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Holding Up And Holding Out, Colleen V. Chien 2015 Santa Clara University

Holding Up And Holding Out, Colleen V. Chien

Michigan Telecommunications and Technology Law Review

Patent “hold-up” and patent “hold-out” present important, alternative theories for what ails the patent system. Patent “hold-up” occurs when a patent owner sues a company when it is most vulnerable—after it has implemented a technology—and is able wrest a settlement because it is too late for the company to change course. Patent “hold-out” is the practice of companies routinely ignoring patents and resisting patent owner demands because the odds of getting caught are small. Hold-up has arguably predicted the current patent crises, and the ex ante assertion of technology patents whether in the smartphone war, standards, or patent ...


After Myriad: Reconsidering The Incentives For Innovation In The Biotech Industry, Daniel K. Yarbrough 2015 University of Michigan

After Myriad: Reconsidering The Incentives For Innovation In The Biotech Industry, Daniel K. Yarbrough

Michigan Telecommunications and Technology Law Review

35 U.S.C. § 101 allows a patent for “any new and useful process, machine, manufacture, or composition of matter, or any new and useful improvement thereof.” Recently, the Supreme Court issued several key decisions affecting the doctrine of patentable subject matter under § 101. Starting with Bilski v. Kappos (2011), and continuing with Mayo Collaborative Services, Inc. v. Prometheus Laboratories (2012), Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics (2013) and, most recently, Alice Corporation Pty. Ltd. v. CLS Bank International (2014), every year has brought another major change to the way in which the Court assesses patentability. In Myriad, the ...


A Material World: Using Trademark Law To Override Copyright's First Sale Rule For Imported Copies, Mary LaFrance 2015 William S. Boyd School of Law, UNLV

A Material World: Using Trademark Law To Override Copyright's First Sale Rule For Imported Copies, Mary Lafrance

Michigan Telecommunications and Technology Law Review

When the Supreme Court held that the first sale rule of copyright law permits the unauthorized importation and domestic sale of lawfully made copies of copyrighted works, regardless of where those copies were made, copyright owners lost much of their ability to engage in territorial price discrimination. Publishers, film and record producers, and software and videogame makers could no longer use copyright law to prevent the importation and domestic resale of gray market copies, and therefore could no longer protect their domestic distributors against competition from cheaper imported copies. However, many of these copyright owners can take advantage of a ...


District Courts Versus The Usitc: Considering Exclusionary Relief For F/Rand-Encumbered Standard-Essential Patents, Helen H. Ji 2015 University of Michigan

District Courts Versus The Usitc: Considering Exclusionary Relief For F/Rand-Encumbered Standard-Essential Patents, Helen H. Ji

Michigan Telecommunications and Technology Law Review

Technological standards allow manufacturers and consumers to rely upon these agreed-upon basic systems to facilitate sales and further invention. However, where these standards involved patented technology, the process of standard-setting raises many concerns at the intersection of antitrust and patent law. As patent holders advocate for their patents to become part of technological standards, how should courts police this activity to prevent patent holdup and other anti-competitive practices? This Note explores the differing approaches to remedies employed by the United States International Trade Commission and the United States District Courts where standard-essential patents are infringed. This Note further proposes that ...


Dilution At The Patent And Trademark Office, Jeremy N. Sheff 2015 St. John's University

Dilution At The Patent And Trademark Office, Jeremy N. Sheff

Michigan Telecommunications and Technology Law Review

This Article undertakes the first systematic investigation of trademark dilution in registration practice before the US Patent and Trademark Office (PTO). The Article consists of three distinct descriptive empirical analyses. In the first, I present a new hand-coded dataset of all 453 Trademark Trial and Appeal Board (TTAB) dispositions of dilution claims through June 30, 2014, and report that dilution has been necessary to the PTO’s refusal of exactly three registrations in over a decade. In the second part, I apply algorithmic coding of the recently released PTO Casefiles Dataset to demonstrate that concurrent registration of identical marks to ...


Private Value Determinations And The Potential Effect On The Future Of Research And Development, Amy L. Landers 2015 Drexel University School of Law

Private Value Determinations And The Potential Effect On The Future Of Research And Development, Amy L. Landers

Amy L. Landers

Although the promise of an emerging patent market is thought to provide future benefits to invention, innovation, and the public, this essay examines the possibility that the aggregate influence of this activity could instead destabilize patent values in a manner that mirrors the "bubble" phenomenon that occurred in certain markets in the past. To the extent that this occurs, this would destabilize the patent system and might have negative consequences for the future of investment in research, development and innovation.


