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Holding Up And Holding Out, Colleen V. Chien 2015 Santa Clara University

Holding Up And Holding Out, Colleen V. Chien

Michigan Telecommunications and Technology Law Review

Patent “hold-up” and patent “hold-out” present important, alternative theories for what ails the patent system. Patent “hold-up” occurs when a patent owner sues a company when it is most vulnerable—after it has implemented a technology—and is able wrest a settlement because it is too late for the company to change course. Patent “hold-out” is the practice of companies routinely ignoring patents and resisting patent owner demands because the odds of getting caught are small. Hold-up has arguably predicted the current patent crises, and the ex ante assertion of technology patents whether in the smartphone war, standards, or patent ...


After Myriad: Reconsidering The Incentives For Innovation In The Biotech Industry, Daniel K. Yarbrough 2015 University of Michigan

After Myriad: Reconsidering The Incentives For Innovation In The Biotech Industry, Daniel K. Yarbrough

Michigan Telecommunications and Technology Law Review

35 U.S.C. § 101 allows a patent for “any new and useful process, machine, manufacture, or composition of matter, or any new and useful improvement thereof.” Recently, the Supreme Court issued several key decisions affecting the doctrine of patentable subject matter under § 101. Starting with Bilski v. Kappos (2011), and continuing with Mayo Collaborative Services, Inc. v. Prometheus Laboratories (2012), Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics (2013) and, most recently, Alice Corporation Pty. Ltd. v. CLS Bank International (2014), every year has brought another major change to the way in which the Court assesses patentability. In Myriad, the ...


A Material World: Using Trademark Law To Override Copyright's First Sale Rule For Imported Copies, Mary LaFrance 2015 William S. Boyd School of Law, UNLV

A Material World: Using Trademark Law To Override Copyright's First Sale Rule For Imported Copies, Mary Lafrance

Michigan Telecommunications and Technology Law Review

When the Supreme Court held that the first sale rule of copyright law permits the unauthorized importation and domestic sale of lawfully made copies of copyrighted works, regardless of where those copies were made, copyright owners lost much of their ability to engage in territorial price discrimination. Publishers, film and record producers, and software and videogame makers could no longer use copyright law to prevent the importation and domestic resale of gray market copies, and therefore could no longer protect their domestic distributors against competition from cheaper imported copies. However, many of these copyright owners can take advantage of a ...


District Courts Versus The Usitc: Considering Exclusionary Relief For F/Rand-Encumbered Standard-Essential Patents, Helen H. Ji 2015 University of Michigan

District Courts Versus The Usitc: Considering Exclusionary Relief For F/Rand-Encumbered Standard-Essential Patents, Helen H. Ji

Michigan Telecommunications and Technology Law Review

Technological standards allow manufacturers and consumers to rely upon these agreed-upon basic systems to facilitate sales and further invention. However, where these standards involved patented technology, the process of standard-setting raises many concerns at the intersection of antitrust and patent law. As patent holders advocate for their patents to become part of technological standards, how should courts police this activity to prevent patent holdup and other anti-competitive practices? This Note explores the differing approaches to remedies employed by the United States International Trade Commission and the United States District Courts where standard-essential patents are infringed. This Note further proposes that ...


Dilution At The Patent And Trademark Office, Jeremy N. Sheff 2015 St. John's University

Dilution At The Patent And Trademark Office, Jeremy N. Sheff

Michigan Telecommunications and Technology Law Review

This Article undertakes the first systematic investigation of trademark dilution in registration practice before the US Patent and Trademark Office (PTO). The Article consists of three distinct descriptive empirical analyses. In the first, I present a new hand-coded dataset of all 453 Trademark Trial and Appeal Board (TTAB) dispositions of dilution claims through June 30, 2014, and report that dilution has been necessary to the PTO’s refusal of exactly three registrations in over a decade. In the second part, I apply algorithmic coding of the recently released PTO Casefiles Dataset to demonstrate that concurrent registration of identical marks to ...


The Supreme Assimilation Of Patent Law, Peter Lee 2015 University of California, Davis, School of Law

The Supreme Assimilation Of Patent Law, Peter Lee

Peter Lee

Although tensions between universality and exceptionalism apply throughout law, they are particularly pronounced in patent law, a field that deals with highly technical subject matter. This Article explores these tensions by investigating an underappreciated descriptive theory of Supreme Court patent jurisprudence. Significantly extending previous scholarship, it argues that the Court’s recent decisions reflect a project of eliminating “patent exceptionalism” and assimilating patent doctrine to general legal principles (or, more precisely, to what the Court frames as general legal principles). Among other motivations, this trend responds to rather exceptional patent doctrine emanating from the Federal Circuit in areas as varied ...


Gender Biases In Cyberspace: A Two-Stage Model For A Feminist Way Forward, Shlomit Yanisky-Ravid Professor of Law, Amy Mittelman Ms. 2015 Yale Law School

Gender Biases In Cyberspace: A Two-Stage Model For A Feminist Way Forward, Shlomit Yanisky-Ravid Professor Of Law, Amy Mittelman Ms.

