Work Made For Hire – Analyzing The Multifactor Balancing Test, 2015 The University of Akron School of Law
Work Made For Hire – Analyzing The Multifactor Balancing Test, Ryan G. Vacca
Ryan G. Vacca
Authorship, and hence, initial ownership of copyrighted works is oftentimes controlled by the 1976 Copyright Act’s work made for hire doctrine. This doctrine states that works created by employees within the scope of their employment result in the employer owning the copyright. One key determination in this analysis is whether the hired party is an employee or independent contractor. In 1989, the U.S. Supreme Court, in CCNV v. Reid, answered the question of how employees are distinguished from independent contractors by setting forth a list of factors courts should consider. Unfortunately, the Supreme Court did not give further ...
Silent Similarity, 2015 SelectedWorks
Silent Similarity, Jessica Litman
From 1909 to 1930, U.S. courts grappled with claims by authors of prose works claiming that works in a new art form -- silent movies -- had infringed their copyrights. These cases laid the groundwork for much of modern copyright law, from their broad expansion of the reproduction right, to their puzzled grappling with the question how to compare works in dissimilar media, to their confusion over what sort of evidence should be relevant to show copyrightability, copying and infringement. Some of those cases – in particular, Nichols v. Universal Pictures – are canonical today. They are not, however, well-understood. In particular, the ...
The Anti-Patent: A Proposal For Startup Immunity, 2015 SelectedWorks
The Anti-Patent: A Proposal For Startup Immunity, Amy L. Landers
Amy L. Landers
The controversy surrounding the current implementation of the patent system is well known. Some question whether the system has become entirely dysfunctional and disincentives innovation, particularly as the law operates within some industries. Moreover, early stage companies, particularly those just beginning to gain success, are particularly vulnerable targets for lawsuits. Notably, these same companies can be rich sources of important technological innovation.
Because the U.S. has always had a patent system, it is impossible to understand the intended and unintended consequences of eliminating this form of intellectual property protection even in a limited manner. As economist Fritz Machlup stated ...
Retroactivity At The Federal Circuit, 2014 Maurer School of Law: Indiana University
Retroactivity At The Federal Circuit, David L. Schwartz
Indiana Law Journal
A substantial subset of patent opinions from the Federal Circuit Court of Appeals functions in a wholly different manner from ordinary judicial opinions: they have strong retroactive effects with weak prospective effects. All Federal Circuit opinions have strong retroactive effects because issued patents and pending applications rarely can be modified. The Federal Circuit decisions apply in full to these patents and applications, even though they were prepared without the benefit of the rulings. In contrast, many of these opinions have almost no prospective effects. Patent law provides tremendous linguistic flexibility to patent drafters, which can be used to avoid the ...
The New Wild West: Preventing Money Laundering In The Bitcoin Network, 2014 SelectedWorks
The New Wild West: Preventing Money Laundering In The Bitcoin Network, Kavid Singh
Bitcoin is the most popular online decentralized currency in the world. Created by an enigmatic figure, Satoshi Nakamoto, in 2009, its propagation and use has caused heated controversy. On the legal side of its use, businesses both large and small have started to accept bitcoins as a form of payment. On the illegal side of its use, large quantities of bitcoins worth hundreds of millions of dollars have been stolen from businesses and large Bitcoin currency exchanges. The aim of this article is to introduce workable federal regulation that will help deter money laundering, a pervasive problem in the world ...
Learning From Lin: Lessons And Cautions From The Natural Commons For The Knowledge Commons, 2014 Maurer School of Law: Indiana University
Learning From Lin: Lessons And Cautions From The Natural Commons For The Knowledge Commons, Daniel H. Cole
No abstract provided.
Inventing The Classical Constitution, 2014 University of Iowa
Inventing The Classical Constitution, Herbert Hovenkamp
One recurring call over a century of American constitutional thought is for return to a “classical” understanding of American federal and state Constitutions. “Classical” does not necessarily mean “originalist” or “interpretivist." Some classical views, such as the attempt to revitalize Lochner-style economic due process, find little support in the text of the federal Constitution or any of the contemporary state constitutions. Rather, constitutional meaning is thought to lie in a background link between constitution formation and classical statecraft. The core theory rests on the assumption of a social contract to which everyone in some initial position agreed. Like any ...
