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6,174 full-text articles. Page 1 of 131.

A Material World: Using Trademark Law To Override Copyright's First Sale Rule For Imported Copies, Mary LaFrance 2015 William S. Boyd School of Law, UNLV

A Material World: Using Trademark Law To Override Copyright's First Sale Rule For Imported Copies, Mary Lafrance

Michigan Telecommunications and Technology Law Review

When the Supreme Court held that the first sale rule of copyright law permits the unauthorized importation and domestic sale of lawfully made copies of copyrighted works, regardless of where those copies were made, copyright owners lost much of their ability to engage in territorial price discrimination. Publishers, film and record producers, and software and videogame makers could no longer use copyright law to prevent the importation and domestic resale of gray market copies, and therefore could no longer protect their domestic distributors against competition from cheaper imported copies. However, many of these copyright owners can take advantage of a ...


Dilution At The Patent And Trademark Office, Jeremy N. Sheff 2015 St. John's University

Dilution At The Patent And Trademark Office, Jeremy N. Sheff

Michigan Telecommunications and Technology Law Review

This Article undertakes the first systematic investigation of trademark dilution in registration practice before the US Patent and Trademark Office (PTO). The Article consists of three distinct descriptive empirical analyses. In the first, I present a new hand-coded dataset of all 453 Trademark Trial and Appeal Board (TTAB) dispositions of dilution claims through June 30, 2014, and report that dilution has been necessary to the PTO’s refusal of exactly three registrations in over a decade. In the second part, I apply algorithmic coding of the recently released PTO Casefiles Dataset to demonstrate that concurrent registration of identical marks to ...


After Myriad: Reconsidering The Incentives For Innovation In The Biotech Industry, Daniel K. Yarbrough 2015 University of Michigan

After Myriad: Reconsidering The Incentives For Innovation In The Biotech Industry, Daniel K. Yarbrough

Michigan Telecommunications and Technology Law Review

35 U.S.C. § 101 allows a patent for “any new and useful process, machine, manufacture, or composition of matter, or any new and useful improvement thereof.” Recently, the Supreme Court issued several key decisions affecting the doctrine of patentable subject matter under § 101. Starting with Bilski v. Kappos (2011), and continuing with Mayo Collaborative Services, Inc. v. Prometheus Laboratories (2012), Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics (2013) and, most recently, Alice Corporation Pty. Ltd. v. CLS Bank International (2014), every year has brought another major change to the way in which the Court assesses patentability. In Myriad, the ...


District Courts Versus The Usitc: Considering Exclusionary Relief For F/Rand-Encumbered Standard-Essential Patents, Helen H. Ji 2015 University of Michigan

District Courts Versus The Usitc: Considering Exclusionary Relief For F/Rand-Encumbered Standard-Essential Patents, Helen H. Ji

Michigan Telecommunications and Technology Law Review

Technological standards allow manufacturers and consumers to rely upon these agreed-upon basic systems to facilitate sales and further invention. However, where these standards involved patented technology, the process of standard-setting raises many concerns at the intersection of antitrust and patent law. As patent holders advocate for their patents to become part of technological standards, how should courts police this activity to prevent patent holdup and other anti-competitive practices? This Note explores the differing approaches to remedies employed by the United States International Trade Commission and the United States District Courts where standard-essential patents are infringed. This Note further proposes that ...


Holding Up And Holding Out, Colleen V. Chien 2015 Santa Clara University

Holding Up And Holding Out, Colleen V. Chien

Michigan Telecommunications and Technology Law Review

Patent “hold-up” and patent “hold-out” present important, alternative theories for what ails the patent system. Patent “hold-up” occurs when a patent owner sues a company when it is most vulnerable—after it has implemented a technology—and is able wrest a settlement because it is too late for the company to change course. Patent “hold-out” is the practice of companies routinely ignoring patents and resisting patent owner demands because the odds of getting caught are small. Hold-up has arguably predicted the current patent crises, and the ex ante assertion of technology patents whether in the smartphone war, standards, or patent ...


Private Value Determinations And The Potential Effect On The Future Of Research And Development, Amy L. Landers 2015 Drexel University School of Law

Private Value Determinations And The Potential Effect On The Future Of Research And Development, Amy L. Landers

Amy L. Landers

Although the promise of an emerging patent market is thought to provide future benefits to invention, innovation, and the public, this essay examines the possibility that the aggregate influence of this activity could instead destabilize patent values in a manner that mirrors the "bubble" phenomenon that occurred in certain markets in the past. To the extent that this occurs, this would destabilize the patent system and might have negative consequences for the future of investment in research, development and innovation.