Campbell At 21/Sony At 31, Jessica Litman 2015 University of Michigan

Campbell At 21/Sony At 31, Jessica Litman

Jessica Litman

When copyright lawyers gather to discuss fair use, the most common refrain is its alarming expansion. Their distress about fair use’s enlarged footprint seems completely untethered from any appreciation of the remarkable increase in exclusive copyright rights. In the nearly 40 years since Congress enacted the 1976 copyright act, the rights of copyright owners have expanded markedly. Copyright owners’ demands for further expansion continue unabated. Meanwhile, they raise strident objections to proposals to add new privileges and exceptions to the statute to shelter non-infringing uses that might be implicated by their expanded rights. Copyright owners have used the resulting ...


Compulsory Licenses: Damaging Firm Value In The Short Run?, Daniel E. Mansuri Mr. 2015 Bates College

Compulsory Licenses: Damaging Firm Value In The Short Run?, Daniel E. Mansuri Mr.

Honors Theses

While very few individuals question the validity and necessity of the patent system, the temporary monopolies imposed by patents necessarily reduce access to medication. This becomes especially problematic when dealing with issues of public ordre, such as the aids crisis in the last 30 years. Compulsory licensing, or the power for a government to void a patent and allow a non-patent holder to produce a patented good, aims to remedy this problem. Governments have the ability to issue these in times of epidemics, or other issues of rampant illness. However, even though these licenses are completely legal, pharmaceutical companies meet ...


Copyright And Social Media: A Tale Of Legislative Abdication, Diane Leenheer Zimmerman 2015 New York University School of Law

Copyright And Social Media: A Tale Of Legislative Abdication, Diane Leenheer Zimmerman

Pace Law Review

The focus of this article will be on what I call DMCA 2.0. It will begin by discussing the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) and why that statute, passed in 1998 to shore up the enforceability of copyright online by protecting content providers’ ability to engage in forms of technological self-help against online copyright infringers, has been problematic. Part II describes largely unsuccessful efforts in the form of statutes and trade agreements to shore up the DMCA. Part III turns to the latest salvo, the adoption of “voluntary agreements” whereby content owners and ISPs, in particular social media platforms ...


Social Justice, Social Norms And The Governance Of Social Media, Tal Z. Zarsky 2015 University of Haifa, Faculty of Law

Social Justice, Social Norms And The Governance Of Social Media, Tal Z. Zarsky

Pace Law Review

This article proceeds as follows: Part II briefly addresses the theoretical arguments regarding the pros and cons of various governance strategies, focusing on the advantages, disadvantages and pitfalls of reliance on private parties. In Part III, the article describes, in general terms, the above-mentioned empirical study, explaining its methodology, the specific challenges to its design and implementation, and how these were met. The discussion specifically centers on a survey taken to establish the nature of social norms. Part IV presents a specific test case: whether pseudonymity should be permitted in social media or should “real names” be mandatory. Part V ...


Anarchy, Status Updates, And Utopia, James Grimmelmann 2015 University of Maryland Francis King Carey School of Law

Anarchy, Status Updates, And Utopia, James Grimmelmann

Pace Law Review

Social software has a power problem. Actually, it has two. The first is technical. Unlike the rule of law, the rule of software is simple and brutal: whoever controls the software makes the rules. And if power corrupts, then automatic power corrupts automatically. Facebook can drop you down the memory hole; PayPal can garnish your pay. These sovereigns of software have absolute and dictatorial control over their domains.

Is it possible to create online spaces without technical power? It is not, because of social software’s second power problem. Behind technical power, there is also social power. Whenever people come ...


Foreword, David Olson 2015 Boston College Law School

Foreword, David Olson

Boston College Law Review

No abstract provided.


Inter Partes Review As A Shield For Technology Purchasers: A Response To Gaia Bernstein’S The Rise Of The End-User In Patent Litigation, Brian J. Love 2015 Santa Clara University School of Law

Inter Partes Review As A Shield For Technology Purchasers: A Response To Gaia Bernstein’S The Rise Of The End-User In Patent Litigation, Brian J. Love

Boston College Law Review

In her Article, The Rise of the End User in Patent Litigation, Professor Bernstein makes the case for legislative and judicial action designed to protect technology users from abusive patent enforcement that exploits their relative lack of resources and technical knowledge. This Essay presents the findings of an empirical study designed to determine the extent to which this problem has been mitigated in recent months by inter partes review (“IPR”)—a reform signed into law more than three years ago but only now emerging as a powerful shield for those accused of patent infringement. My findings suggest that IPR has ...


