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5,610 full-text articles. Page 1 of 115.

Silent Similarity, Jessica Litman 2015 SelectedWorks

Silent Similarity, Jessica Litman

Jessica Litman

From 1909 to 1930, U.S. courts grappled with claims by authors of prose works claiming that works in a new art form -- silent movies -- had infringed their copyrights. These cases laid the groundwork for much of modern copyright law, from their broad expansion of the reproduction right, to their puzzled grappling with the question how to compare works in dissimilar media, to their confusion over what sort of evidence should be relevant to show copyrightability, copying and infringement. Some of those cases – in particular, Nichols v. Universal Pictures – are canonical today. They are not, however, well-understood. In particular, the ...


The Anti-Patent: A Proposal For Startup Immunity, Amy L. Landers 2015 SelectedWorks

The Anti-Patent: A Proposal For Startup Immunity, Amy L. Landers

Amy L. Landers

The controversy surrounding the current implementation of the patent system is well known. Some question whether the system has become entirely dysfunctional and disincentives innovation, particularly as the law operates within some industries. Moreover, early stage companies, particularly those just beginning to gain success, are particularly vulnerable targets for lawsuits. Notably, these same companies can be rich sources of important technological innovation.

Because the U.S. has always had a patent system, it is impossible to understand the intended and unintended consequences of eliminating this form of intellectual property protection even in a limited manner. As economist Fritz Machlup stated ...


Work Made For Hire – Analyzing The Multifactor Balancing Test, Ryan G. Vacca 2015 University of Akron

Work Made For Hire – Analyzing The Multifactor Balancing Test, Ryan G. Vacca

Ryan G. Vacca

Authorship, and hence, initial ownership of copyrighted works is oftentimes controlled by the 1976 Copyright Act’s work made for hire doctrine. This doctrine states that works created by employees within the scope of their employment result in the employer owning the copyright. One key determination in this analysis is whether the hired party is an employee or independent contractor. In 1989, the U.S. Supreme Court, in CCNV v. Reid, answered the question of how employees are distinguished from independent contractors by setting forth a list of factors courts should consider. Unfortunately, the Supreme Court did not give further ...


Antitrust And The Patent System: A Reexamination, Herbert Hovenkamp 2015 University of Iowa

Antitrust And The Patent System: A Reexamination, Herbert Hovenkamp

Herbert Hovenkamp

Since the federal antitrust laws were first passed they have cycled through extreme positions on the relationship between competition law and the patent system. Previous studies of antitrust and the patent system have generally assumed that patents are valid, discrete, and generally of high quality in the sense that they further innovation. As a result, increasing the returns to patenting increases the incentive to do socially valuable innovation. Further, if the returns to the patentee exceed the social losses caused by increased exclusion, the tradeoff is positive and antitrust should not interfere. If a patent does nothing to further innovation ...


Work Made For Hire – Analyzing The Multifactor Balancing Test, Ryan G. Vacca 2015 University of Akron

Work Made For Hire – Analyzing The Multifactor Balancing Test, Ryan G. Vacca

Akron Law Publications

Authorship, and hence, initial ownership of copyrighted works is oftentimes controlled by the 1976 Copyright Act’s work made for hire doctrine. This doctrine states that works created by employees within the scope of their employment result in the employer owning the copyright. One key determination in this analysis is whether the hired party is an employee or independent contractor. In 1989, the U.S. Supreme Court, in CCNV v. Reid, answered the question of how employees are distinguished from independent contractors by setting forth a list of factors courts should consider. Unfortunately, the Supreme Court did not give further ...


Retroactivity At The Federal Circuit, David L. Schwartz 2014 Maurer School of Law: Indiana University

Retroactivity At The Federal Circuit, David L. Schwartz

Indiana Law Journal

A substantial subset of patent opinions from the Federal Circuit Court of Appeals functions in a wholly different manner from ordinary judicial opinions: they have strong retroactive effects with weak prospective effects. All Federal Circuit opinions have strong retroactive effects because issued patents and pending applications rarely can be modified. The Federal Circuit decisions apply in full to these patents and applications, even though they were prepared without the benefit of the rulings. In contrast, many of these opinions have almost no prospective effects. Patent law provides tremendous linguistic flexibility to patent drafters, which can be used to avoid the ...