Campbell At 21/Sony At 31, Jessica Litman 2015 University of Michigan

Campbell At 21/Sony At 31, Jessica Litman

Jessica Litman

When copyright lawyers gather to discuss fair use, the most common refrain is its alarming expansion. Their distress about fair use’s enlarged footprint seems completely untethered from any appreciation of the remarkable increase in exclusive copyright rights. In the nearly 40 years since Congress enacted the 1976 copyright act, the rights of copyright owners have expanded markedly. Copyright owners’ demands for further expansion continue unabated. Meanwhile, they raise strident objections to proposals to add new privileges and exceptions to the statute to shelter non-infringing uses that might be implicated by their expanded rights. Copyright owners have used the resulting ...


Are The Courts Singing A Different Tune When It Comes To Music?: What Ever Happened To Fair Use In Music Sampling Cases?, Michael B. Landau 2015 Georgia State University College of Law

Are The Courts Singing A Different Tune When It Comes To Music?: What Ever Happened To Fair Use In Music Sampling Cases?, Michael B. Landau

IP Theory

As "fair use" has become more common as a defense to copyright infringement, often successfully, it has not gained any ground in cases involving music sampling. In the years since Campbell v. Acuff-Rose Music, Inc., we have seen the introduction of "transformative use" to fair use analysis. "Transformative use" has led to the holdings that thumbnail reproductions of photographs, parodies of novels, parodies of advertisements, changed artworks, the inclusion of legal briefs in searchable databases, the inclusion of music in film, and the mass digitization of millions of books are all "fair use." Almost every day we read of another ...


No Comment: Will Cariou V. Prince Alter Copyright Judges’ Taste In Art?, Christine Haight Farley 2015 American University Washington College of Law

No Comment: Will Cariou V. Prince Alter Copyright Judges’ Taste In Art?, Christine Haight Farley

IP Theory

Even before Campbell v. Acuff-Rose Music, Inc. made transformativeness the name of the game in fair use law, judges have been in search of artistic speech in their copyright fair use determinations, especially in appropriation art cases. Judges often find themselves ascribing meaning both to the defendant’s work and the plaintiff’s work when comparing the two in order to determine whether defendant’s art is new. So while many commentators attribute appropriation artist Jeff Koons’s victory in Blanch v. Koons after a string of losses to the development in fair use law contributed by Campbell, I instead ...


Living Gardens, Living Art, Living Tradition, Roberta R. Kwall 2015 DePaul University College of Law

Living Gardens, Living Art, Living Tradition, Roberta R. Kwall

IP Theory

Copyright protection in the United States begins from the moment of a work’s “creation.”1 Although this rule is codified in the statute, the underlying issues of how and when “creation” occurs are rarely, if ever, explored. Under the current law, as soon as an author creates a copyrightable work of authorship and fixes that work in a tangible medium of expression, the work is entitled to protection. This formulation ignores the critical issues of whether fluid works of authorship that are constantly evolving can be subject to copyright protection and, if so, what is the scope of such ...


Commentary: Revisiting The Derivative Works Exception Of The Copyright Act Thirty Years After Mills Music, Robert S. Meitus 2015 IU Maurer School of Law

Commentary: Revisiting The Derivative Works Exception Of The Copyright Act Thirty Years After Mills Music, Robert S. Meitus

IP Theory

No abstract provided.


Copyright And Cross-Cultural Borrowing: Indo-Western Musical Encounters, Arpan Banerjee 2015 Jindal Global Law School, India

Copyright And Cross-Cultural Borrowing: Indo-Western Musical Encounters, Arpan Banerjee

IP Theory

This article traces the history of how Western rock musicians and hip-hop musicians, separated by many decades, have borrowed elements from Indian music. Conversely, the article also discusses how Indian film music composers have frequently, and rather blatantly, copied Western melodies. While cross-cultural borrowing raises complex socio-political questions, this article focuses on some practical legal questions that arise from such borrowing. The article discusses lawsuits filed by artists in India and the United States — from a much-publicized lawsuit against Dr. Dre by the Indian film music composer Bappi Lahiri, to a more recent lawsuit against another Indian film composer by ...


