Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Intellectual Property Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

4,935 Full-Text Articles 3,522 Authors 1,694,243 Downloads 99 Institutions

All Articles in Intellectual Property

Faceted Search

4,935 full-text articles. Page 1 of 99.

Work Made For Hire – Analyzing The Multifactor Balancing Test, Ryan G. Vacca 2015 The University of Akron School of Law

Work Made For Hire – Analyzing The Multifactor Balancing Test, Ryan G. Vacca

Ryan G. Vacca

Authorship, and hence, initial ownership of copyrighted works is oftentimes controlled by the 1976 Copyright Act’s work made for hire doctrine. This doctrine states that works created by employees within the scope of their employment result in the employer owning the copyright. One key determination in this analysis is whether the hired party is an employee or independent contractor. In 1989, the U.S. Supreme Court, in CCNV v. Reid, answered the question of how employees are distinguished from independent contractors by setting forth a list of factors courts should consider. Unfortunately, the Supreme Court did not give further ...


Learning From Copyright's Failure To Build Its Future, Ken Burleson 2014 Maurer School of Law: Indiana University

Learning From Copyright's Failure To Build Its Future, Ken Burleson

Indiana Law Journal

Since file sharing emerged in the late 1990s, copyright infringement has been widespread and virtually impervious to legal sanctions. Despite the best efforts of industry representatives and the lawmakers acting at their behest, attempts to scare and shame copyright infringers into compliance with the law have fallen flat. Part I of this Note discusses the ongoing conflict between modern copyright law and socially acceptable behavior, specifically copyright infringement through digital means. Part II explores the various attempts, and subsequent failures, to curb infringement through deterrence measures. Part III explains why deterrence has been ineffective by exploring psychological models of law-abiding ...


Choosing The Genetics Of Our Children: Options For Framing Public Policy, Girard Kelly 2014 Santa Clara Law

Choosing The Genetics Of Our Children: Options For Framing Public Policy, Girard Kelly

Santa Clara High Technology Law Journal

This paper examines the controversial topic of choosing our children’s genes through human germ-line manipulation otherwise known as Inheritable Genetic Modification (IGM) with current Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs) and future Reproductive Genetic Biotechnologies (RGBs) such as genetic engineering. The purpose of the paper is to examine these potentially revolutionary biotechnologies and the emerging social, and bioethical perspectives advanced by both proponents and opponents—in the context of the legal and regulatory policies impacting ARTs and RGBs. Lastly, the paper recommends new public policy and regulatory frameworks to support future research and development of RGBs by providing legislative guidance to ...


Bringing Standards To Life: Synthetic Biology Standards And Intellectual Property, Andrew W. Torrance, Linda J. Kahl 2014 Santa Clara Law

Bringing Standards To Life: Synthetic Biology Standards And Intellectual Property, Andrew W. Torrance, Linda J. Kahl

Santa Clara High Technology Law Journal

In aspiring to become a true engineering discipline for the biological sciences, the field of synthetic biology has a unique opportunity to create and encourage the widespread adoption of standards to enhance innovation and social impact in the field. This article presents a study of the standards setting efforts by the institutions, firms, governments, and individuals within the field of synthetic biology.

Numerous standards have been proposed in synthetic biology, including those relevant to structure, function, description, measurement, data, information exchange, software, biosafety and biosecurity, and even law. At the present time, the adoption of technical standards has been relatively ...


Information Costs And Reverse Payment Settlements: Bridging The Gap Between The Courts And The Antitrust Agencies, Brenna E. Jenny 2014 Santa Clara Law

Information Costs And Reverse Payment Settlements: Bridging The Gap Between The Courts And The Antitrust Agencies, Brenna E. Jenny

Santa Clara High Technology Law Journal

Reverse payment settlements have attracted increased scrutiny due to the controversial presence of a payment from a brand-name drug company to a generic company that is ostensibly preparing to infringe on the branded company’s patent. The antitrust agencies and the courts settled into an intergovernmental stalemate regarding the appropriate framework of analysis to apply when reviewing antitrust challenges to these settlements. The FTC and DOJ have viewed the deals skeptically as a vehicle for competitors to split monopoly profits, but the lower courts have generally been deferential to what they identified as an exercise of a patent holder’s ...


Cyberattacks On Medical Devices And Hospital Networks: Legal Gaps And Regulatory Solutions, Katherine Booth Wellington 2014 Santa Clara Law

Cyberattacks On Medical Devices And Hospital Networks: Legal Gaps And Regulatory Solutions, Katherine Booth Wellington

Santa Clara High Technology Law Journal

Cyberattacks on medical devices and hospital networks are a real and growing threat. Malicious actors have the capability to hack pacemakers and insulin pumps, shut down hospital networks, and steal personal health information. This Article analyzes the laws and regulations that apply to cyberattacks on medical devices and hospital networks and argues that the existing legal structure is insufficient to prevent these attacks. While the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act and the Federal Anti-Tampering Act impose stiff penalties for cyberattacks, it is often impossible to identify the actor behind a cyberattack—greatly decreasing the deterrent power of these laws. Few ...