Antitrust And The Patent System: A Reexamination, 2014 University of Iowa
Antitrust And The Patent System: A Reexamination, Herbert Hovenkamp
Since the federal antitrust laws were first passed they have cycled through extreme positions on the relationship between competition law and the patent system. Previous studies of antitrust and the patent system have generally assumed that patents are valid, discrete, and generally of high quality in the sense that they further innovation. As a result, increasing the returns to patenting increases the incentive to do socially valuable innovation. Further, if the returns to the patentee exceed the social losses caused by increased exclusion, the tradeoff is positive and antitrust should not interfere. If a patent does nothing to further innovation ...
Weeds, Seeds, & Deeds Redux: Natural And Legal Evolution In The U.S. Seed Wars, 2014 SelectedWorks
Weeds, Seeds, & Deeds Redux: Natural And Legal Evolution In The U.S. Seed Wars, Rebecca K. Stewart
Rebecca K Stewart
Ever since the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office began issuing utility patents for plants, the United States has sat squarely on the frontlines of what have come to be known as the “seed wars.” In the last two decades, the majority of battles in the U.S. seed wars have been waged in the form of patent infringement lawsuits. Typically these suits are filed by biotechnology corporations such as Monsanto against farmers accused of saving and planting patented seed that self-replicates to produce progeny embodying—and thus infringing—the biotech corporations’ patented inventions.
Yet in recent years, the seed ...
Aereo: Cutting The Cord Or Splitting The Circuit?, 2014 The Catholic University of America, Columbus School of Law
Aereo: Cutting The Cord Or Splitting The Circuit?, Julie Borna
CommLaw Conspectus: Journal of Communications Law and Technology Policy
No abstract provided.
Copyright And The Tragedy Of The Common, 2014 SelectedWorks
Copyright And The Tragedy Of The Common, Tracy Reilly
Tracy L Reilly
In his 1968 article, The Tragedy of the Commons, biologist Garret Hardin first described his theory on the ecological unsustainability of collective human behavior, claiming that commonly held real property interests would not ultimately be supportable due to the competing individual interests of all who use the property. In the legal field, Hardin’s article is frequently cited to support various theories related to real property and environmental law issues such as ownership, redistribution of wealth, pollution, over population, and global warming. Most scholars claim that a tragedy of the commons does not exist in intellectual property-related goods due to ...
From Patent Thickets To Patent Networks: The Legal Infrastructure Of The Digital Economy, Jonathan M. Barnett
University of Southern California Legal Studies Working Paper Series
Scholarly and popular commentary often assert that markets characterized by intensive patent issuance and enforcement suffer from “patent thickets” that suppress innovation. This assertion is difficult to reconcile with continuous robust levels of R&D investment, coupled with declining prices, in technology markets that have operated under intensive patent issuance and enforcement for several decades. Using network visualization software, I show that information and communication technology markets rely on patent pools and other cross-licensing structures to mitigate or avoid patent thickets and associated inefficiencies. Based on the composition, structure, terms and pricing of selected leading patent pools in the ICT ...
Linking To Liability: When Linking To Leaked Films, Scripts, And Television Shows Is Copyright Infringement,, Kimberlianne Podlas
This article examines the problem of movies, scripts, and other entertainment works being leaked online, and whether news and fan sites that link to such works are liable for copyright infringement. In the past few months alone, The Expendables 3, next week’s Doctor Who Series 8 premier, and Quentin Tarantino’s The Hateful Eight screenplay have all been leaked online. Internet leaks are uniquely problematic, as it is often not possible to identify the source of leak, traditional contract and tort remedies may not apply, or the greatest harm may be due to third parties’ linking to the work ...