Shlomit Yanisky-Ravid Professor of Law

Increasingly, there has been a focus on creating democratic standards and procedures in order to best facilitate open exchange of information and communication online—a goal that fits neatly within the feminist aim to democratize content creation and community. Collaborative websites, such as blogs, social networks, and, as focused on in this Article, Wikipedia, represent both a Cyberspace community entirely outside the strictures of the traditional (intellectual) proprietary paradigm and one that professes to truly embody the philosophy of a completely open, free, and democratic resource for all. In theory, collaborative websites are the solution that social activists, Intellectual Property ...


Pirates Or Privateers: Examining The Risks Of Conflicting International Regimes Through The Lens Of U.S.-Gambling, Eric A. Heath 2015 University of Georgia School of Law

Pirates Or Privateers: Examining The Risks Of Conflicting International Regimes Through The Lens Of U.S.-Gambling, Eric A. Heath

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


It’S The End Of The Biological Patent World As We Know It, And Consumer Watchdog Feels Fine: How Consumer Watchdog Is Attempting To Kill The Future Of Horticultural Research, George R. Holton 2015 The George Washington University Law School

It’S The End Of The Biological Patent World As We Know It, And Consumer Watchdog Feels Fine: How Consumer Watchdog Is Attempting To Kill The Future Of Horticultural Research, George R. Holton

George R Holton

No abstract provided.


The Evolution Of Internet Service Providers From Partners To Adversaries: Tracking Shifts In Interconnection Goals And Strategies In The Internet’S Fifth Generation, Rob Frieden 2015 Penn State University

The Evolution Of Internet Service Providers From Partners To Adversaries: Tracking Shifts In Interconnection Goals And Strategies In The Internet’S Fifth Generation, Rob Frieden

Rob Frieden

At the Internet’s inception, carriers providing the bit switching and transmission function largely embraced expanding connections and users as a primary service goal. These ventures refrained from metering traffic and charging for carriage based on the assumption that traffic volumes roughly matched, or that traffic measurement was not worth the bother in light of external funding from government grants. Most Internet Service Providers (“ISPs”) bartered network access through a process known as peering in lieu of metering traffic and billing for network use.

As governments removed subsidies and commercial carriers invested substantial funds to build larger and faster networks ...


The Anti-Commons Revisited, Jonathan M. Barnett 2015 University of Southern California

The Anti-Commons Revisited, Jonathan M. Barnett

University of Southern California Legal Studies Working Paper Series

Intellectual property scholars and policymakers often assert that technology and creative markets suffer from “anti-commons” (“AC”) effects that restrain innovation within a web of conflicting intellectual property claims. A minority view asserts that market players have incentives and capacities to correct for AC effects through transactional solutions. To assess the relative merits of each side of this debate, I review a large and diverse body of empirical evidence relating to AC effects in contemporary and historical markets. I independently replicate the most controversial empirical findings, supplement additional research on selected markets, and provide a survey of all documented IP-pooling arrangements ...


Déjà Vu All Over Again: Questions And A Few Suggestions On How The Fcc Can Lawfully Regulate Internet Access, Rob Frieden 2015 Penn State University

Déjà Vu All Over Again: Questions And A Few Suggestions On How The Fcc Can Lawfully Regulate Internet Access, Rob Frieden

Rob Frieden

This paper will examine the FCC’s March, 2015 Open Internet Order with an eye to assessing whether and how the Commission can successfully defend its decision in an appellate court. On two prior occasions, the FCC failed to convince a reviewing court that proposed regulatory safeguards do not unlawfully impose common carrier duties on private carriers. The Commission now has opted to reclassify broadband Internet access as common carriage, a decision sure to trigger a third court appeal.

The FCC Open Internet Order offers several, possibly contradictory, justifications for its decision to apply Title II of the Communications Act ...


Private Value Determinations And The Potential Effect On The Future Of Research And Development, Amy L. Landers 2015 Drexel University School of Law

Private Value Determinations And The Potential Effect On The Future Of Research And Development, Amy L. Landers

Amy L. Landers

Although the promise of an emerging patent market is thought to provide future benefits to invention, innovation, and the public, this essay examines the possibility that the aggregate influence of this activity could instead destabilize patent values in a manner that mirrors the "bubble" phenomenon that occurred in certain markets in the past. To the extent that this occurs, this would destabilize the patent system and might have negative consequences for the future of investment in research, development and innovation.


Limited Consumer Privacy Protections Against The Layers Of Big Data, Andrew W. Bagley, Justin S. Brown 2015 Santa Clara Law

Limited Consumer Privacy Protections Against The Layers Of Big Data, Andrew W. Bagley, Justin S. Brown

Santa Clara High Technology Law Journal

Consumers give away their data voluntarily and involuntary through their everyday online interactions. Many of these interactions are governed by “click-wrap” agreements in which consumers agree to data use terms with their Internet service provider (ISP), content provider, or an entire computing ecosystem through various layers of the Internet. This phenomenon effectively means that consumers lose control of their data to an endless web of third party big-data brokers unaccountable to the user. All the while, the increasingly dynamic and valuable nature of datasets makes it difficult to predict how data collected today will be used in the future. To ...


