadowed by decades of progress in overall global health, with new lows in child and maternal deaths every year, more people with HIV receiving access to lifesaving anti-retroviral therapy, and rising life expectancies. That reality is one of vast national and global inequalities, with the lived experiences of members of marginalized populations far removed from laudatory health headlines.

Here, we propose an ambitious agenda to bridge the gap between progress in global ...


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