The Costs And Benefits Of Regulatory Intervention In Internet Service Provider Interconnection Disputes: Lessons From Broadcaster-Cable Retransmission Consent Negotiations, Rob Frieden
This paper considers what limited roles the FCC may lawfully assume to ensure timely and fair interconnection and compensation agreements in the Internet ecosystem. The paper examines the FCC’s limited role in broadcaster-cable television retransmission consent negotiations with an eye toward assessing the applicability of this model. The FCC explicitly states that it lacks jurisdiction to prescribe terms, or to mandate binding arbitration. However, it recently interpreted its statutory authority to ensure “good faith” negotiations as allowing it to constrain broadcaster negotiating leverage by prohibiting multiple operators, having the largest market share, from joining in collective negotiations with cable ...
Internet Protocol Television And The Challenge Of “Mission Critical” Bits., 2014 SelectedWorks
Internet Protocol Television And The Challenge Of “Mission Critical” Bits., Rob Frieden
The Internet increasingly provides an alternative distribution medium for video and other types of high value, bandwidth intensive content. Many consumers have become “technology agnostic” about what kind of wireline or wireless medium provides service. However, they expect carriers to offer access anytime, anywhere, via any device and in any format. These early adopters of new technologies and alternatives to “legacy” media have no patience with the concept of “appointment television” that limits access to a specific time, on a single channel and in only one presentation format.
This paper assesses whether and how Internet Service Providers (“ISPs”) can offer ...
Essential Facilities Doctrine And China’S Anti-Monopoly Law, 2014 SelectedWorks
Essential Facilities Doctrine And China’S Anti-Monopoly Law, Yong Huang, Elizabeth Xiao-Ru Wang, Xin Roger Zhang
Elizabeth Xiao-Ru Wang
No abstract provided.
Antitrust Analysis After Actavis: Applying The Rule Of Reason To Reverse Payments, Benjamin Miller
In F.T.C. v. Actavis, Inc. the Supreme Court resolved a circuit split regarding the proper evaluation of reverse payment settlements under federal antitrust law, holding that they must be evaluated under a rule of reason analysis. However, the Court simultaneously created significant uncertainty by declaring that the lower courts were responsible for structuring the analysis. While a few cases are currently in the pre-trial phase, the only decisions relating to reverse payments since Actavis have been rulings on pre-trial motions—there have been no decisions on the merits. Given the intricate intersection between antitrust and intellectual property ...
A Supplementary Submission On Trojan Horse Clauses: Investor-State Dispute Settlement, Matthew Rimmer
Executive Summary This supplementary submission considers a number of new developments in Investor-State Dispute Settlement in Canada, North America, the European Union, and Africa. This supplementary submission highlights the application of Investor-State Dispute Settlement in the context of water rights, intellectual property, and media regulation. This supplementary submission also highlights the conflict between domestic courts and international tribunals in Investor-State Dispute Settlement, raising significant issues about the rule of law and justice. Recommendation 14 In light of the work of Maude Barlow and the Council of Canadians, it is evident that Investor-State Dispute Settlement has a significant impact upon water ...
New And Non-Intrusive Forms Of Ip: “The Prioirty-Certificates”, 2014 SelectedWorks
New And Non-Intrusive Forms Of Ip: “The Prioirty-Certificates”, Gelu J. Comanescu
Gelu J. Comanescu
We explore the design of novel forms of intellectual property (IP) rights suitable for protecting scientific discoveries and abstract ideas. Particularly, we explore forms of intellectual property which are non-intrusive with respect to personal rights and do not have the negative side effects of monopoly-type IP rights.
We propose a system for formally acknowledging priority with respect to discoveries and ideas by granting certificates or documents attesting that a person is entitled to priority with respect to a certain subject matter. A government entity or a private party, may establish itself as a grantor of “priority-certificates” by granting such certificates ...
Reforming Copyright Interpretation, 2014 SelectedWorks
Reforming Copyright Interpretation, Zahr K. Said
Zahr K Said
This Article argues that copyright law needs to acknowledge and reform its interpretive choice regime. Even though judges face potentially outcome-determinative choices among competing sources of interpretive authority when they adjudicate copyrightable works, their selection of interpretive methods has been almost entirely overlooked by scholars and judges alike. This selection among competing interpretive methods demands that judges choose where to locate their own authority: in the work itself; in the context around the work, including its reception, or in the author’s intentions; in expert opinions; or in judicial intuition. Copyright’s interpretive choice regime controls questions of major importance ...