Reconsidering The Standard For Enhanced Damages In Patent Cases In View Of Recent Guidance From The Supreme Court, Howard Wisnia, Thomas Jackman 2015 Santa Clara Law

Reconsidering The Standard For Enhanced Damages In Patent Cases In View Of Recent Guidance From The Supreme Court, Howard Wisnia, Thomas Jackman

Santa Clara High Technology Law Journal

This article examines whether the jurisprudence of the enhanced damages provision found in 35 U.S.C. § 284 should be modified in light of recent Supreme Court decisions that have altered the jurisprudence of the attorney’s fees provision found in 35 U.S.C. § 285. The authors conclude that a revision is needed to the standard for determining whether to award enhanced damages under § 284 and that juries as opposed to judges should determine whether to grant such an award as well as the amount of the award.


Keeping Up With The Game: The Use Of The Nash Bargaining Solution In Patent Infringement Cases, Lance Wyatt 2015 Santa Clara Law

Keeping Up With The Game: The Use Of The Nash Bargaining Solution In Patent Infringement Cases, Lance Wyatt

Santa Clara High Technology Law Journal

Determining damages is an integral stage in the patent litigation process. Since 1970, reasonable royalty damages have been calculated using the factors set forth in the seminal decision Georgia-Pacific Corp. v. United States Plywood Corp. However, these factors are prone to manipulation and abuse by damages experts. To address this abuse, damages experts have utilized a solution to a two-person bargaining situation, the Nash Bargaining Solution (NBS), as a method to calculate reasonable royalty damages in patent infringement cases. Since the introduction of NBS in patent infringement cases, courts have been reluctant to admit the use of the NBS to ...


Long On Rhetoric, Short On Results: Agile Methods And Cyber Acquisitions In The Department Of Defense, Daniel E. Schoeni USAF 2015 Santa Clara Law

Long On Rhetoric, Short On Results: Agile Methods And Cyber Acquisitions In The Department Of Defense, Daniel E. Schoeni Usaf

Santa Clara High Technology Law Journal

Cyber warfare has arrived. The Department of Defense (DoD) is under attack, and our security is at stake. Yet in a field defined by its rapid growth, the DoD arms itself at the same pace that that it buys major weapons systems, an acquisition cycle of 7–10 years. It thus buys obsolete cyber-defense tools. The “arsenal of democracy” has already provided us the tools for overcoming this impediment in the form of agile software-development methods. Yet the DoD has been reluctant to set aside decades of experience and utilize different methods for software than it does for other acquisitions ...


The Case For Capsl: Architectural Solutions To Licensing And Distribution In Emerging Music Markets, Cody Duncan 2015 Duke Law

The Case For Capsl: Architectural Solutions To Licensing And Distribution In Emerging Music Markets, Cody Duncan

Duke Law & Technology Review

Compulsory licensing in music has paved the way for a limited class of new noninteractive services. However, innovation and competition are stifled in the field of interactive or otherwise novel services due to high transaction costs inherent in direct licensing. While the creation of a new compulsory license available to a wider array of services may facilitate growth and diversity in new markets, it is unlikely that the legislative process can deliver a new compulsory regime in time to serve relevant interests. Furthermore, the risk exists that legislation written in response to contemporary technology will likely fail to recognize the ...


Copyright Complements And Piracy-Induced Deadweight Loss, Jiarui (Jerry) Liu 2015 Stanford University

Copyright Complements And Piracy-Induced Deadweight Loss, Jiarui (Jerry) Liu

Indiana Law Journal

Conventional wisdom suggests that copyright piracy may in effect reduce the deadweight loss resulting from copyright protection because it allows the public unlimited access to information goods at a price closer to marginal cost. It has been further contended that lower copyright protection would benefit society as a whole, as long as authors continue to receive sufficient incentives from alternative revenue streams in ancillary markets, for example, touring, advertising, and merchandizing. By evaluating the empirical evidence from the music, performance, and video game markets, this Article highlights a counterintuitive yet important point: copyright piracy, while decreasing the deadweight loss in ...


Market Effects Bearing On Fair Use, Jeanne C. Fromer 2015 NYU School of Law

Market Effects Bearing On Fair Use, Jeanne C. Fromer

New York University Law and Economics Working Papers

Copyright law, which promotes the creation of cultural and artistic works by protecting these works from being copied, excuses infringement that is deemed to be a fair use. Whether an otherwise infringing work is a fair use is determined by courts weighing at least four factors, one of which is the effect of the otherwise infringing work on the market for the copyrighted work. The Supreme Court’s decision just over twenty years ago in Campbell v. Acuff-Rose Music, Inc., opened the door to a laudable analytical framework for the bearing of market effects on fair use. First, Campbell supports ...


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