Andy Warhol’S Pantry, Brian L. Frye 2015 University of Kentucky College of Law

Andy Warhol’S Pantry, Brian L. Frye

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

This Article examines Andy Warhol’s use of food and food products as a metaphor for commerce and consumption. It observes that Warhol’s use of images and marks was often inconsistent with copyright and trademark doctrine, and suggests that the fair use doctrine should in-corporate a “Warhol test.”


Censorship By Intermediary And Moral Rights: Strengthening Authors’ Control Over The Online Expressions Through The Right Of Respect And Integrity, Methaya Sirichit 2015 George Washington University

Censorship By Intermediary And Moral Rights: Strengthening Authors’ Control Over The Online Expressions Through The Right Of Respect And Integrity, Methaya Sirichit

Methaya Sirichit

The mega intermediaries, the Leviathans of cyberspace, are practicing content discrimination and distortion of speech in the public communication space. These intermediaries operate vast close-walled digital empires that provide both communication platforms as well as an extremely broad range of products and services for billions of people. Consequently, they can easily slip past the deontological regulatory model that relies on a clear-cut determination between passive conduits, on one hand, and content providers or corporate speakers on another. In the United States, the First Amendment’s editorial privilege and the Good Samaritan safe harbors under Section 230 of the CDA shield ...


Economic Growth And Breakthrough Innovations – The Semiconductor Chip Industry And Its Ip Law Framework, Thomas Hoeren 2015 University of Münster (Germany)

Economic Growth And Breakthrough Innovations – The Semiconductor Chip Industry And Its Ip Law Framework, Thomas Hoeren

Thomas Hoeren

Semiconductors constitute the backbone of the digital society. But the history of this innovation is as well controversial as the development of IP protection for semiconductors. The author describes the different economic trends in the US and Japan behind semiconductors and explains the reasons why the sui generis protection for chips didn´t work.


Can Dna Be Speech?, Jorge R. Roig 2015 Charleston School of Law

Can Dna Be Speech?, Jorge R. Roig

Jorge R Roig

DNA is generally regarded as the basic building block of life itself. In the most fundamental sense, DNA is nothing more than a chemical compound, albeit a very complex and peculiar one. DNA is an information-carrying molecule. The specific sequence of base pairs contained in a DNA molecule carries with it genetic information, and encodes for the creation of particular proteins. When taken as a whole, the DNA contained in a single human cell is a complete blueprint and instruction manual for the creation of that human being.

In this article we discuss myriad current and developing ways in which ...


Traditional Knowledge Rights And Wrongs, Sean Pager 2015 Michigan State University College of Law

Traditional Knowledge Rights And Wrongs, Sean Pager

Sean Pager

Should the intangible heritage of indigenous cultures be subject to intellectual property rights? After years of effort, international delegates are poised to complete a pair of ambitious treaties that would accomplish this goal. This Article provides the first detailed analysis and critique of the draft treaties, which provide for exclusive rights in traditional knowledge and cultural expression, respectively. Proponents of such protection often invoke both cultural integrity and economic justice rationales. Yet, these rationales dictate conflicting imperatives. To resolve these conflicts, the Article argues for greater differentiation between the two draft treaties based on subject matter. Just as copyright and ...


Current Issues With Copyright And Higher Education: Lawsuits, Legislation, And Looking Forward, Kay Cunningham 2015 American Public University System

Current Issues With Copyright And Higher Education: Lawsuits, Legislation, And Looking Forward, Kay Cunningham

Internet Learning

Electronic reserves, digitization, streaming videos, and first sale were the topics of recent copyright lawsuits: respectively, Cambridge University Press v. Mark P. Becker (2012), Authors Guild Inc. v. HathiTrust (2012), the Association for Information Media v. the Regents of the University of California (2011), and Kirtsaeng v.Wiley (2013). Outcomes related to libraries are discussed in this essay, along with such amendments to the Copyright Act as the Technology, Education and Copyright Harmonization Act (TEACH Act) and the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) and the possibility of revisions.


Information Technology And The Law - Trademarks In Cyberspace, Macerata 2015, Ulf Maunsbach 2015 Lund University, Faculty of Law

Information Technology And The Law - Trademarks In Cyberspace, Macerata 2015, Ulf Maunsbach

Ulf Maunsbach

No abstract provided.


International Copyright: Domestic Barriers To United States Participation In The Rome Convention On Neighboring Rights, Eric T. Johnson 2015 University of Georgia School of Law

International Copyright: Domestic Barriers To United States Participation In The Rome Convention On Neighboring Rights, Eric T. Johnson

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


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