The New Wild West: Preventing Money Laundering In The Bitcoin Network, Kavid Singh 2014 SelectedWorks

The New Wild West: Preventing Money Laundering In The Bitcoin Network, Kavid Singh

Kavid Singh

Bitcoin is the most popular online decentralized currency in the world. Created by an enigmatic figure, Satoshi Nakamoto, in 2009, its propagation and use has caused heated controversy. On the legal side of its use, businesses both large and small have started to accept bitcoins as a form of payment. On the illegal side of its use, large quantities of bitcoins worth hundreds of millions of dollars have been stolen from businesses and large Bitcoin currency exchanges. The aim of this article is to introduce workable federal regulation that will help deter money laundering, a pervasive problem in the world ...


One Hundred Nos: An Empirical Analysis Of The First 100 Denials Of Institution For Inter Partes And Covered Business Method Patent Reviews, Jonathan R. K. Stroud, Jarrad Wood 2014 SelectedWorks

One Hundred Nos: An Empirical Analysis Of The First 100 Denials Of Institution For Inter Partes And Covered Business Method Patent Reviews, Jonathan R. K. Stroud, Jarrad Wood

Jonathan R. K. Stroud

Tasked in 2011 with creating three powerful new patent review trial regimes, the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office—through the efforts of their freshly empowered quasi-judicial body, the Patent Trial and Appeals Board—set to creating a fast-paced trial with minimal discovery and maximum efficiency. In the first two years of existence, the proceedings have proved potent, holding unpatentable many of the claims that reach decisions on the merits. Yet a small subsection of petitions never make it past the starting gate, resulting in wasted time and effort on the parts of petitioners—and likely sighs of relief from ...


Digital Music Sampling And Copyright Policy - A Bittersweet Symphony? Assessing The Continued Legality Of Music Sampling In The United Kingdom, The Netherlands, And The United States, Melissa Hahn 2014 University of Georgia School of Law

Digital Music Sampling And Copyright Policy - A Bittersweet Symphony? Assessing The Continued Legality Of Music Sampling In The United Kingdom, The Netherlands, And The United States, Melissa Hahn

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Patents, Antitrust, And The Rule Of Reason, Herbert Hovenkamp 2014 University of Iowa

Patents, Antitrust, And The Rule Of Reason, Herbert Hovenkamp

Herbert Hovenkamp

Antitrust law has historically immunized many patent agreements if they fell within the "scope of the patent." Three dissenting Justices in the Actavis case advocated this test: a pharmaceutical pay-for-delay settlement falls within the scope of the patent if it delays a competitor's entry no longer than the remaining life of the patent. In that case the patentee will not be obtaining any more than it would from a valid patent -- namely, the right to exclude infringers for the full patent term.

The "scope of the patent" test is not useful for defining the boundaries of antitrust immunity in ...


Still Dissatisfied After All These Years: Intellectual Property, Post-Wto China, And The Avoidable Cycle Of Futility, Peter K. Yu 2014 University of Georgia School of Law

Still Dissatisfied After All These Years: Intellectual Property, Post-Wto China, And The Avoidable Cycle Of Futility, Peter K. Yu

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Legal And Scientific Flaws In The Myriad Genetics Litigation, Eric Grote 2014 SelectedWorks

Legal And Scientific Flaws In The Myriad Genetics Litigation, Eric Grote

Eric Grote

In Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics, the Supreme Court held that Myriad’s isolated BRCA DNA patent claims were invalid because an isolated DNA with the same sequence as a natural DNA is a product of nature. The decision has two fundamental flaws. First, due to a faulty claim construction by the trial court, the Supreme Court was never informed that isolated DNA is a synthetic molecule that is not actually isolated from nature, or that isolated DNA lacks functional information encoded by chemical modifications present in natural human DNA. Second, the Court ignored a long line of ...