Trojan Horse Clauses: Investor-State Dispute Settlement. A Submission To The Australian Parliament., Matthew Rimmer 2014 SelectedWorks

Trojan Horse Clauses: Investor-State Dispute Settlement. A Submission To The Australian Parliament., Matthew Rimmer

Matthew Rimmer

‘The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) proposes to freeze into a binding trade agreement many of the worst features of the worst laws in the TPP countries, making needed reforms extremely difficult if not impossible. The investor state dispute resolution mechanisms should not be shrouded in mystery to the general public, while the same provisions are routinely discussed with advisors to big corporations.’ Professor Joseph Stiglitz, Nobel Laureate in Economics

‘Investment arbitration as currently constituted is not a fair, independent, and balanced method for the resolution of disputes between sovereign nations and private investors.’ Retired Justice Elizabeth Evatt and leading jurists

‘Opening ...


Getting Under Your Skin: How Far Can The Courts Go?, Lauren Hanley-Brady 2014 California Western School of Law

Getting Under Your Skin: How Far Can The Courts Go?, Lauren Hanley-Brady

Lauren Hanley-Brady

This paper discusses the constitutional issues implicated when (or if) a court enforces copyright remedies against an individual for a tattoo deemed as infringing another's copyright. Starting by questioning the applicability of the First Amendment's protection on tattoos of copyrighted characters as speech, this paper uses three illustrative hypotheticals to assess the validity of a free speech/freedom of expression claim against the copyright owner. The analysis then proceeds into a discussion of Fourth and Fifth Amendment issues with regards to enforcing a copyright injunction, which could include either requiring the covering up of a tattoo or requiring ...


Decoding Bollywood’S Royalty-Sharing Conundrum, Pralika Jain 2014 SelectedWorks

Decoding Bollywood’S Royalty-Sharing Conundrum, Pralika Jain

Pralika Jain

India’s film making community and business got „industry‟ status only in 2011. However, unlike major industries such as telecom and pharmaceutical, the film industry (popularly known as “Bollywood”) is characterised by a major lack of legal rules and institutions to administer them, the problem being most acute in respect of artists. Consequently, the industry is governed completely by market forces whose successful players wield nearly all the bargaining power. It’s almost baffling that a film industry which is currently worlds second in terms of revenue is so thinly regulated.


Foreigners In U.S. Patent Litigation: An Empirical Study Of Patent Cases Filed In Nine U.S. Federal District Courts In 2004, 2009, And 2012, Marketa Trimble 2014 University of Nevada, Las Vegas -- William S. Boyd School of Law

Foreigners In U.S. Patent Litigation: An Empirical Study Of Patent Cases Filed In Nine U.S. Federal District Courts In 2004, 2009, And 2012, Marketa Trimble

Boyd Briefs / Road Scholars

Professor Marketa Trimble presented these materials at PatCon 4, a conference hosted by the University of San Diego School of Law. Professor Trimble discussed the results of her empirical study of patent litigation involving foreign parties.


To Read Or Not To Read: Privacy Within Social Networks, The Entitlement Of Employees To A Virtual “Private Zone” And The Balloon Theory, Shlomit Yanisky-Ravid Professor of Law 2014 SelectedWorks

To Read Or Not To Read: Privacy Within Social Networks, The Entitlement Of Employees To A Virtual “Private Zone” And The Balloon Theory, Shlomit Yanisky-Ravid Professor Of Law

Shlomit Yanisky-Ravid Professor of Law

Social networking has increasingly become the most common venue of self-expression in the digital era. Although social networks started as a social vehicle, they have recently become a major source for employers to track personal data ("screening") of applicants, employees or former employees.

This article addresses the questions of whether this casual business routine harms employees' rights to privacy with regard to data users post in social networks, what the drawbacks of this routine may be, and why and how privacy rights should be protected to secure private zones within the virtual sphere. The article suggests that a privacy right ...


Commercialization Awards, Camilla A. Hrdy 2014 SelectedWorks

Commercialization Awards, Camilla A. Hrdy

Camilla A Hrdy

Some patent law scholars have proposed introducing new forms of patents to promote commercialization of inventions that would not otherwise be commercialized, or at least not within a reasonable period of time. In this Article I suggest that so-called commercialization patents are unnecessary because the United States already has a system for promoting commercialization of inventions that does not require creating unprecedented exclusive rights: direct government financing. Drawing on statutes and administrative codes, I provide an in-depth account of the major commercialization financing options for inventors and entrepreneurs at both the federal and state levels. I then compare these incentives ...