When Nominal Is Reasonable: Damages For The Unpracticed Patent, Oskar Liivak 2015 Cornell Law School

When Nominal Is Reasonable: Damages For The Unpracticed Patent, Oskar Liivak

Boston College Law Review

To obtain a substantial patent damage award a patentee need not commercialize the patented invention; the patentee need only show that its patent was infringed. This surely incentivizes patenting but it dis-incentivizes innovation. Why commercialize yourself? The law allows you to wait for others to take the risks, and then you emerge later to lay claim to “in no event less than a reasonable” fraction of other people’s successes. It is rational to be a patent troll rather than an innovator. This troll-enabling interpretation of patent law’s reasonable royalty provision, however, is wrong as a matter of patent ...


Dubious Patent Reform, Gregory Dolin M.D. 2015 University of Baltimore School of Law

Dubious Patent Reform, Gregory Dolin M.D.

Boston College Law Review

The 2011 America Invents Act sought to drastically improve the American patent system by creating new review processes for already issued patents. These processes were meant to reduce patent litigation costs and clear the field of “dubious patents,” all the while increasing certainty in the existence and scope of patent rights. Though this was not the first attempt to achieve these goals, Congress failed to heed the lessons of past reforms or fully take into account the costs associated with these new post-issuance review mechanisms. The result was a set of dubious reforms. This Article marshals empirical data and case-study ...


The Completeness Requirement In Patent Law, Dmitry Karshtedt 2015 Stanford Law School

The Completeness Requirement In Patent Law, Dmitry Karshtedt

Boston College Law Review

This Article argues that courts have created a de facto extra-statutory condition of patentability, herein termed the “completeness” requirement. This requirement bars patents on certain inventions whose chief value lies in their function as inputs into downstream research. The Article contends that the notion of completeness explains doctrinal innovations that are difficult to rationalize any other way. Although it reflects an important policy of limiting unduly preemptive patent claims on foundational, building-block inventions, the completeness requirement in its current form fails to implement this policy in a way that is coherent and consistent with patent law’s utilitarian goals. In ...


Network Neutrality And Consumer Demand For “Better Than Best Efforts” Traffic Management, Rob Frieden 2015 Penn State University

Network Neutrality And Consumer Demand For “Better Than Best Efforts” Traffic Management, Rob Frieden

Rob Frieden

This paper assesses whether and how ISPs can offer quality of service enhancements, at premium prices for full motion video, while still complying with the new rules and regulations established by the Federal Communications Commission (“FCC”) in March, 2015. The paper explains that having made the controversial decision to reclassify all forms of Internet access as a telecommunications service, the FCC increases regulatory uncertainty. In particular, the FCC has failed to identify instances where “retail ISPs,” serving residential broadband subscribers, can offer quality of service enhancements that serve real consumer wants without harming competition and the ability of most content ...


Legal Nature And Contractual Conditions In Know-How Transactions, Carlos M. Correa 2015 Universidad Nacional de Buenos Aries

Legal Nature And Contractual Conditions In Know-How Transactions, Carlos M. Correa

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


3d Printing: Cultural Property As Intellectual Property, Charles Cronin 2015 USC Gould School of Law

3d Printing: Cultural Property As Intellectual Property, Charles Cronin

University of Southern California Legal Studies Working Paper Series

Long before the onset of the now-­‐emblematic quarrel between England and Greece over the Parthenon marbles, nations and tribes have squabbled over the extraterritorial transfer of objects of purported cultural significance. Over the past few decades, however, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of cultural property repatriation claims, mostly targeting U.S. collections.

The value of cultural artifacts is generated largely by the intellectual expression they manifest. Digital technologies make increasingly possible the creation of reproductions of even three-­‐dimensional artifacts, which are indistinguishable from the originals. This development challenges our attributing value to the “aura ...


The Debilitating Effect Of Exclusive Rights: Patents And Productive Inefficiency, William Hubbard 2015 University of Florida Levin College of Law

The Debilitating Effect Of Exclusive Rights: Patents And Productive Inefficiency, William Hubbard

Florida Law Review

Are we underestimating the costs of patent protection? Scholars have long recognized that patent law is a double-edged sword. While patents promote innovation, they also limit the number of people who can benefit from new inventions. In the past, policy makers striving to balance the costs and benefits of patents have analyzed patent law through the lens of traditional, neoclassical economics. This Article argue that this approach is fundamentally flawed because traditional economics rely on an inaccurate oversimplification: that individuals and firms always maximize profits. In actuality, so-called "productive inefficiencies" often prevent profit maximization. For example, cognitive biases, bounded rationality ...


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