Prices Versus Prizes: Patents, Public Policy, And The Market For Inventions, Daniel F. Spulber 2014 SelectedWorks

Prices Versus Prizes: Patents, Public Policy, And The Market For Inventions, Daniel F. Spulber

Daniel F Spulber

The article considers whether government prizes should replace market prices for inventions. The America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010 establishes a framework for government prizes. The discussion examines how antitrust and public policy towards patents should take into account the economic benefits of the market for inventions. The article compares the market price system with government prize systems in terms of economic efficiency. The analysis finds fundamental flaws in the deadweight welfare loss arguments for replacing market prices with government prizes. The discussion shows how prices in the market for inventions provide state-contingent signals that guide invention, commercialization, innovation, financing ...


The Google Art Project: An Analysis From A Legal And Social Perspective On Copyright Implications, Katrina Wu 2014 SelectedWorks

The Google Art Project: An Analysis From A Legal And Social Perspective On Copyright Implications, Katrina Wu

Katrina Wu

The Google Art Project is an ambitious attempt by Google to curate worldwide artwork online in the highest resolution possible. Google accomplishes this by partnering with museums where museums provide access to art collections and Google provides the technology to capture high quality images. Under this existing model, Google places the burden of copyright clearances on museums and removes images from online if requested by copyright owners. An endeavor like the Google Art Project is not unprecedented however, when Google attempted to put the world’s books online under the Google Books Project, scanning millions of titles and offering snippets ...


A Globally Sustainable Right To Land: Utilizing Real Property To Protect The Traditional Knowledge Of Indigenous Peoples And Local Communities, Jennifer Lynn Zweig 2014 University of Georgia School of Law

A Globally Sustainable Right To Land: Utilizing Real Property To Protect The Traditional Knowledge Of Indigenous Peoples And Local Communities, Jennifer Lynn Zweig

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Who's Virus Is It Anyway? How The World Health Organization Can Protect Against Claims Of "Viral Sovereignty", Jason Carter 2014 University of Georgia School of Law

Who's Virus Is It Anyway? How The World Health Organization Can Protect Against Claims Of "Viral Sovereignty", Jason Carter

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Intellectual Property, Marathons, And Other Running Events, John C. Zwisler 2014 SelectedWorks

Intellectual Property, Marathons, And Other Running Events, John C. Zwisler

John C Zwisler

No abstract provided.


The Globalization Of Intellectual Property Rights: Trips, Bits, And The Search For Uniform Protection, Alan M. Anderson, Bobak Razavi 2014 University of Georgia School of Law

The Globalization Of Intellectual Property Rights: Trips, Bits, And The Search For Uniform Protection, Alan M. Anderson, Bobak Razavi

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Inevitable Imbalance: Why Ftc V. Actavis Was Inadequate To Solve The Reverse Payment Settlement Problem And Proposing A New Amendment To The Hatch-Waxman Act, Rachel A. Lewis 2014 Seattle University School of Law

Inevitable Imbalance: Why Ftc V. Actavis Was Inadequate To Solve The Reverse Payment Settlement Problem And Proposing A New Amendment To The Hatch-Waxman Act, Rachel A. Lewis

Seattle University Law Review

The law regarding reverse payment settlements is anything but settled. Reverse payment settlements are settlements that occur during a patent infringement litigation in which a pharmaceutical patent holder pays a generic drug producer to not infringe on the pharmaceutical patent. Despite the recent decision by the United States Supreme Court in FTC v. Actavis, Inc., there are still unanswered questions about how the “full rule of reason” analysis will be applied to reverse payment. This Comment argues that despite the outcome in Actavis, the complex regulatory framework of the Hatch–Waxman Act will create repeated conflicts between antitrust law and ...


Moving All-In With The World Trade Organization: Ignoring Adverse Rulings And Gambling With The Future Of The Wto, Paul Rothstein 2014 University of Georgia School of Law

Moving All-In With The World Trade Organization: Ignoring Adverse Rulings And Gambling With The Future Of The Wto, Paul Rothstein

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


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