More Than Ip: Trademark Among The Consumer Information Laws, Michael Grynberg 2014 College of William & Mary Law School

More Than Ip: Trademark Among The Consumer Information Laws, Michael Grynberg

William & Mary Law Review

Part I begins the inquiry by describing trademark’s connection with other consumer information laws. In many cases optimal trademark policy—by whatever criteria—depends on the state of play in another regime. This complicates trademark’s development in multiple ways. It is not simply a problem of determining how another body of law treats the related issue. Identifying the relevant parallel regime is not always easy. Indeed, sometimes the laws most pertinent to the production of consumer information are more general in nature—think, for example, of the role that simple trespass law plays in determining what we know ...


Copyrighting The "Useful Art" Of Couture: Expanding Intellectual Property Protection For Fashion Designs, M. C. Miller 2014 College of William & Mary Law School

Copyrighting The "Useful Art" Of Couture: Expanding Intellectual Property Protection For Fashion Designs, M. C. Miller

William & Mary Law Review

No abstract provided.


Making Do In Making Drugs: Innovation Policy And Pharmaceutical Manufacturing, W. Nicholson Price II 2014 Boston College Law School

Making Do In Making Drugs: Innovation Policy And Pharmaceutical Manufacturing, W. Nicholson Price Ii

Boston College Law Review

Despite increasing recalls, contamination events, and shortages, drug companies continue to rely on outdated manufacturing plants and processes. Drug manufacturing’s inefficiency and lack of innovation stand in stark contrast to drug discovery, which is the focus of a calibrated innovation policy that combines patents and FDA regulation. Pharmaceutical manufacturing lags far behind the innovative techniques found in other industries due to high regulatory barriers and ineffective intellectual property incentives. Among other challenges, although manufacturers tend to rely on trade secrecy because of the difficulty in enforcing patents on manufacturing processes, trade secrecy provides limited incentives for innovation. To increase ...


Dissolving Innovation In Meltwater: A Misguided Paradigm For Online Search, Bill D. Herman 2014 SelectedWorks

Dissolving Innovation In Meltwater: A Misguided Paradigm For Online Search, Bill D. Herman

Bill D. Herman

With the exponential increases in online information, internet search engines have helped fill a substantial and growing need for the capacity to sort through and manage data. News outlets in general and newspapers in particular are among the most socially important sources of online content being indexed, and these outlets are faring rather poorly in the internet economy. Both of these sectors are thus in a precarious, potentially conflicted relationship, with copyright law serving as the primary legal basis for mediating the relationship. A 2013 decision, Associated Press v. Meltwater, is one recent attempt to mediate this relationship. In it ...


Technology Drives The Law: A Foreword To Trends And Issues In Techology & The Law, Ralph D. Clifford 2014 University of Massachusetts School of Law

Technology Drives The Law: A Foreword To Trends And Issues In Techology & The Law, Ralph D. Clifford

University of Massachusetts Law Review

Technology has always been a motivating force of change in the law. The creation of new machines and development of novel methods of achieving goals force the law to adapt with new and responsive rules. This is particularly true whenever a new technology transforms society. Whether it is increasing industrialization or computerization, pre-existing legal concepts rarely survive the transition unaltered - new prescriptions are announced while old ones disappear.


Dissolving Innovation In Meltwater: A Misguided Paradigm For Online Search, Bill D. Herman 2014 SelectedWorks

Dissolving Innovation In Meltwater: A Misguided Paradigm For Online Search, Bill D. Herman

Bill D. Herman

With the exponential increases in online information, internet search engines have helped fill a substantial and growing need for the capacity to sort through and manage data. News outlets in general and newspapers in particular are among the most socially important sources of online content being indexed, and these outlets are faring rather poorly in the internet economy. Both of these sectors are thus in a precarious, potentially conflicted relationship, with copyright law serving as the primary legal basis for mediating the relationship. A 2013 decision, Associated Press v. Meltwater, is one recent attempt to mediate this relationship. In it ...


Determining The Location Of Injury For New York's Long Arm Statute In An Infringement Claim, Stefan Josephs 2014 Touro College Jacob D. Fuchsberg Law Center

Determining The Location Of Injury For New York's Long Arm Statute In An Infringement Claim, Stefan Josephs

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Hacking The Anti-Hacking Statute: Using The Computer Fraud And Abuse Act To Secure Public Data Exclusivity, Nicholas A. Wolfe 2014 SelectedWorks

Hacking The Anti-Hacking Statute: Using The Computer Fraud And Abuse Act To Secure Public Data Exclusivity, Nicholas A. Wolfe

Nicholas A Wolfe

Work smarter, not harder. Perhaps no other saying better captures the era of hyper-productivity and automation in which we live. Titles such as ‘Top Ten Hacks to Avoid Paywalls,’ ‘Five ways You’re Wasting Your time,’ and ‘One Weird Trick’ fly across our computer screens on a commoditized basis. [1] These tips and tricks help us automate our lives and get more done, faster. Better living through automation. However, as these shortcut solutions get better and automation advances, a question arises. When does working smarter cross the line into cheating?

The Computer Fraud and Abuse Act was designed to draw ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress